Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 1

Flashcard maker : Sarah Taylor
Define Anatomy
Study of the structure of an organism
Define Physiology
Study of the functions of a living organism
What are the 10 Characteristics of Life
1. Responsiveness
2. Conductivity
3. Growth
4. Respiration
5. Digestion
6. Absorption
7. Secretion
8. Excretion
9. Circulation
10. Reproduction
Permits an organism to sense, monitor, and respond to changes in the organisms external environment
Capacity of living cells and tissue to transmit a wave of excitation from one point to another within the body
Normal increase in the size or number of cells
Processes that result in the absorption, transport, utilization, or exchange of respiratory gases
Process where complex food products are broken down into simpler substances
Movement of digested nutrients through the wall of the digestive tube into the body fluids for transport to the cells
Production and delivery of specialized substances for diverse body functions
Removal of waste product during many body functions
Movement of the body fluids and many other substances
Involves formation of new individuals and also the formation of new cells
Define Metabolism
Sum total of all the physical and chemical reactions occurring in the body
What are the 7 Levels of Organization
1. Chemical
2. Organelle
3. Cellular
4. Tissue
5. Organs
6. System
7. Organism
Chemical Level
Over 100 different atoms combine to form molecules which combine into macromolecules
Organelle Level
Collections of molecules that organize together to perform a specific function
Cellular Level
Smallest unit that possesses the basic characteristics of life
Tissue Level
Organization of many similar cells that are specialized to perform a specific function
What are the different types of Tissue
Muscle, Epithelial, Connective, and Nervous
Organ Level
Organization of several tissues arranged together to perform a specific function
System Level
Organs arranged to perform complex functions in the body
Organism Level
Integration of all body systems into a complete structure
What are the 11 Main Body Systems
1. Integumentary
2. Sketetal
3. Muscular
4. Endocrine
5. Nervous
6. Cardiovascular
7. Lymphatic
8. Repiratory
9. Digestive
10. Urinary
11. Reproductive
Integumentary System
Protects the body, keeps harmful material out, regulates body temperature, senses and responds to the environment, and creates important chemicals
Skeletal and Muscular System
Works together to provide support and produce body movements
Endocrine and Nervous System
Respond to changes in the environment and body.
What is the Nervous System responsible for
Generating and interpreting nerve impulses, occurs rapidly and lasts a short period of time
What is the Endocrine System responsible for
Creates and secretes hormones, occurs slowly and lasts a longer period of time
Cardiovascular and Lymphatic System
Work together for transportation and defense in the body
What does the Cardiovascular do
Transport materials throughout the body through a series of closed vessels
What does the Lymphatic System do
Responsible for returning materials from the tissue spaces back to the blood and plays a role in the immune system
Respiratory, Digestive, and Urinary System
Work together for processing, regulation, and maintenance in the body
What does the Respiratory System permit
Movement of air into and out of the lungs and allows for exchange of respiratory gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide)
What is the Digestive System responsible for
Breaking down ingested material, absorbing nutrients from this material, and eliminating undigested material
What is the Urinary System responsible for
Filtering out waste from the blood, formation of urine, and the elimination of this urine from the body
Reproductive System
Responsible for reproduction and development
When is a body in anatomical position
The body is erect, or standing, posture with arms at the sides and palms foreward
What are the 2 major body cavities
Dorsal and Ventral
What can the Dorsal Cavity be subdivided into
Cranial and Spinal Cavities
What can the Ventral Cavity be subdivided into
Thoracic and Abdominopelvic Cavities
What can the Thoracic Cavity be subdivided into
Mediastinum and Pleural Cavities
What can the Abdominopelvic be subdivided into
The Abdominal and Pelvic Cavities
Front of Elbow
Sole of Foot
Palm of Hand
Lower Part of Back
Front of Knee
Upper Part of Arm
Area Behind Knee
Lower Portion of Knee
Directional Terms and Planes
Directional Terms and Planes
Towards the Head
Lower or Below
Front of In Front of
Behind or Back of
Towards the Midline
Away from the Midline
Towards of Nearest to Trunk of Body
Away from Trunk of Body
Nearer the Surface
Farther away from the Body Surface
What are the 3 Main Body Planes
Sagittal, Coronal (Frontal), and Transverse (Horizontal)
Sagittal Plane
Lengthwise plane running front front to back, separating the body into equal left and right (midsaggital) or into left and right (sagittal)
Coronal (Frontal) Plane
Lengthwise plane running from side to side, separating the body from anterior to posterior
