Agriculture Animal domestication First Agricultural Revolution Plant domestication Second Agricultural Revolution Shifting cultivation Subsistence farming Third Agricultural Revolution Thunian patterns CHAPTER 19 (Landscapes of Rural Settlement) Cadastral
agriculturea large-scale farming enterprise
animal domesticationthe taming of animals through generations of breeding to live in close association with humans as a pet or work animal
first agricultural revolutionDating back 10,000 years, the First Agricultural Revolution achieved plant domestication and animal domestication
plant domesticationgenetic modification of a plant such that its reproductive success depends on human intervention
second agricultural revolutiondovetailing with and benefiting from the Industrial Revolution, improved methods of cultivation, harvesting, and storage of farm produce
shifting cultivationA form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period.
subsistance farmingA type of farming in which farmers grow only enough food for their families to eat
third agricultural revolutioncurrently in progress, development of genetically modified organisms
thunian patternssituations following Von Thunens model that organizes a citys into five rings by their agricultural function
cadastral systemsurvey system that determines the value, extent, and ownership of land for purposes of taxation.
dispersed settlementcharacterized by a lower density
of population and the wide spacing of individual homesteads.
folk-housing regionA region in which the housing stock predominantly reflects styles of building that are particular to the culture of the people who have long inhabited the area.
functional differentiationA mode of distinguishing things or arrangements based on the purposes or activities to which they are devoted.
hamleta settlement smaller than a town
long-lot surveydivided land into narrow parcels stretching back from rivers, roads, or canals
maladaptive diffusiondiffusion in which image takes precedence over practicality (ie. ranch style house)
metes and grounds surveyNatural features were used to demarcate irregular parcels of land
nucleated settlementa compact closely packed settlement sharply demarcated from adjoining farmland
primogenitureright of inheritance belongs exclusively to the eldest son
rectangular land surveySystem that was adopted by the U.S. Government & divides land into rectangular parcels
township-and-range systema rectangular land division scheme designed by Thomas Jefferson to disperse settlers evenly across farmlands of the US interior
villagea community of people smaller than a town
wattleframework consisting of stakes interwoven with branches to form a fence
agribusinessa large-scale farming enterprise
biotechnologythe branch of engineering science in which biological science is used to study the relation between workers and their environments
commercial agricultureAgriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm.
green revolutionthe introduction of pesticides and high-yield grains and better management during the 1960s and 1970s which greatly increased agricultural productivity
luxury cropsNon-subsistence crops such as tea, cacao, coffee, and tobacco
organic agriculturecrops produced without the use of synthetic or industrially produced pesticides and fertilizers
plantation agricultureProduction system based on a large estate owned by an individual, family, or corporation and organized to produce a cash crop. Almost all plantations were established within the tropics; in recent decades, many have been divided into smaller holdings or reorganized as cooperatives
agentinfectious organism that causes disease
aidsa serious (often fatal) disease of the immune system transmitted through blood products especially by sexual contact or contaminated needles
choleraan acute intestinal infection caused by ingestion of contaminated water or food
chronic diseasea disease that develops gradually and continues over a long period of time
contagious diseaseany disease easily transmitted by contact
endemicnative to or confined to a certain region
epidemica widespread outbreak of an infectious disease
genetic diseasea disease or disorder that is inherited genetically
hidden hungerGetting enough calories but not enough nutrition.
hoststhe organism in which the parasite lives in or on.
infectious diseasea disease transmitted only by a specific kind of contact
influenzaan acute febrile highly contagious viral disease
malariaan infective disease caused by sporozoan parasites that are transmitted through the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito
malnutritiona state of poor nutrition
medical geographythe study of health and diseases with geographic perspective.
pandemican epidemic that is geographically widespread
reservoiranything (a person or animal or plant or substance) in which an infectious agent normally lives and multiplies
vectorany agent (person or animal or microorganism) that carries and transmits a disease
yellow fevercaused by a flavivirus transmitted by a mosquito