Air Transportation

During the 1930’s we were in the middle of the Great Depression but the airlines were experiencing strong year to year percentage growth rates. What were the factors that might explain this strong growth?
(3 factors)
It was early in the growth of passenger travel so that a small growth in the number of people flying resulted in a strong growth rate.
Government policies that favored growth in passenger traffic.
Significant increases in the size of airplanes use for passenger transportation.
A wide variety of factors can drive the growth in air transportation. Which of the following have been important factors driving this growth in the US?
(6 factors)
A long term trend of declining air fares.
Increases in passenger airline speed.
Increases in the size of airline aircraft.
Increased reliability and dependability of aircraft
Increases in the safety of air travel.
Increases in the number of city pairs served.
Which government programs had the most positive impact on making air travel more attractive to the traveling public?
Air Mail Act of 1930 (McNary-Waters Act)
The Civil Aeronautics Act of 1938 created the Civil Aviation Administration (CAA) and the Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB). What were the key functions of the CAA?
(2 factors)
safety regulations
management of the airspace
The Civil Aeronautics Act of 1938 created the Civil Aviation Administration (CAA) and the Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB).
What were the key functions of the CAB?
(2 functions)
economic regulation of the airlines
accident investigation
The CAB exercised certain controls over the airlines. These included:
(2 factors)
setting airline fares
approving the routes airlines could serve
Why was the FAA Act passed in 1958?
to make the CAA a more effective orginiation
The airline deregulation act was passed in 1978. Why were the airlines deregulated?
(3 factors)
many felt the airlines would operate more efficiently in a deregulated environment.
the airlines and air service had grown to the point that there was competition on most city pairs.
there was a general move in the country to deregulate industries wherever it was possible.
The airplanes used during the 1950’s had several characteristics that differentiated them from the airplanes available in the 1930’s. What were the characteristics?
(5 factors)
there were larger
there were pressurized
there were significantly faster
they flew at significantly higher altitudes
there were significantly more comfortable
The airplanes used during the 1960’s had several characteristics that differentiated them from the airplanes available in the 1950’s. What were the characteristics?
(6 factors)
they were larger
they had a longer ranged
they were equipped with turbine engines
they were significantly faster
they flew at significantly higher altitudes
they were significantly more comfortable
The airplanes used during the 1990’s had several characteristics that differentiated them from the airplanes available in the 1980’s. What were the characteristics?
(1 factor)
on average, they were more efficient
The primary factor driving a decrease in air fares from 1950-1980 was
an increase in technical efficiency
Define and explain how to calculate:
ASM (available seat mile)
ASM- one seat available for passenger use on an airliner moved one mile
Compute- number of passenger seats times the distance between the 2 cities
Define and explain how to calculate:
RPM(revenue passenger mile)
RPM- one revenue paying passenger moved one mile
Compute- passengers on the plane times the distance between the 2 cities
Define and explain how to calculate:
LF (load factor)
LF- for a single flight it is the number of passengers on the airplane divided by the number of seats
Compute- for the average load factor divide total RPM by total ASM
Define and explain how to calculate:
yield- the amount passengers pay per mile for a flight.
Compute- for a single passenger: divide the price of the ticket by the distance between the 2 cities
for the average yield: divide the total passenger revenue by the total RPM
Define and explain how to calculate:
BELF (break-even load factor)
BELF- the percentage of seats that have to be filled to just cover the cost of the flight
Compute- divide the average cost per ASM by the average yield
Define and explain how to calculate:
PRASM(passenger Revenue per ASM)
PRASM- the total revenue and airline collects divided by the number of available seat miles provided
Compute- total revenue divided by total ASM
or multiply LF and yield
Who is the Administrator of the FAA?
Who is the secretary of the DOT?
Administrator- Michael Huerta
Secretary- Anthony Foxx
Describe NextGen
What 3 benefits will NextGen provide for the US air traffic control system?
NextGen is the program to update air traffic control systems
It will reduce congestion, increase safety, and save time and money
Describe the ICAO
International Civil Aviation Organization
they specify standards for aircraft, noise, emissions, etc.
Describe DOT
Department of Transportation
the United States federal department that institutes and coordinates national transportation programs
Describe A4A
Airlines for American
America’s oldest and largest airline trade association
Describe IATA
International Air Transport Association
is the trade association for the world’s airlines. IATA supports airline activity and helps formulate industry policy and standards.
Describe ALPA
Air Lines Pilots Association
the collective bargaining representative for over 50,000 pilots of 31 U.S. and Canadian airlines. a union for all air line pilots
Describe NTSB
National Transportation Safety Board
is an independent Federal agency charged by Congress with investigating every civil aviation accident in the U.S. and significant accidents in other modes of transportation
Describe GAO
Government Accountability Office
is the audit, evaluation, and investigative arm of the United States Congress. It is part of the legislative branch of the United States government.
