Anatomy 4 Lesson The Study of Joints

Types of joints based on structure
Fibrous Joints
Cartilaginous Joints
Synovial Joints

Fibrous Joints
bones joined by fibrous connective tissue, no joint cavity, amount of movement depends on lnegth of tissue, short tissue= no movement, long tissue = a little movement

Types of fibrous joints
suture, syndesmosis, gamphosis

suture joints
bones are held together by short fibers (synarthrotic), found between the bones of the skull

ligaments hold the bones together, variation in size of tissue determines how much movement you have, can be classified as either synarthrotic or amphithrotic (distal tibiofibular joint)

peg in socket joint (only example is jaw bones)

cartilaginous joint
bones joined by cartilage, no joint cavity

types of cartilaginous joints

bar or plate of hyaline cartilage joins bones, synarthrotic (epiphyseal plate)

a pad or plate of fibrocartilage between the bones, amphithrotic, the fibrocartilage that acts as a shock absorber (pubic symphysis and between bodies of vertebrae)

Synovial joint
articulating bones are separated by a fluid containing joint cavity (glen humeral joint or shoulder joint), all synovial joints are diarthrotic and most joints in your body are synovial

Features of synovial joint
articular cartilage, synovial or joint cavity, articular capsule, synovial fluid, reinforcing ligaments

articular cartilage
can be found on the ends of bones, covers opposing bone surfaces, hyaline cartilage, helps with rubbing between bones

Articular capsule
2parts (makes up the walls of the cavity)
Fibrous Capsule (outer potion, very thick, helps to hold bones together)
Synovial Membrane (inner portion, delicate, produces the synovial fluid)

synovial fluid
found inside cavity, very viscous and thick, helps to reduce friction between bones, acts as a lubricant)

Types of synovial joints
plane, hinge, condyloid, pivot, saddle, ball-in-socket

Plane joint
simplest synovial joint, two flat articulating surfaces glide over top of one another (translation) *intercarpal joints and intertarsal joint, vertebral column*

cyllincal projection of one bone fitting into trope like of another (elbow joint and interphalangeal joint* allows flexion and extension in one axial plane

Pivot joint
rounded end of one bone protruding into a sling or ring composed of another bone or ligament, rotational movement (Proximal radio ulna joint)

atlantoaxial joint
between atlas (C1 vertebra) and axis (C2 vertebra), allows you to perform the no movement with your head

condyloid joint
the oval articular surface of one bone fitting into the depression of another (flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction) *wrist joint, metacarpal phalangeal joints metatarsal phalangeal joints*

Saddle joints
similar to a condyloid joint but with a greater freedom of movement, both articular surfaces have convex and concave portion, opposing (carpal metacarpal joints of your thumbs) (opposition, flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction)

ball-in-socket joint
where you see spherical end of one bone fitting into cup like socket of another, most freely moveable from all synovial joints, universal movements (shoulder joints, and hip joints

synarthrotic joint
immovable joint

amhitrotic joint
slight movement

freely movable joine

pubic symphysis
symphysis joint, cartilaginous joint, amphithrotic

hip joint
between hip bone and femur, synovial joint, ball and socket, most freely moveable

Knee (tibiofemoral joint)
between condyle of femur and condyles of tibia, synovial joint, modified hinge joint, flexion and extension

Femoropatellar joint
between femur and patella, synovial joint, plane joint

Tibiofibular joint (proximal
synovial, plane

Tibiofibular joint (distal)
fibrous joint, syndesmosis, synarthrotic

ankle joint
between distal end of tibia and fibula and talus, synovial, hinge, dorsiflexion and plantar flexion

intertarsal joints
between tarsals, synovial, plane , gliding between bones allows for inversion and eversion (especially between calcaneus and talus) ,

Tasrometatarsal joints
between tarsals and metatarsals, synovial, plane

Metatarsal phalangeal joint
between metatarsal and proximal phalanx, synovial, condyloid, flexion and extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction

Toe (interphalangeal)
between phalange’s, synovial, hinge joint, flexion and extension