America: A Narrative History 9th Edition – Chptr 5
Flashcard maker : Claire Forth
General George Washington p 214
He was appointed by the Second Continental Congress as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army in 1775. His ability to learn under duress and refusal to accept defeat kept an American army in the field. At the Battle of Yorktown in 1781 with French troop and naval support, he was able to entrap the British troops and force surrender. At the end of the war in 1783, he was the most famous man in America., Commander in Chief of the Continental Army. Brilliantly led America to victory and freedom in the American Revolution. Became 1st US president, (Became 1st US president)
Continental Army p 214
Army formed in 1775 by the Second Continental Congress and led by General George Washington
General William Howe p 214
Commander of the British army in America at the beginning of the Revolutionary War after the Battle of Bunker Hill. He captured New York and Philadelphia, but botched the plan to isolate the New England colonies in 1777 because he hoped the sheer size of his army would convince the Patriots to give up. He resigned in 1778.
A person who supported the British cause in the American Revolution; a loyalist, who opposed the move for independence. A member of a British political party, founded in 1689, that was the opposition party to the Whigs and has been known as the Conservative Party since about 1832
General John Burgoyne p 221
British general appointed by King George III to crush the rebel forces; 1777. He was a subordinate of General Howe, and lead an invading force down Hudson from Canada to Alabany; was present at the Battle of Yorktown. He captured Fort Ticonderoga but lost the battle of Saratoga in 1777 (1722-1792).
Battle of Saratoga p 224
Turning point of the American Revolution. in 1777. when the Americans took control of the Hudson river. This win convinced the French to give the U.S. military support. becuase it showed that the Americans had the potential to beat Great Britain, and this lifted American spirits.
Marquis de Lafayette p 227
French soldier who joined General Washington’s staff and became a general in the Continental Army and was known as \”the soldier’s friend\”. He was a French rich noble who came to America at 19, and asked to help the Americans fight for their independence. He is buried in France but his grave is covered with earth from Bunker Hill.
Joseph Brant p. 228
Mohawk chief who led many Iroquois to fight with Britain against American revolutionaries
General Charles Cornwallis p 230
1783 – 1805, British military and political leader. Was a member of Parliament and even opposed the tax measures that led to the American Revolution. Led British forces during the American Revolution and was defeated by Washington when he had to surrender at Yorktown in 1781.
General Nathanael Greene p 231
American general who fought Cornwallis and in 1781 cleared Georgia and South Carolina of British troops; known as \”the Fighting Quaker\”, Distinguished himself by his strategy of delay: kept retreating then standing against his foe, Cornwallis.
Benedict Arnold p. 233
General in the Continental Army and traitor in the American Revolution when he sided with the British in 1780 with his plan to surrender West Point to the British, but it was foiled. He had been a Colonel in the Connecticut militia and won key victories for the colonies in the battles in upstate New York in 1777, and was instrumental in General Gates victory over the British at Saratoga. After becoming Commander of Philadelphia in 1778, he went heavily into debt, and in 1780, he was caught plotting to surrender the key Hudson River fortress of West Point to the British in exchange for a commission in the royal army. He is the most famous traitor in American history.
surrender at Yorktown p. 234
The end of the Revolutionary War when British General Cornwallis was forced to retreat to Yorktown, Virginia, on a peninsula. General Washington with the help of the French and american ships rushed and surrounded Cornwallis and on October 18, 1781, Cornwallis surrendered.
John Adams p. 237
America’s first Vice-President and second President. Sponsor of the American Revolution in Massachusetts, and wrote the Massachusetts guarantee that freedom of press \”ought not to be restrained.\”
Abigal Adams p 246
Wife of John Adams at the 2nd Contintal Congress; tried to influence her husband John, to include women’s rights in the Declaration, and spoke against slavery.