AG-Ch1.1 – People and Government – Section 1 – Principles of Government

question

State
answer

is a political community that occupies a definite territory and has an organized government with the power to make and enforce laws without approval from any higher authority.
question

Nation
answer

is any sizable group of people who are united by common bonds of race, language, custom, tradition, and, sometimes, religion.
question

Nation-state
answer

is a country where the territories of both the nation and the state coincide.
question

Consensus
answer

Agreement about basic beliefs.
question

Sovereignty
answer

the key characteristic of a state, means that the state has supreme and absolute authority within its territorial boundaries.
question

Government
answer

is the institution through which each state maintains social order, provides public services, and enforces decisions that are binding on all people living within the state.
question

Force theory
answer

says that government emerged when all the people of an area were brought under the authority of one person or group.
question

What are the four essential features of a state?
answer

Population territory, sovereignty, and government.
question

What is the Divine Right Theory?
answer

is the notion that the gods have chosen certain people to rule.
question

What is the Social Contract Theory? According to the social contract theory
answer

People need government to maintain social order because they have not yet discovered a way to live in groups without conflict. Without government, civilized life would not be possible. By remaining in the territory controlled by some society, which usually has a government, people give consent to join that society and be governed by its government, if any. This consent is what gives legitimacy to such government. People had to surrender their power to the state in order to maintain order, in exchange for protection provided by the state.
question

Thomas Hobbes and John Locke both subscribe to the Social Contract Theory of government. Analyze their views of that theory.
answer

Thomas Hobbes in England was one of the first to theorize that people had a social contract with their leaders. Hobbes believed that people surrendered to the state the power needed to maintain order in exchange for protection provided by the state. John Locke took the social contract a step further when he wrote that the people could justly break the social contract when government failed to preserve the natural rights of the people to life, liberty, and property.
question

What are the four main purposes of government? Maintaining social order
answer

Providing public services, providing for national security and a common defense , providing for and controlling the economic system.
question

How do governments provide ways of resolving conflicts and maintain social order?
answer

Making and enforcing laws, requiring people to do things like pay taxes and serve in the army, providing structures such as courts to help people resolve disagreements in an orderly manner, and placing limits on what individuals are permitted to do.
question

What economic decisions does the government have?economic or political stability
answer

Intervene in the economic affairs of other nations in the interest of pass the laws that determine and control the economic environment of the nation, and make choices that distribute benefits and public services among citizens.
question

How does the government try to stimulate economic growth and stability?
answer

Controlling inflation, encouraging trade, and regulating natural resource development.

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member