Describe TSA (AKA the grope-patrol!)
Transportation Security Administration
an agency established in 2001 to safeguard United States transportation systems and insure safe air travel
Describe the EU carbon dioxide emission plan
Lawmakers in the European Union are due to vote next week on a plan to impose a carbon dioxide emissions quota for all airlines flying in and out of the E.U. The plan is designed to reduce aviation pollution, but some experts fear it could spark a trade war, and fierce opposition is expected from the U.S.
Describe what the Smartbrief said about tarmac delay rule
Airlines for America and the Regional Airline Association have submitted an application to the Federal Aviation Administration to suspend the three-hour tarmac delay rule due to recent furloughs of air-traffic controllers.
What are the airline classifications?
legacy carriers(Delta), low cost (Southwest, Virgin), network, regional(Great Lakes)
Name some mergers or takeovers in the airline industry
Continental merged with United (2010-2012)
US Airways and American Airlines merge (2013)
Delta merges with Northwest Airlines (2008-2010)
What key factors drive airline growth and give an example
key factors that drive an airline growth are a growing economy and technology.
An example of this is the strong aircraft sales and traveling happening in China due to China’s growing economy.
How many passengers are airlines expected to carry worldwide in 2014?
How many US passengers are expected to travel in 2014?
3.3 billion out of 7 billion worldwide
700 million out of 300 million in the US
what is codesharing?
flights from 2 separate airlines that fly the same route. (this can be due to mergers)
Who is the ACI-NA and who do they represent?
Airports Council International- North America
represent the actual airports (airport joints) in North America
Describe the Wright Amendment and what Southwest plans to do once it expires on Oct. 13
the Wright Amendment restricted flights out of Love Field Airport to just Texas locations; this allowed for Dallas Fort Worth to get more business.
Southwest is going to offer non-stop service to 15 new markets after it expires.
Public airports are typically owned by
county/airport authority
About how many airports are in the following categories
Part 139 airports
Total landing areas in the US
Public use airports
Total airports
Airports listed in the NPIAS
Part 139- 550
total landing areas in the US- 20,000
public use airports- 5,000
total airports- 13,000
airports listed in the NPIAS- 3,400
Part 135
air carriers and operators for compensation or hire: certification and operations
American Association of Airport Executives
professional association that represents airport management personnel at public-use commercial and general aviation airports in the United States of America. It provides its members with industry-related services, support, training, and various professional development opportunities.
The National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems
identifies nearly 3,400 existing and proposed airports that are significant to national air transportation and thus eligible to receive Federal grants
European Aviation Safety Agency
conduct analysis and research of safety, authorising foreign operators, giving advice for the drafting of EU legislation, implementing and monitoring safety rules, giving type-certification of aircraft and components as well as the approval of organisations involved in the design, manufacture and maintenance of aeronautical products.
National Business Aviation Administration
promotes the aviation interests of organizations utilizing general aviation aircraft for business purposes in the United States and worldwide.
Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association
non-profit political organization that advocates for general aviation.
National Mediation Board
an independent agency of the United States government that coordinates labor-management relations within the U.S. railroads and airlines industries.
Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B)
is FAA’s satellite-based successor to radar. ADS-B makes use of GPS technology to determine and share precise aircraft location information, and streams additional flight information to the cockpits of properly equipped aircraft.
Collaborative Air Traffic Management Technologies (CATMT)
is a suite of enhancements to the decision-support and data-sharing tools used by air traffic management personnel. These enhancements will enable a more collaborative environment among controllers and operators, improving efficiency in the National Airspace System.
Data Communications (Data Comm)
will enable controllers to send digital instructions and clearances to pilots. Precise visual messages that appear on a cockpit display can interact with an aircraft’s flight computer. Offering reduced opportunities for error, Data Comm will supplant voice communications as the primary means of communication between controllers and flight crews.
Common Support Services-Weather (CSS-Wx)
will provide the FAA and National Airspace System users with same-time access to a unified aviation weather picture via the System Wide Information Management network. This will enable collaborative and dynamic decision making among all users of the NAS.
The National Airspace System Voice System (NVS) .
will supplant FAA’s aging analog voice communication system with state-of-the-art digital technology. NVS will standardize the voice communication infrastructure among FAA facilities, and provide greater flexibility to the air traffic control system
System Wide Information Management (SWIM)
is the network structure that will carry NextGen digital information. SWIM will enable cost-effective, real-time data exchange and sharing among users of the National Airspace System.
List the 7 steps on how mediation is done in the airlines
1. eligiible contract
2. negotiation
3. mediator
4 mediator gives up
5. strike vote
6. 30 day cool off period
7. strike
describe the steps in the process required to establish a new regulation
what is the Part of the regulation that governs this process
1.Administer initiates rule making
2. considers recommendations from: within the FAA, other government organizations(like Homeland Security), the NTSB, industry organizations,Congress, petitions of other interested persons.
