ADV3008 Spring 2017 Exam 2

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CH7
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Connect HW
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CH7-1 During which stage of the marketing esearch process is secondary data frequently used?
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Informal Research Def: The second step in the research process, designed to explore a problem by reviewing secondary data and interviewing a few key people with the most information to share. Also called exploratory research.
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CH7-2 Though ____. a prestesting method, researchers can elict a full range of responses from people and thereby infer how well advertising messages convey key copy points.
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Direct questioning
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CH7-3 A researcher from marketing research agency conducted a study on the food handling practices of an eatery. He discovered that the cooks used the same washcloth to wipe their hands as well as the counter. In addition, he found them tasting the food using their fingers. He determined that strict monitoring was needed to make sure that the cooks complied with sanitary regulations. Which of the following techniques did the researcher use?
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Observation Def: A method of research used when researchers actually monitor people’s actions.
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CH7-4 A(n)____, A post-testing technique, is used to measure a campaign’s effectiveness in creating a favorable image for a company, its brand, or its products.
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Attitude Test
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CH7-5 The techniques used during ___, a category of IMC research, are portfolio tests, storyboard tests, consumer juries, matched samples, mechanical devices, and psychological rating scales.
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Message pretesting
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CH7-6 According to the marketing research process, what should researchers do immediately after completing informal research?
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They should establish their research objectives.
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CH7-7 Advertisers use ___ to unearth people’s underlying or subconscious feelings, attitudes, interests, opinions, needs, and motives.
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Projective techniques
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CH7-8 Investigators use ____ to encourage consumers to openly discuss their thoughts and feelings in response to questions from an interviewer.
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Qualitative research
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CH7-9 When advertising is the dominant element or the only variable in the company’s marketing plan. ____ tests are a useful measure of advertising effectiveness.
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Sales
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CH7-10 In the context of marketing research, what is meant by an experiment?
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It is a scientific investigation in which a researcher randomly assigns different consumers to two or more messages or stimuli.
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CH8
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Connect HW
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CH8-1 The “Bundle of Values” the advertiser presents to the consumer is referred to as the ____.
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Product Concept
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CH8-2 According to the IMC pyramid, comprehension involves:
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Communicating enough information about a product so that some aware consumers recognize its purpose, image, or position.
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CH8-3 _____ refer(s) to the place a brand occupies competitively in the minds of consumers.
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Positioning
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CH8-4 As an element of creative strategy, the _____ are all the vehicles that might transmit the marketer’s message.
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communications media
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CH8-5 Matching
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need to add photo of this
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CH8-6 Which of the following refers to sales-target objectives?
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They are goals related to increasing or maintaining sales volume and market share.
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CH8-7 The _____ method of developing an IMC budget has three steps: defining objectives, determining strategy, and estimating costs.
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budget buildup
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CH8-8 In terms of bottom-up marketing, a _____ refers to a specific action for helping to accomplish a marketing strategy.
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Tactic
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CH8-9 A(n) _____ is a document that serves as a guide for the present and future marketing activities of an organization.
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marketing plan
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CH8-10 A(n) _____ refers to a short description of an organization’s purpose and philosophy.
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mission statement
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CH 9
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Connect HW
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CH 9-1 An important influence on the _____ element of the mix is how well a medium works with the style or mood of the particular message.
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Media
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CH 9-2 A(n) _____ is the total number of people or households exposed to a medium.
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Audience
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CH 9-3 _____, one of the elements of the media mix, refers to the various targets of a media plan: trade and consumer audiences; global, national, or regional audiences; ethnic and socioeconomic groups; or other stakeholders.
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Markets
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CH 9-4 The advertising response curve indicates that:
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incremental response to advertising actually diminishes with repeated exposures.
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CH 9-5 The _____ indicates the sales potential of a particular brand in a specific market area.
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brand development index
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CH 9-6 The _____ defines the market need and the company’s sales objectives and details strategies for attaining those objectives.
