American Literature Study Guide: Moby-Dick, the Iroquois Constitution

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b. to inform his patrons about his trip
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Why did Columbus keep his Journal of the First Voyage to America? a. to help mapmakers make maps b. to inform his patrons about his trip c. to convince others he had found Asia d. to prove Spain had a claim to the lands
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b. He compared his discoveries with things in Spain.
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How does Columbus’s Journal of the First Voyage to America help readers share his experiences? a. He talked about the value of the objects he found. b. He compared his discoveries with things in Spain. c. He used short sentences and common words. d. He named each place he visited or planned to visit.
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b. to impress and flatter them
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According to A Journal of the First Voyage to America, why did Columbus give the island people hawks’ bells and glass beads? a. in payment for their help b. to impress and flatter them c. to get information about gold d. to lighten the ship’s load
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Finding gold and riches was a main goal of his journey.
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Why did Columbus mention gold two times in one day of Journal of the First Voyage to America? a. He had finally run out of other subjects to write about. b. Finding gold was something the crew wanted to do. c. Finding gold and riches was a main goal of his journey. d. He knew he would lose his crew if he couldn’t find gold.
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He appeals to their greed.
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How does Ahab persuade the crew to help him find the whale in Moby-Dick? a. He appeals to their pride. b. He appeals to their loyalty. c. He appeals to their skills. d. He appeals to their greed.
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their reward for finding the whale
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In Moby-Dick, what does the gold coin symbolize for the crew? a. Ahab’s fortune from his business b. their reward for finding the whale c. the Pequod’s profits from whaling d. Ahab’s wish to seem better than them
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prisoner and jailer
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In Moby-Dick, what relationship between Ahab and Moby-Dick does this passage symbolize? How can the prisoner reach outside except by thrusting through the wall? To me, the white whale is that wall, shoved near to me. Sometimes I think there’s naught beyond. a. prisoner and jailer b. parent and child c. builder and wrecker d. victim and lawyer
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They are promising to find the white whale.
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In Moby-Dick, what is the symbolic meaning of Ahab having his crew drink from their weapons? a. They are promising not to hunt while drunk. b. They are toasting Ahab’s great leadership. c. They are promising to find the white whale. d. They are cleaning their weapons for later use.
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They are all sinners.
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What does Edwards think is true of the members of his congregation in Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God? a. They are all church supporters. b. They are all sinners. c. They are all worthy of salvation. d. They are all saved.
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deep pit
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Based on context, what does the word gulf mean in this passage from Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God? Your wickedness makes you as it were heavy as lead, and to tend downwards with great weight and pressure towards Hell; and if God should let you go, you would immediately sink, and swiftly descend and plunge into the bottomless gulf … a. body of water b. mountain cave c. deep pit d. ocean shore
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grieve
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Based on context, what is the meaning of the word mourn in this passage from Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God? To see so many rejoicing and singing for joy of heart, while you have cause to mourn for sorrow of heart, and howl for vexation of spirit! a. celebrate b. repent c. pray d. grieve
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He makes a list of what he wants to achieve.
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According to The Autobiography, what is Franklin’s first step in his plan to reach perfection? a. He makes a list of what he wants to achieve. b. He improves his handwriting. c. He makes a schedule of what he does each day. d. He lists the friends he can count on.
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He has too many responsibilities.
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What conclusion can you draw about why Franklin has trouble staying organized, according to The Autobiography? a. He has very few responsibilities. b. He is always busy traveling. c. He likes to do things all at once. d. He has too many responsibilities.
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He has high hopes for himself.
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In The Autobiography, Franklin believes that he can become a better person. What does this belief tell you about how he sees himself? a. He does not believe in himself. b. He has high hopes for himself. c. His knowledge of science can help him. d. His religion will help him.
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Small details can affect all of your work.
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What is the best meaning of this aphorism from Poor Richard’s Almanack? For want of a nail the shoe is lost; for want of a shoe the horse is lost; for want of a horse the rider is lost. a. Be sure to replace your lost tools and supplies. b. Small details can affect all of your work. c. Every rider should know how to shoe his horse. d. Horses run best when they do not have shoes.
