Anatomy And Physiology Chapter 1 PPTs

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Study of structure
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Anatomy
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Subdivisions of anatomy
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Gross or Macroscopic,Regional, Systemic, Surface, microscopic, developmental
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Subdivision of anatomy that studies structures in a particular region of the body (e.g. abdomen, leg) at the same time
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regional
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Subdivision of anatomy that studies body structure system by system
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Systemic
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Subdivision of anatomy that is the study of internal structures as they relate to the overlying skin surface
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Surface
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study of body structures too small to be seen with the naked eye • Cytology – study of the cells of the body • Histology – study of tissues
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Microscopic
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study of changes over course of life span
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Developmental Subdivision of Anatomy
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Study of function in the body
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Physiology
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Function always reflects structure – Anatomy and physiology are inseparable – What a structure can do (physiology) depends on its specific form (anatomy) – E.g. Bones support and protect body organs because they contain hard mineral deposits – E.g. Blood flows in one direction through the heart because it has valves that prevent backflow
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principle of complementarity of structure and function
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Levels of Structural Organization
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Chemical, Cellular, Tissue, Organ, Organ System, Organismal
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– Simplest level of structural Organization; Atoms combine to form molecules. Molecules associate in specific ways to build organelles
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Chemical
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Second Level of Structural Organization. – Smallest units of living things; share some common functions but vary widely in size and shape, reflecting their unique functions in the body
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Cellular
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Third Level of Structural Organization Cells can be simple living creatures, but in complex organisms, cells groups of similar cells with common functions combine as this… There are four basic _________ types in the human body: • Epithelial, Muscle, Connective, Nervous
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Tissue
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Fourth Level of Structural Organization. Discrete structures composed of at least two tissue types that performs a specific function for the body; can perform extremely complex functions
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Organ
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Fifth Level of sturctural Organization. Organs that work closely together to accomplish a common purpose
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Organ System
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Highest level of structural organization, the organism; Represents the sum total of all structural levels working together to keep the organism alive
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Organismal
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8 necessary life functions:
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– Maintaining boundaries – Movement – Responsiveness – Digestion – Metabolism – Dispose of wastes – Reproduction – Growth
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A Necessary Life Function: ____________ between internal and external environments. – Plasma membranes maintain boundaries for single celled organisms and our own cells – Whole body is enclosed and protected by the skin (integumentary system)
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Maintain boundaries
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A Necessary Life Function: ___________ Of body parts via skeletal muscle and bones. ____________ Of substances within the body (blood through vasculature network, etc) ______________ On a cellular level – contractility
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Movement
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a Muscle’s ability to move by shortening
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contractility
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A Necessary Life Function: – Ability to sense and respond to stimuli – Includes conscious and reflex responses • E.g. conscious decision look before you cross the road (protective) • E.g. increase respiratory ventilation when CO2 builds upbrings
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Responsiveness
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A Necessary Life Function: – Breakdown of ingested foodstuffs to simple molecules that can be absorbed into blood – Nutrient-rich blood can then be distributed to the body via cardiovascular system (in humans)
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Digestion
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A Necessary Life Function: – Broad term that includes all chemical reactions that occur in body cells – It includes: • Anabolism • Catabolism • Cellular respiration
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Metabolism
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synthesizing more complex cellular structures from simpler substances
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Anabolism
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breaking down substances into their simpler building blocks
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catabolism
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using nutrients and oxygen to produce ATP, energy substrate of the cell
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cellular respiration
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A Necessary Life Function: – Processes of removing metabolic and digestive wastes from the body
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Excretion
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A Necessary Life Function: – Occurs at the cellular and organismal level: • Cellular division for growth or repair • Production of offspring
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Reproduction
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Necessary Life Function: – Increase in size of a body part or of organism – Usually accomplished by increasing number of cells – Individual cells can also increase in size when not dividing
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Growth
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Name 11 Organ Systems
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Integumentary, Skeletal, Muscular, Nervous, Endocrine, Cardiovascular, lymphatic, Respiratory, Digestive, Urinary, Mle and Female Reproductive
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Survival Needs: Life requires appropriate amounts of the following factors – too little or too much harmful
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– Nutrients – Oxygen – Water – Normal body temperature – Appropriate atmospheric pressure
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Survival Need…. – Chemical substances used for energy and cell building; taken in from diet – E.g. Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, vitamins