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Top-down marketing plan
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CH 9-7 The _____, or potential exposures, possible in a medium is arrived at by multiplying the medium’s total audience size by the number of times an advertising message is used during the period.
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gross impressions
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CH 9-8 In terms of media objectives, _____ define where, when, and how often advertising should appear.
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distribution objectives
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CH 9-9 _____ translate(s) the advertising strategy into goals that media can accomplish. They have two major components: audience objectives and message-distribution objectives.
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Media objectives
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CH 9-10 _____ refers to the duration of an advertising message or campaign over a given period of time.
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Continuity
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CH 13
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Connect HW
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CH 13-1 Which of the following is an advantage of magazine advertising?
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Permanence gives the reader time to appraise ads in detail.
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CH 13-2 Which of the following is true of weekly newspapers?
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They emphasize local news and advertising.
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CH 13-3 Which of the following is an example of an innovation in magazine advertising?
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Pop-up ads
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CH 13-4 On the basis of physical size, the two basic newspaper formats are:
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Standard size and tabloid.
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CH 13-5 On the basis of physical size, the two basic newspaper formats are:
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standard size and tabloid.
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CH 13-6 In terms of newspaper advertising rates, a(n) _____ means that no discounts are allowed.
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Flat rate
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CH 13-7 In newspaper advertising, _____ advertising includes copy, illustrations or photos, headlines, coupons, and other visual components.
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display
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CH 13-8 Which of the following is true of the Newspaper Association of America? -It controls the use of reading notices in national newspapers.
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It launched a one-order, one-bill system for national advertising.
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CH 13-9 The guaranteed circulation of a magazine refers to the:
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number of copies that the publisher expects to circulate.
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CH 13-10 Which of the following statements explains why some advertisers are reluctant to use magazines as an advertising medium?
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Magazines cannot deliver high frequency.
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CH 14
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Connect HW
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CH 14-1 Which of the following types of TV advertising did Ross Perot popularize?
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Program-length advertisement
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CH 14-2 Which of the following is true of infomercials?
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They combine the power of advertising, direct response, and sales promotion.
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CH 14-3 Which of the following is true about the use of television in IMC?
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Television’s high visibility forces the sponsor to create ads that consistently reinforce a brand’s strategic position.
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CH 14-4 In radio advertising, a(n) _____ guarantees a certain percentage of spots in the better dayparts if the advertiser buys a total package of time.
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total audience plan package
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CH 14-5 To promote its autumn sale, Polka Inc., an apparel store in Alabama, bought advertising time during a program known as Top 50 Hits that was broadcast at 9:00 P.M. (EST). In terms of dayparts, this time period is known as _____.
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prime time
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CH 14-6 Which of the following is true of national spot announcements?
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They run in clusters between programs.
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CH 14-7 The first step in preparing a radio schedule is to:
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Identify stations with the greatest concentration of the advertiser’s target audience by demographics.
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CH 14-8 Which of the following is true of radio programming?
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When buying radio time, advertisers usually buy the station’s format, not its programs.
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CH 14-9 A locally produced morning television show is viewed by 4,000 homes whereas 24,000 households have TV sets. What is the program rating of the show?
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16.7%
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CH 14-10 The advantage of cable TV as an advertising medium is:
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its ability to offer specialized programming
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Book Notes
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CH 7: Research is defined as:
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Systematic activities for reducing decision uncertainty Can serve developmental (getting to know you) or evaluative needs (is our advertising working?)
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CH 7: IMC Strategy Reasearch
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used to help define the product concept or to assist in the selection of target markets, advertising messages, or media vehicles
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CH 7: Brand Assest Valuator
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measures brands in terms of differentiation, relevance, esteem, and familiarity
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CH 7: Dominance Concept in Target Audience Selection
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researching which markets are most important to product sales and targeting those where it can focus its resources to achieve promotion dominance typically employed with a new product
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WSJ
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WSJ: In what country did home improvement positively impact their economy recently?