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the slaves who jumped into the sea
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In The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, Equiano mentions “many of the inhabitants of the deep” who were happier than he was. Who or what is he describing? a. the slaves asleep in the ship’s hold b. the slaves who jumped into the sea c. the fish and other ocean creatures d. the slave traders asleep in their cabins
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The crew ate the fish they caught.
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Which detail would probably be left out of a summary of The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano? a. The crew ate the fish they caught. b. Most slaves were kept in the ship’s hold. c. The ship’s conditions were terrible. d. Many slaves were infected with disease.
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They preferred death to slavery.
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In The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, why did slaves jump off the ship? a. They preferred death to slavery. b. They hoped to swim to shore. c. They wanted to give others more room. d. They hoped to find another boat.
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to expand on personal experiences
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What is a regular element of Thoreau’s style in Walden? a. to ask questions and then answer them b. to state main ideas only once c. to jump quickly from idea to idea d. to expand on personal experiences
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repeating main ideas
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Which element of Thoreau’s style is shown in these passages from Walden? Simplicity, simplicity, simplicity! I say, let your affairs be as two or three, and not a hundred or a thousand …. Simplify, simplify. Instead of three meals a day, if it be necessary eat but one; instead of a hundred dishes, five …. a. using mathematical examples b. using themes from the kitchen c. repeating main ideas d. using only short sentences
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speak out against England
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In “Speech in the Virginia Convention,” Patrick Henry says, surprisingly, that he must take a certain action against England in order to be a true patriot. What is this action? a. support England’s actions b. speak out against England c. become an officer in the army d. agree with the other speakers
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regular speech patterns
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Which element contributes most to Whitman’s poetry of free verse? a. regular metrical feet b. fixed-length stanzas c. regular speech patterns d. exact rhyme schemes
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kindly
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Based on “I Hear American Singing,” how does Whitman seem to feel toward the people in the poem? a. unfriendly b. annoyed c. bored d. kindly
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I, II, IV
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Which answer choice shows that the third-person omniscient point of view is used in “The Devil and Tom Walker”? I The narrator is not a character in the story. II Tom’s and his wife’s feelings are both described. III Tom argues with the Devil about the buried money. IV The narrator comments on the death of Captain Kidd. a. I, II, III b. II, III, IV c. I, III, IV d. I, II, IV
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witches and demons
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Based on “The Devil and Tom Walker,” what was one belief of the New England Puritans during this time period? a. justice for Native Americans b. witches and demons c. accepting all religions d. giving the vote to women
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stories that explain how life began
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The Earth on Turtle’s Back,” “When Grizzlies Walked Upright,” and The Navajo Origin Legend are origin myths. What are origin myths? a. stories about talking animals b. stories about ancient people c. stories that explain how life began d. stories that explain the present day
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I and III
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From reading “The Earth on Turtle’s Back,” you can tell that the Onondaga value certain things in their culture. Which two of these items do they value? I animals II clouds III riches IV dreams a. I and III b. II and IV c. II and III d. I and IV
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Outsiders who believe in peace are welcome.
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What is the Iroquois attitude toward outsiders, according to the Iroquois Constitution? a. Outsiders are never welcome. b. Outsiders who bring gifts are welcome. c. Outsiders who believe in peace are welcome. d. Outsiders who join one of the Five Nations are welcome.
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I, II, IV
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In “The Raven,” which of these elements contributes to the poem’s single effect? the repetition of words the meter the five-line stanzas the poet’s sorrow a. I, II, III b. I, III, IV c. II, III, IV d. I, II, IV
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He was determined to find valuable items of any kind.
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What conclusion can be drawn from Columbus’s determination to take ten quintals of aloe back with him? a. He was determined to find valuable items of any kind. b. Aloe was treasured in Europe. c. His ships were too small to hold much cargo. d. Aloe is delightfully fragrant.