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Nutrients
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Survival Need – Air is ~20% O2; more or less is harmful – Essential for energy production (ATP) • ATP fuels chemical reactions in the body
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Oxygen
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Survival need – Most abundant chemical in body (60-80% body weight) – Environment of and participant in chemical reactions – Fluid base for secretions and excretions
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Water
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Survival Need… – 37° C; large changes in either directiondeath – Affects rate of chemical reactions
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Normal Body Temperature
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Survival Need…. – For adequate breathing and gas exchange in lungs
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atmospheric pressure
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Maintenance of relatively stable internal conditions despite continuous changes in environment – Critical to survival in a changing world • Remember, appropriate levels of survival needs – Very hot temperaturesbody’s homeostatic mechanisms regulate body temperature, avoid dehydration for survival – A dynamic state of equilibrium • E.g. – when blood pressure rises, several mechanisms kick in to bring blood pressure back down to proper level – Maintained by contributions of all organ systems
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Homeostasis
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Homeostasis is maintained by control systems which have three main parts:
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Receptor, Control Center, Effector
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A control System component: – Monitors environment – Responds to stimuli (something that causes changes in controlled variables)
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Receptor
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A control System Componet: – Receives input from receptor – Processes information and determines appropriate response
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Control Center
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A Control System Componet – Receives output from control center – Provides the means to respond – Response either reduces (negative feedback) or enhances stimulus (positive feedback)
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Effector
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Most feedback mechanisms in body are
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Negative feedback systems
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What type of Feedback system is one where…. Response reduces or shuts off original stimulus – Variable changes in opposite direction of initial change
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Negative Feedback
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– Regulation of body temperature (a nervous system mechanism) – Regulation of blood volume by ADH (an endocrine system mechanism) Are examples of what?
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Negative Feedback
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E.g. Enhancement of labor contractions by oxytocin • E.g. Platelet plug formation and blood clotting Are Examples of what
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Positive Feedback
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_______________mechanisms are less frequent; usually involved in events that do not require continuous adjustment. Response enhances or exaggerates original stimulus
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Positive Feedback
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– Body erect – Feet slightly apart – Palms facing forward • Thumbs point away from body
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Anatomical Posititon
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Directional terms_____________, not those of observer. From the perspective of the patient.
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refer to person being viewed
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Two Major Divisions of the body:
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axial and Appendicular
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Appendicular division of body refers to….
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the limbs
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Axial division of the body refers to…..
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the head,neck, and trunk
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____________________are used to designate specific areas within body divisions
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Regional Terms
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For anatomical studies, the body is often cut, or ___________,along a flat surface called a __________
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sectioned, plane
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cuts made along a body plane
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section
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Two sets of internal body cavities closed to the environment, provide protection to the organs These Are:
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Dorsal Body cavity and Ventral Body Cavity
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The Dorsal Body Cavity contains:
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Cranial Cavity, and Vertebral cavity
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The Ventral Body Cavity Contains
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thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
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The _____________ cavity protects the nervous system. The two subdivisions Are ____________ which encases the brain and __________ which encases spinal cord
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Dorsal body, Cranial cavity, Vertebral Cavity
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The ________ houses internal organs or viscera
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Ventral body cavity
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The thoracic cavity has four subdivisions:
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Two pleural cavities, mediastinum, and the pericardial cavity
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The Abdominopelvic cavity has two subdivisions
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Abdominal cavity and Pelvic cavity
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Contains stomach, intestines, spleen, and liver
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Abdominal cavity
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Contains urinary bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum
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Pelvic cavity
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The walls of the ventral body cavity and the outer surfaces of the organs it contains are covered by the ___________
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serous membrane (or serosa)
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Lines internal body cavity walls
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Parietal serosa
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covers internal organs
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Visceral serosa
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The parietal serosa and visceral serosa are separated by this….
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Serous fluid

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