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Germany
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WSJ: Apple CEO Tim Cook says the new Apple Watch will work for how many hours?
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18, even though many investors preferred 24 hours
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WSJ: Hit song “Blurred Lines” by artists Robin Thicke and Pharrell Williams was ruled an infringement on copyright of “Gota Give it Up” by what artist?
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Marvin Gaye the settlement was $7.4 million
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CH 7: Name two techniques of Qualitative research according to the book:
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1. Projective Techniques: asking indirect questions 2. Intensive Techniques: focus groups & in-depth interviews
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CH 7: Name 3 basic methods of Quantitative Research
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1. Observation method: researchers monitor peoples’ actions 2. Experimental method: control group & test group 3. Surveys: in person, by mail, phone or internet
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CH 7: ______ effect is a challenge of pretesting in which consumers are likely to rate the one or two ads that make the best first impression as the highest in all categories.
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Halo effect
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CH 7: _____ is a type of pretest in which videptapes of test commercials are shown to respondents on a one-to-one basis, usually in shopping center locations.
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Central Location Test
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CH 8: IMC’s greatest power is in its ________, _______, and _______ effect.
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IMC’s greatest power is in its CUMULATIVE, LONG-RANGE, and REINFORCEMENT effect.
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CH 7: ______ is a pretest method in which commercials are grouped with noncompetitive control commercials and shown to prospective customers to measure their effectiveness in gaining attention, increasing brand awareness and comprehension, and causing attitude shifts
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Clutter Tests
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CH 8: All methods of developing an IMC budget rely on these two fallacies:
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1. IMC is the result of sales. 2. IMC creates sales.
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CH 8: Who is Samantha Avivi?
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Previous Global Marketing Director at Kimberly-Clark UF Advertising alumni daughter of advertising giant Stan Harris
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CH 7: _____ is a pretest method designed to elicit a full range of responses to the advertising. It is especially effective for testing alternative advertisments in the early stages of development.
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Direct Questioning
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CH 7: Name 4 types of posttesting tests.
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1. attitude tests 2. recall tests 3. inquiry tests 4. sales tests
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CH 7: Who was George Gallup?
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developed lifelong passion for understanding public opinion worked as head of research and marketing at Young & Rubicam Eventually started his own polling firm He was one of the first to measure the effects of TV commercials GALLUP POLLS
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CH 8: Name 3 possible methods a company uses to determine how much to spend on an IMC budget.
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1. percentage of sales 2. percentage of profit 3. unit of sale 4. competitive parity 5. share of market 6. objective/task methods
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CH 7: What are Gallup Polls?
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opininion polls used to make predictions about future events like the outcome of a presidential election
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CH 7: _____ ______ are in the same product category but are different brands. Example: Coke & Pepsi, both sodas.
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Direct Competitors
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CH 7: ______ _______ anything that is not in the same product category but that satifies the same problem. Example: Coke & Water, both satisfy thirst but are not sodas.
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Indirect Competitors
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Terms:
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DAGMAR
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Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising Results: a planning tool for setting communications objectives ~Russell Colley ~Awareness, Comprehension, Conviction and Action
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CH 13 Equation for CPM
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(Venical Cost/Gross impission) x 1000
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CH 13 Equation for CPRP
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venical cost/ program rating
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WSJ: Who made a takeover bid for Salix Pharmaceuticals
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Endo International
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WSJ: What crop have African Farmers began to put hope in?
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Beer making crops
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WSJ: What disease has infected farms in Arkansas and Missouri?
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Avian Flu (bird flu)
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WSJ: What drink has recently gained federal approval?
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Powered Alcohol
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WSJ: Nadege Vanhee-Cybulski is this firm’s first creative director in nearly 20 years who isn’t designing elsewhere on the side.
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Hermes International headquartered in France
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WSJ: _____, the largest mall owner in the U.S., launched a $16 billion unsolicited bid for one of its biggest rivals, Macerich Co. As it seeks to gain scale amid an oversupply of retail space and changing habits of U.S. shoppers.