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informative and acquisitive
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Which adjectives best describe Columbus’s attitude as revealed in the journal? a. cruel and tyrannical b. bored and greedy c. informative and acquisitive d. disappointed and unemotional
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Pequod
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The name of the whaling ship that Ahab captains is the ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~. a. Pequod b. Quarter-Deck c. Tashtego d. Nantucket
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caused Ahab to lose his leg in a previous encounter.
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The white whale against whom Ahab seeks vengeance a. never appears. b. treats the ship’s crew indifferently when he finally appears. c. caused Ahab to lose his leg in a previous encounter. d. is never seen by anyone but Ahab.
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d. single-minded
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Ahab’s rambling monologues show that he is ____. a. practical b. uneducated c. vulnerable d. single-minded
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his pacing up and down on deck
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What behavior of Ahab most clearly symbolizes the restlessness and obsessive nature of his thoughts?a. his pacing up and down on deck b. his offering mugs of grog to the crew c. his nailing a coin to the mast d. his being hoisted up the mast in a basket
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The only hope for salvation is through Christian rebirth.
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What is the central message of the sermon? a. There is no hope for salvation. b. The only hope for salvation is in good deeds. c. The only hope for salvation is through Christian rebirth. d. Sinners can save their souls through constant prayer.
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frighten his audience.
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Edwards’s vivid descriptions of Hell are meant to a. frighten his audience. b. amuse his audience. c. fascinate his audience. d. make his audience feel superior.
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God
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Which of these people or forces does the sermon indicate is the most powerful? a. Hell b. God c. the congregations as a whole d. preachers like Edwards
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d. fire and water
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What contrasting images does Edwards use to describe God’s wrath? a. heat and cold b. sunlight and rain c. darkness and light d. fire and water
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those who have not yet experienced the grace of conversion.
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Edwards uses the phrase “dead in sin” to describe a. people who have died while in the midst of evil activities. b. those who have not yet experienced the grace of conversion. c. those whose sins have caused their deaths. d. people who are not religious and never attend church.
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associating it with an authority respected by his audience.
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The use of a biblical quotation at the end of the sermon strengthens Edwards’s argument by a. associating it with an authority respected by his audience. b. appealing to the audience’s love of poetry. c. changing the tone of the sermon. d. emphasizing Edwards’s point about God’s mercy.
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order
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Which virtue is most difficult for Franklin to master? a. industry b. order c. sincerity d. temperance
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“I hope, therefore, that some of my descendants may follow the example and reap the benefit.”
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Which of these sentences most likely came from an autobiography? a. “I hope, therefore, that some of my descendants may follow the example and reap the benefit.” b. “Philadelphia was a city at the heart of America’s independence.” c. “Benjamin Franklin also contributed to public service.” d. “Almost everyone secretly desires to attain perfection in some field.”
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Franklin’s personality.
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In comparison to other books about Franklin, The Autobiography probably gives you the best insight into a. the moral values of the time. b. Franklin’s inventions. c. Franklin’s descendants. d. Franklin’s personality.
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Franklin was a great American.
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Which of the following statements expresses an opinion? a. Franklin wrote an autobiography. b. Franklin was a great American. c. Franklin writes that he tried to live his life using thirteen virtues. d. Franklin admits that he never completely achieved perfection.
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“A benevolent man should allow a few faults in himself, to keep his friends in countenance.”
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Which passage needs the most interpretation in order to understand the author’s meaning? a. “Different writers included more or fewer ideas under the same name.” b. “I made a little book, in which I allotted a page for each of the virtues.” c. “A benevolent man should allow a few faults in himself, to keep his friends in countenance.” d. “I hope, therefore, that some of my descendants may follow the example and reap the benefit.”
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weak.
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Through his language, Smith conveys the idea that the new President is a. energetic. b. brave. c. tyrannical. d. weak.
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the Pilgrims had God on their side.
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In calling Squanto “a special instrument sent of God,” Bradford demonstrates his personal conviction that a. Squanto will become a convert to Christianity. b. the Pilgrims would have survived without Squanto. c. it is important to forgive one’s enemies. d. the Pilgrims had God on their side.
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Thanksgiving Day.