3. FAA Prepares a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking
4.The rule is published for comment
5. Comments collected from all interested parties
6. additional preceedings may be scheduled
7. FAA reviews all comments
8. Final Rule is published

FAR Part 11

What would you include in a comment on a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking?
-Explain how the proposed rule would impact you
-Will it limit your operational capability without improving safety?
– Will it impose a significant financial burden?
-Explain why the rule will not achieve its designated objective
Part 1
definitions and abbreviations
Part 43
Maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, and alteration
Part 61
Certification: pilots, flight instructors, and ground instructors
Part 91
General Operating and Flight rules
Name the company’s headquarters and one of it’s planes
headquartered: Montreal, Canada
Plane: CRJ700
Name the company’s headquarters and one of it’s planes
headquartered: Savanna, Georgia
plane: G650
Name the company’s headquarters and one of it’s planes
headquartered: São José dos Campos, Brazil
US headquartered in Fort Launderdale, Florida
plane: Embraer 190
Name the company’s headquarters and one of its planes
And name the narrow and wide body aircrafts
headquartered: Chicago, Illinois
Primary production facility: Seattle, Washington
narrow- 737,757,717
wide- 747,767, 777,787
Name the company’s headquarters and one of its planes
And name the narrow and wide body aircraft
headquartered: Toulouse, France
narrow- 318, 319, 320, 321
wide- 330,350,380
Airports typically get revenues to cover operating costs by charging users for tiedowns, landing fees, fuel charges, etc. However, general aviation airports may get money for capital improvements through the government program entitled:
Airport Improvement Program
Airports served by the airlines get money from the airport improvement program, but may also raise money through another government program that directly taxes passengers using the airport. These charges are referred to as:
Passenger Facility Charge
In order for airports to receive money from the federal government they must be listed in the:
National Plan of Integrated Airport System
Alaska Air Group has pleged to reduce fuel consumption per passenger-mile flown by 20% by 2020. What are some reasonable steps they can take to accomplish this?
increase load factor, use biofuel, add winglets, get more fuel efficient engines
What are RNP approaches?
Required Navigational Performance
Approaches that save fuel as part of an FAA imitative. RNP are how well a plane can follow procedures within standards
According to one article, ” The proposal would increase federal aviation fees paid by passengers by $5 bllion in the coming decade.” If the total amount extra that passengers would have to pay is $5 bilion, approximately how much is each passenger going to pay?
$5 billion minus 8 billion passengers
What is FAA reauthorization?
Congress is preparing for hearing on FAA reauthorization. They will do reforms for 2012 and start on 2015 authorization. They want to keep the U.S competitive and have the world’s best aviation system. Reauthoriation happens every 5 years and comes up with new projects to work on like NetGen.
Delta also reported that passenger unit revenue was up 6.1% and traffic rose 2% on a 2.9% capacity increase. Based on this information, what happened to Delta’s load factor?
Delta’s load factor decreased
To what does Boeing attribute the strong aircraft sales numbers in China?
China’s growing economy
What is the purpose of putting split scimitar winglets on the Boeing 737-800s?
to reduce fuel consumption
The FCC has proposed a rule to ban on in-flight cell phone use. The FCC feels the use of cellphones should be up to whom?
the airlines
Part 23
Airworthiness Standards: Normal, Utility, Acrobatic and Commuter Airplanes
Part 25
Airworthiness Standards: Transport Category Airplanes
Part 121
Operating Requirements: Domestic, Flag, and Supplemental Operations
List the sources of airport funding
airport improvement fund (which is part of the Airport airway trust fund)
domestic passenger tax
passenger facility charge
describe the relative safety of traveling by:
general aviation
automobile- 7.28
general aviation- 1.06/100,000 hours
airline- .07
There are fundamentally 2 different types of agreements under which countries agree to the terms of air service between countries. Historically service has been controlled by bilateral agreement but the U.S. is pushing to change most of these to a newer agreement refered to as?
Open skies
Would it be possible, over time, for an airline to have a decrease in passengers and an increase in load factor?
describe the 5 items that are included in the National Airspace System
1. airports
2. nav aids
3. atc towers
4. atc centers
5. landing aids
1.What is the name of the labor law under which airline labor/management relations are guided?
2.What is the name of the labor law under which other labor/management relations are guides?
1. Railway labor Act
2. National Labor Relations Act
Describe ADS-B Out and ADS-B In
ADS-B Out- when your aircraft is transmitting your location out
ADS-B In- when you are receiving information where other aircraft are
American Airlines has invested $400M in NextGen. Why aren’t they able to benefit from this equipment?
FAA procedures haven’t caught up with procedures
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