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Simon Property Group Inc.
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WSJ:
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WSJ:
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Behind the ADs CH9 Ken Cervantes VP, Activation Director, Forty-Two Degrees at MediaVest
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Page 299
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Behind the ADs CH 13 Linda Johnson Rice, President and CEO, Johnson Publishing Company
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Page 428
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CH 7 Notes: Advertising Research
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Using information to make sensible decisions
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CH 7 Notes: Research is:
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Systematic activities for reducing decision uncertainty (the best friend of an art director and copywriter)
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CH 7 Notes: Road Warriors Fallon coined the term
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traveling business man low budget for hotels watches ESPN and the Weather Channel.
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CH 7 Notes: IHG (interContinental Hotels group)
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Crowne Plaza, Holiday Inn, Candlewood, Hotel Indigo, StayBridge,
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Behind the ADs CH 14 Joe Uva, CEO, Univision
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Page 459
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Class notes
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From lecture
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Advertising Research (ch7)
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Using information to make sensible decisions
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Consumer Test
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Examine several statements Write down
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Research is:
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Systematic activities for reducing decision uncertainty
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What Fallon Learned
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Independent businessmen (own boss pays their own bills) Planned and Financed own travel Planning usually on Sunday or Monday nights Reservations are for wimps! Drive hundreds of miles each week As many as 150 hotels stays a year
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Types of research
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Developmental Research Evaluative research
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Developmental Methods
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one on one interviews 1 topic is sensitive (personal care, health issues) 2 maybe the client is very important (small target) business leaders are busy
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Developmental & Evaluative
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testing some times its called A,B Testing does changing the subject line in an email change the response be different different online ads
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Evaluative Test
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Sales? did the sales increase? or something change like awareness grow?
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ICE Bucket Challenge
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ALS donations 2013 2 million in 2014 100 million
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Research in Action
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Using research to address client needs: Focus groups Consumer surveys (changed the tactic used)
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Developmental research:
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1st step: Secondary research Then: Some focus groups Findings Part 2 Which Media?
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Persuasion
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a symbolic process in which communicators try to convince other people to change their attitudes or behaviors regarding an issue through the transmission of a message in an atmosphere of free choice
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Attitudes?
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Is an evaluation of something for the first time
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How are attitudes formed?
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Through experience, observations, even genetics?
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Where do attitudes come from?
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In dealing with the world we form beliefs about things
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Fishbein & Ajzen’s Attitude Model
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For any individual, beliefs and evaluations are combined
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How to persuade?
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The fishbein and Ajzen model directs us to specific ways of persuading people Changing the strength of a belief Changing an evaluation Adding (or subtracting) a belief (make the table bigger)
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Persuading
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Change strength of a belief
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Carl Hovland at Yale
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Who says what by what means to whom
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Who – The Source
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Persuasive sources are… Experts (Nobel Prize winners) Trustworthy (sometimes expert lies | payoffs) Credible source = both Experts & Trustworthy Attractiveness? aids to persuasion Physically attractive Kate Upton, Tyra Banks Likable Coke polar bears Similar to us reminds us like ourselves
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Credibility
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for issues of fact
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Attractiveness
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for issues of taste
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Does it matter if one source repeats the message several times or several sources say it once?
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Advantage: Several sources
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What – The Message
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Would you allow a Hunger Relief Committee person visit your home? 18% How are you tonight? Would you allow a Hunger Relief Committee person visit your home? 35%
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One sided message Present argument only in favor of your position Two sided message Give argument against your position, then deflate it
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Which is better? One sided – if your audience is with you Two sided – your audience is against you
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Should you appeal to logic? Appeal to emotions?