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The incidents Bradford describes are most strongly connected with Americans’ celebration of a. Labor Day. b. Thanksgiving Day. c. Christmas Day. d. Independence Day (July 4th).
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Six or seven people risked their own health to tend the sick.
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Break down the sentences in the following passage: “And of these, in the time of most distress, there was but six or seven sound persons who to their great commendations, be it spoken, spared no pains night or day, but with abundance of toil and hazard of their own health, fetched them wood, made them fires, dressed them meat, made their beds, washed their loathsome clothes, clothed and unclothed them.” Which of the following statements best expresses the passage’s main idea? a. Six or seven people risked their own health to tend the sick. b. Six or seven people should receive great commendations. c. Six or seven people worked very hard and risked their health. d. Six or seven people washed the clothes of the sick.
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the horrors slaves faced on transatlantic voyages
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What experience does this portion of Equiano’s slave narrative describe? a. the loss of African cultural traditions b. the fight to abolish slavery c. the observations of a slave merchant d. the horrors slaves faced on transatlantic voyages
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Equiano got seasick when he was on the ship.
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Which of these details expresses the most objective viewpoint? a. Equiano got seasick when he was on the ship. b. Looking through the quadrant made Equiano think the world was magic. c. The cries of slaves saddened Equiano. d. The flying fish amazed Equiano as they flew across the ship.
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They are caught and flogged.
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What happens to the captives who try to get the extra fish the slave traders caught? a. They share the fish with the other captives. b. They devour the fish instantly. c. They are caught and flogged. d. They are allowed to cook and eat the fish for supper.
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The ship landed, and the captives were sold into slavery.
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If you were summarizing the selection, which statement would you use to express the main idea of the last section? a. The traders were overjoyed at reaching Barbados. b. The captives were afraid that they would be eaten. c. The ship landed, and the captives were sold into slavery. d. Old slaves joined the newcomers from Africa to tell them about their fate.
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by repeating his main ideas
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How does Thoreau’s style reinforce his theme of living with deliberation? a. by relying on unusually difficult words b. by instructing the reader to pay attention c. by imitating a scientific report d. by repeating his main ideas
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inspired.
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Walden’s closing image of the morning star leaves readers feeling a. inspired. b. hopeless. c. exhausted. d. argumentative.
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critical.
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Thoreau’s view of the war with Mexico is best described as a. patriotic. b. indifferent. c. critical. d. practical.
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anger
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When Paine compares America’s relationship with England to the bondage of slavery, to what emotion is he appealing? a. anger b. joy c. happiness d. hope
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anger
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Jefferson uses the charged word tyrant to characterize the king of Britain. To what emotion does this word appeal? a. sorrow b. envy c. anger d. pride
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“He is at this time transporting large armies … to complete the works of death, desolation, and tyranny, already begun.”
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60. Which of the following statements most appeals to the emotions of horror and disgust? a. “He is at this time transporting large armies … to complete the works of death, desolation, and tyranny, already begun.” b. “He has abdicated government here, by declaring us out of his protection and waging war against us.” c. “He has dissolved representative houses repeatedly ….” d. “He has called together legislative bodies … for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.”
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treacherous and malignant.
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The opening descriptions of the forest suggest that what Tom will find there will be a. treacherous and malignant. b. fortunate and useful. c. hot-tempered and vengeful. d. dull and depressing.
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His eyes are red, and he is covered with soot.
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Which of these details most clearly suggest that the figure Tom meets is the Devil? a. His voice is hoarse and growling, and his hair is black. b. His eyes are red, and he is covered with soot. c. He is powerfully built and is holding an ax. d. He wears rude, half-Indian garb and is sitting on a tree stump.
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greed
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What seems to be Tom’s prime motivation in agreeing to the Devil’s terms? a. the desire to spite his wife b. gratitude for the Devil’s involvement in his wife’s disappearance c. the desire to win the respect of the community d. greed
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greed and mean-spiritedness lead to misery.
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A main lesson of this story is that a. greed and mean-spiritedness lead to misery. b. husbands and wives should love each other. c. prayer can erase all past sins. d. great wealth can never produce happiness.
