American History – Chapter 4: Civil War/Reconstruction

Flashcard maker : Jason Westley
the formal withdrawal of a state from the Union
Popular Sovereignty
the right to vote for or against slavery (pleased both sides)
Underground Railroad
Free African American and white abolitionists developed a secret network of people who would hide fugitive slaves
Southern States government (Confederate States of America)
Fort Sumter
1 of 4 forts still in Union hands in Charleston, S.C. – site of the first battle of the Civil War
Bull Run
Was the first major battle on a battlefield after Fort Sumter Fell, 25 miles away from Washington D.C.
Single bloodiest one day battle in U.S. history – 26,000 soldiers died
Emancipation Proclamation
an executive order issued by Abraham Lincoln on Jan. 1, 1863, freeing the slaves in all regions behind Confederate lines
A draft that forced men to serve in the army
Income Tax
A tax that takes a specified percentage of an individual’s income
July 1, 1863 was the most decisive battle of the war. The battle lasted 3 days and over 51,000 men were killed or wounded
Gettysburg Address
Nov. 1863, – Abraham Lincoln’s Speech for a ceremony to dedicate a cemetery in Gettysburg
was the site of a major victory for Ulysses S. Grant and the Union army as they defeated the Confederates on 1 of 2 remaining South strongholds
Appomattox Court House
in a Virginia town, Lee and Grant met at a private home to arrange for the Confederate surrender
13th Amendment
The abolishment of slavery was ratified in 1865
Freedmen’s Bureau
A group established by Congress to provide food, clothing, hospitals, legal protection and education for former slaves
the period during which the U.S. began to rebuild after the Civil War (1865-1877)
Radical Republicans
They wanted to destroy the political power of former slave holders, and give African Americans the right to vote and full citizenship
14th Amendment
This prevented states from denying rights and privileges to any U.S. Citizen, no matter their race or color
15th Amendment
no one can be kept from voting because of race, color or previous conditions of servitude
white Southerners who joined the Republican Party
were Northerners who moved to the South after the war
Landowners divided their land and assigned each head of household a few acres, along with seed & tools
They got to keep a share of the harvest, with the rest going to the land owner
Southern vigilante groups that terrorized African Americans and white republicans to restore the old order in the South
Harriet Tubman
born a slave, was the most famous conductor, she helped over 300 slaves to freedom
Harriet Beecher Stowe
published a novel called Uncle Tom’s Cabin
Dred Scott
a slave whose owner took him from the slave state of Missouri to free territory in Illinois & Wisconsin and then back to Missouri
Stephen Douglas
Democratic Incumbent representative from Illinois (Won the last Election)
Abraham Lincoln
Republican Challenger for Douglas’s Senate Seat, who serve one term as a House of Representative
Jefferson Davis
A Senator from Mississippi, was unanimously elected to be the President
Stonewall Jackson
Confederate general who was given his name because his troops held firm in battle to help the South win
Ulysses S. Grant
Union General who led military forces into Tennessee to take control of Fort Henry & Donelson
Robert E. Lee
Commanding General of the Confederate Army
Clara Barton
nurse who founded the American Red Cross after the war
William Sherman
was the commander of the military division in Mississippi
Sherman unleashed a total war
John Wilkes Booth
26 year old actor and South sympathizer, assassinated the president
Andrew Johnson
was the Vice-President, who took over for Lincoln when he was assassinated. He was almost impeached

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