Transverse (Horizontal) Plane
Crosswise plane, separating the upper and lower parts of the body
What are 4 terms related to organs
Lumen, Central and Peripheal, Medullary and Cortical, and Basal and Apical
Hollow areas of organs
Near the center
Around the boundary
Inner region of organ
Outer region or layer of an organ
Base or widest part of an organ
Narrow tip of organ
What are the 4 types of Body Imaging
-Radiography (X-Ray)
-Computed Tomagraphy (CAT/CT Scan)
-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
-Ultrasonography (Ultra Sound)
Radiography (X-Ray) show
Shows bones and other dense structures
Computed Tomagraphy (CAT/CT Scan)
Shows a video image of the subject as if it were cut into anatomical sections
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Uses magnetic field to induce tissue to emit radio frequency waves, creates sectional images of the subject, good for soft tissue
Ultrasonography (Ultra Sound)
Ultrasonic waves are reflected off internal tissues to produce an image called a sonogram
Define Somatotype
Used to describe a particular body build
What can Somatotypes be used to predict
Certain diseases
What are the 3 Somatotypes
Ectomorph, Mesomorph, and Endomorph
Thin, lean body type
Excessive fat either located in the abdominal area or hip area
Muscular Build
Define Homeostasis
Use to describe the relatively constant states maintained by the body
What are the basic components of control mechanisms
Afferent (Sensory), Integrating/Control, Effector (Motor), and Feedback
Afferent (Sensory) Mechanism
Specific sensors detect and react to any changes from normal
Integrating/Control Mechanism
Information is analyzed and integrated, and then, if needed, a specific action is initiated
Effector (Motor) Mechanism
Effectors directly influence controlled physiological variables
A negative or positive feedback will occur
What are the two types of feedback control systems
Negative and Positive
Negative Feedback Control Systems
Is responsible for maintaining homeostasis, produces an action opposite to the change that is occuring
Positive Feedback Control Systems
Amplifies or reinforces the change that is occuring
What are the 3 Levels of Control
Intracellular, Intrinsic, and Extrinsic
Intracelluar Control
Regulate function within the cell, often by means of enzymes and genes, operates at cell level
Intrinsic Control
Makes use of chemical signals, operates at the tissue and organ
Extrinsic Control
Nerve signals and hormones originate outside the controlled organ, operates at the system and organism levels
Define pathophysiology
Study of the underlying physiological process associated with disease
What are the 8 Basic Mechanisms of Disease
1. Genetic
2. Pathogenic
3. Tumor and Cancer
4. Physical and Chemical Agents
5. Malnutrition
6. Autoimmunity
7. Inflammation
8. Degeneration
Genetic Mechanism
Altered, or mutated, genes can cause abnormal proteins to be made that don’t perform their intended functions
Pathogenic Organisms
Particles that damage the body in some way, presence of microscopic or larger parasites in the body may interefere with functions
Examples of Pathogenic Organisms
-Pathogenic Animals
Tumor and Cancers
Abnormal tissue growths, or neoplasms, can cause various physiological disturbances
Physical and Chemical Agents
Toxic and destructive chemicals, extreme heat or cold, mechanical injury, and radiation can each affect the normal homeostasis of the body
Insufficient or imbalanced intake of nutrients
Immune system attacks itself
Normal mechanism that speeds up recovery, but if it comes at the wrong time it can destroy tissue
Tissue sometimes breaks apart, normal consequence of aging
What are the 7 Disease Risk Factors
1. Genetic
2. Age
3. Lifestyle
4. Stress
5. Environmental Factors
6. Microorganisms
7. Preexisting Condition
Genetic Factors
Inherited traits puts on a greater risk than normal risk for development
Biological and behavioral variations during different phases of the human life cycle put us at greater risk for certain diseases
People who’s work or personal activity gives them a greater chance of developing a disease
Physical, psychological, or emotional stress can put people at higher risks for certain diseases
Environmental Factors
Climate, pollution, or environmental situations you didn’t choose to happen can cause you to develop diseases
Viruses and bacteria are cofactors for developing diseases
A preexisting condition can worsen or make it harder for a person to defend themselves
Define Bilateral Symmetry
A term that means that right and left sides of the body are mirror images
On the same side of the body
On the opposite side of the body
Axial Subdivision
Includes the neck, head, torso, ribs, spinal column, etc. Everything on the “axis” of the body
Appendicular Subdivision
Includes the upper extremities and lower extremities and their subdivisions
Define Atrophy
Term used to describe the wasting effects of advancing age
Define Cytology
Study of Cells
Define Histology
Study of Tissues
What are the 3 subdivisions of Physiology
Organism involved, organizational level, and specific body system

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