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causing natural disasters.
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The story implies that God expresses His disapproval of humans’ sins by a. ignoring their prayers. b. making them poor. c. causing natural disasters. d. giving them nightmares.
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The narrator makes clear the motives and desires of Tom and his wife.
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Which of these observations about the story stems from the use of an omniscient narrator? a. The narrator focuses on Tom’s experiences. b. The narrator never tells us what happened to Tom’s wife. c. The narrator makes clear the motives and desires of Tom and his wife. d. The narrator keeps the Devil shrouded in mystery.
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dreams.
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“The Earth on Turtle’s Back” shows the importance the Onondaga placed on a. rain. b. dreams. c. strength in battle. d. old age.
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the Flood.
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The events in “The Earth on Turtle’s Back” have the strongest resemblance to the biblical account of a. the Garden of Eden. b. the Flood. c. the building of the pyramids. d. the Ten Commandments.
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curious.
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In “When Grizzlies Walked Upright,” the daughter places herself in a dangerous position because she is a. shy. b. self-sacrificing. c. self-destructive. d. curious.
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human beings.
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“When Grizzlies Walked Upright” explains the origins of a. human beings. b. the earth. c. snow. d. ice.
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marriage.
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The selection from The Navajo Origin Legend shows the origin of a. buckskin. b. corn. c. marriage. d. funerals.
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to establish a form of government
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What was the main purpose of the Iroquois Constitution? a. to explain Iroquois customs b. to propose a moral guide c. to establish a form of government d. to record important events
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wariness
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Which of these words best describes the single effect created by the opening description of the house in “The Fall of the House of Usher”? a. sadness b. terror c. wariness d. curiosity
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The narrator himself felt such an atmosphere when he approached the estate.
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Why does the narrator “start” when Roderick Usher mentions “the gradual yet certain condensation of an atmosphere … about the waters and the walls” of the House of Usher? a. The narrator himself felt such an atmosphere when he approached the estate. b. Usher’s idea is so incredible that it frightens the narrator. c. It gives the narrator his first inkling of his friend’s instability. d. Usher is predicting the destruction of the house in a terrifying way.
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terror and hope
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What does the speaker in “The Raven” feel when he first thinks that Lenore may be at his door? a. joy and passion b. terror and hope c. relief and pleasure d. confusion and melancholy
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Lenore is so special that she is nameless in the speaker’s heart.
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When the speaker describes Lenore as “nameless here for evermore,” what does he mean? a. He cannot remember Lenore’s name. b. No one will speak Lenore’s name because the angels took her. c. Lenore is never mentioned in the speaker’s chamber because she deserted him. d. Lenore is so special that she is nameless in the speaker’s heart.
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to strike
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What is the meaning of the root -flict-? a. to bend b. to strike c. to argue d. to separate
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The captain shouted curses at the whale who escaped him.
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In which sentence is the meaning of the word maledictions expressed? a. Ahab vowed to hunt Moby-Dick to the end of his life. b. The captain shouted curses at the whale who escaped him. c. The Pequod’s crew grew afraid of Ahab’s obsession. d. Ahab died without fulfilling his vow to kill the whale.
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This crew is the finest that ever sailed a whaling ship.
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Which of these sentences illustrates correct agreement with collective nouns? a. The class holds different opinions on the subject. b. The club enjoys talking to one another. c. This crew is the finest that ever sailed a whaling ship. d. The choir sings different parts depending on whether they are alto, soprano, tenor, and bass.
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Edwards preached to listeners about God’s all-powerful character.
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In which sentence is the meaning of the word omnipotent expressed? a. Edwards preached to listeners about God’s all-powerful character. b. Edwards’s listeners were filled with the fear of God’s anger. c. Edwards’s sermon urged listeners to be saved in Christ. d. Edwards described frightening images of hell to listeners.
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Edwards was more reasonable in his sermon “… Freedom of Will.”
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Which of the following sentences uses the comparative form of an adjective? a. Jonathan Edwards was a well-known eighteenth-century preacher. b. His best-known sermon is Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God. c. This rousing sermon is also the most frightening one he ever wrote. d. Edwards was more reasonable in his sermon “… Freedom of Will.”
