An Essay Concerning Human Understanding

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According to Locke, two things cannot have one beginning of existence, and one thing cannot have to beginnings of existence
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Locke sees there as being an important distinction between the persistence of a man and the persistence of a person
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According to Locke, something is a person if and only if it has an immaterial soul
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According to Locke, a plant or animal is the same as an earlier one if it participates in the same life
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According to Locke, a person is a the same as an earlier one if and only if it is constituted by the same immaterial substance
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In Locke’s chapter on identity, he uses the example of a dog with two heads
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In Locke’s chapter on identity, he uses the example of a prince who swaps souls with a commoner
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In Locke’s chapter on identity, he mentions a man who thought that his head was a pumpkin
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In Locke’s chapter on identity, he mentions a man who thought that he an Socrates shared the same soul
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According to Locke, the real essence of a thing is its real internal constitution, which is what causes it to have the observable features that it does
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An essential feature is one that a thing couldn’t exists without
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Essentialism is the view that all of each thing’s features are essential to it
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A nominal essence, as Locke uses the term, is an abstract idea associated with a term
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Locke is an essentialist
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Locke argues that we are ignorant of the real essences that give rise to the observable features of bodies
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According to Locke, knowledge is the perception of the agreement and disagreement of ideas
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According to Locke, we have intuitive knowledge, but no demonstrative knowledge
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Locke claims that there’s an obvious difference between dreams and reality
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Locke is a substance dualist
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Locke allows that human beings may be wholly material
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Hume sets out to discover which impression is the source of our idea of essence
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According to Hume, we can see a necessary connection between a thing’s sensible qualities and its causal powers
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Hume asserts that external objects give us impressions of causal power
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Hume asserts that our own minds give us impressions of causal power
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According to Hume, we call one object a \”cause\” and another an \”effect,\” when others like them have been conjoined in the past
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Hume thinks that he can quickly solve the age old problem of free will
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According to Hume, inanimate objects are predictable, but human beings are not
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Hume offers the example of a prisoner who thinks it is more likely that he’ll be able to break the the bars of his cell than that he’ll be able to persuade the jailor to release him
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Hume offers the example of an angel who can predict all that will happen to each baby that is born
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According to Hume, liberty and necessity are incompatible
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Reid says it is important to define every term you use in a philosophical argument
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Reid agrees with Descartes, Locke, Berkeley and Hume that we are immediately acquainted with out own ideas
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Reid accuses some of his philosophical predecessors, including Hume, of abusing language by giving ordinary words vague, ambiguous and obscure meanings
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Reid says that we cannot prove that sensation and memory are reliable
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Reid is a skeptic about the reliability of sensation and memory
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Reid confesses at one point he was a convinced Leibnizian
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Reid claims that if we accept that we are immediately acquainted only with our own ideas, then we should endorse Berkley’s immaterialism
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Reid allows that Berkeley can accommodate \”vulgar\” opinions about the independent existence of bodies and other people
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Like Berkeley and Hume, Reid rejects Locke’s distinction between primary and secondary qualities
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Reid says that it is important to distinguish between sensation and perception
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Reid agrees with Hume that we do not have experiences of power
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Reid argues with Berkeley that we experience power when we reflect on our own doings
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Reid allows that we can conceive of power, relative to its effects
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Reid says that every change must be produced by the active power of some agent
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Reid claims that certain plants such as venus fly traps are agents
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Reid claims that magnets are agents
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Reid says that an act is a free one just in case the agent was free to will as he did, and free to will otherwise
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Reid says that only rational creatures can be moral agents
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Reid is widely held as being a hard determinalist
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Reid says that Hume’s attempt at redefining \”cause\” is a failure
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A critique of \”pure reason\” is a critique of empiricism and scientism
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Kant thinks that metaphysics is securely on track as a science
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Kant compares metaphysics to tennis, whist and chess
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Kant contrasts that progress made in metaphysics with that made in logic and mathematics
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Kant uses intuition to mean a feeling you cant justify but nevertheless believe
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Kant gives the example of a farmer’s intuition that bad weather is coming
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Kant proposes a revolutionary approach to metaphysics, one that he compares to the Copernican revolution in astronomy
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For Kant, a synthetic judgement is one in which the concept of the predicate is contained within the concept of the subject
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Kant offers \”all bodies are extended\” as an example of an analytic judgement
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Kant claims that mathematical judgements are all synthetic
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An intuition, for Kant, is a mental representation that acquaints one with a particular thing
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Sensibility, for Kant, is the mind’s faculty for passively receiving intuitions
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The Transcendental Aesthetic is a part of the Critique of Pure Reason devoted to giving an account of the nature of art
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A concept, for Kant, is a faded copy of a previously received impression
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Kant marks a distinction between sensation and introspection as sources of knowledge
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Space, according to Kant, is an a priori form that necessarily characterizes the objects of outer sense
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Time, according to Kant, is a real feature of things as they are in themselves
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According to Kant, we cannot conceive of there being more than one space
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In the Transcendental Aesthetic, Kant argues the travel backwards in time is not only possible, but actual
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Kant denies that inner sense provides us with intuitions of our own souls

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