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all; everywhere
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What does the prefix omni- mean? a. all; everywhere b. high; atop; above c. knowing; wise d. powerful
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it
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Identify the objective case pronoun in this passage: “Order, too, with regard to places for things, papers, etc., I found extremely difficult to acquire. I had not been early accustomed to it.” a. the first I b. the second I c. it d. too
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enrage
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Which word is most nearly opposite in meaning to pacify? a. enrage b. appease c. ignore d. subdue
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Franklin urged every member of the Convention to sign the Constitution.
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In which sentence is the meaning of the word unanimity suggested? a. Franklin urged every member of the Convention to sign the Constitution. b. Franklin praised the high quality of the new Constitution. c. Franklin found he doubted his judgments more as he grew older. d. Franklin wanted other nations to approve of the new Constitution.
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The Declaration suggests that the king has betrayed the colonists’ trust.
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In which of the following sentences is the meaning of the word perfidy suggested? a. The Declaration lists the colonists’ complaints. b. The Declaration suggests that the king has betrayed the colonists’ trust. c. The Declaration sets out a vision of what makes a good government. d. The Declaration explains why the colonists seek independence.
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“that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights; that among these rights …”
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Which of the following phrases uses parallel construction? a. “He has forbidden his governors to pass laws of immediate and pressing importance …” b. “it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, …” c. “that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights; that among these rights …” d. “He has erected a multitude of new offices, and sent higher swarms of officers to harass our people …”
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“He has plundered our seas, ravaged our coasts, burned our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.”
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Which of these sentences contains examples of parallelism? a. “He has plundered our seas, ravaged our coasts, burned our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.” b. “In every stage of these oppressions we have petitioned for redress in the most humble terms.” c. “He has kept among us in times of peace standing armies without the consent of our legislatures.” d. “He has abdicated government here, by declaring us out of his protection and waging war against us.”
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His poems pour out feelings for both the human and natural world.
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In which sentence is the meaning of the word effuse expressed? a. Whitman’s poetry symbolizes America for many readers. b. His poems pour out feelings for both the human and natural world. c. Whitman worked as a nurse in a hospital during the Civil War. d. One of his poems expresses grief at the death of Lincoln.
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He watched a spider and compared it with their soul.
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Which of the following sentences would need to be corrected so that the pronoun and antecedent agree? a. She wrote a poem about her experiences as an astronomer. b. They sang as they worked at their daily labors. c. He watched a spider and compared it with their soul. d. We made camp and watched shadows in our campfire.
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to obtain by threat or violence
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When the Devil says “You shall extort bonds,” what is the meaning of the word extort? a. to write in legal language b. to sell by auction c. to break, unlink, or untie d. to obtain by threat or violence
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who would lend money out for good consideration
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Which is the adjective clause in this sentence? His reputation for a ready-moneyed man, who would lend money out for good consideration, soon spread abroad. a. his reputation for a ready-moneyed man b. for good consideration c. who would lend money out for good consideration d. soon spread abroad
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greed.
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In suggesting that Tom’s wife is guilty of the sin of avarice, the narrator is criticizing her a. greed. b.spitefulness. c. violence. d. tendency to bicker.
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The Duck dove first, and then the Beaver tried.
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Which of these sentences is a compound sentence? a. At last, with one great effort, he uprooted the tree and placed it on its side. b. He swam down and down, far beneath the surface, but could not reach the bottom. c. The Duck dove first, and then the Beaver tried. d. They brought the Muskrat over to the Great Turtle and placed her paw against his back.
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The forest floor rustled with scurrying forms of life.
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In which of these sentences is the meaning of the word sentience expressed? a. The rocky crag stood in eternal silence over the town. b. The forest floor rustled with scurrying forms of life. c. The deep well reflected the old house in its waters. d. The portraits in the dark room were barely visible.
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cowardly
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Which word below is closest in meaning to the word craven? a. dark b. cowardly c. calm d. specious

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