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Depends upon the audience Logical arguments appeal to better educated, more knowledgeable audiences Emotions to less educated, less knowledgeable (political ads late in campaigns)
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Cognitive Response Theory
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Persuasion-memory problem leads to CRT. Solution: poor memory for an appeal occurs because people counterargue with messages If they succeed in counterarguing, no persuasion If they fail (or are prevented) from counterarguing, persuasion [the message is truly powerful] [distracted]
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Elaboration likelihood Model ELM
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Two routes to persuasion Central route: People pay careful attention to argument strength Peripheral Route: People are swayed by execution elements Music Celebrities
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Which Route?
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Determined by audience member characteristics Central Route if… Person has ability to process Person has motivation to process Stronger and long lasting Convinces people who already care Else Peripheral Route (not easy nor cheap) weak : does not last long, its not supported by anything how cleverly you craft the message
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Aperture
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when people are ready to listen to the message
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Media planning
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Developing a strategy for using media to achieve ad objectives
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Media Expenditures Today Advertising revenue market share by media – 2013($billions)
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Internet – $42.8 Broadcast TV* – $40.1 Cable TV** – $34.4 Newspaper – $18.0 Radio – $16.7 Magazine(consumer) – $13.4 Out of Home – $7.9 Video Game – $.9 Cinema $.8 Sources: IAB/PwC Internet Ad Revenue Report, 2013; PwC
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Media Buying
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is implementing that strategy
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Vehicle
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A specific instance of a medium: broad category (i.e., Time, ESPN.com, The Office)
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Impressions
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Exposure to a (print) Vehicle. the potential/opportunity to see an ad
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Gross Impressions
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Summed exposures to a series of vehicles. just adding over multiple buys G.I. is to compare your buy
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Ratings
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Percent of a group exposed to a vehicle *Ex: 20% of a group watch a showing of Rocky XXXV
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Reach
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A measure of spread What % of our audience saw the message at least once?
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Frequency
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A measure of impact * is the number of times you hear the message repeated Average number of exposures for those exposed at least once Average frequency method GRPs / Reach
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What is the relationship of reach and frequency?
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they are negatively related Frequency (Bombard same people) Reach (Spread message)
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Emphasize Frequency when
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New or unfamiliar product People require reminding (low involvement products)
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Effective Frequency
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It is not a statistic It represents a frequency objective That level of frequency which is assumed necessary to meet the advertiser’s communication objectives. (the lowest amount of Freq, is 3 times)
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Efficiency Statistics
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Used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of media Cost per thousand (CPM) M = 1,000 Cost per rating point (CPRP) (ex: Newsweek, Time, U.S
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Newspaper Strengths
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Relatively credible (even the ads) Reach Local market (most np are community based) Timely (Newness within the last 24hrs)
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CPM
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CPM = Vehicle Cost x 1000 Gross impressions Cost of ad in Time = $200 Impressions = 10,000 CPM = $200/10,000 x 1000 = $20.00
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CRPR
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CPRP = Vehicle Cost Program rating Ad cost = $1000, program rating 15 CPRP = $1000/15 = $66.67 You do not multiply by $1000
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Newspaper Weaknesses
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Selective Focus (not able to pinpoint a focus group for advertisers) Clutter: competing advertising messages (bigger the paper the more ads)
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Newspaper sizes
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Categorizing by physical size Standard or Broadsheet (larger) Gainesville Sun, NY Times Tabloid (smaller) National Enquirer NY Post
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Types of Newspaper Ads
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Display Ads all sizes, every page, 87 percent is local National advertisers charged 60% more Classified Inserts (Sundays) Designed by advertiser, Carried by paper (NP do not print them)
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Magazine Advantages
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Selectivity – Target niche audiences Beautiful ads (richer paper better color) Unmatched permanence National Geographic
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Magazine Advantages continued
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Prestige New Yorker, Fortune, Architectural Digest upscale magazines scrutinizes ads and will not publish just any ad for their viewership Secondary Readership
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Drawbacks of Magazines
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Editorial currency is poor Long ad lead times (up to 3 months) Your ad could become offensive within that time frame Local reach poor Poor Frequency (not useful) Clutter (in top 50 mags, over 50% of pages are ads) is there a limit of pages in a magazine? No they can just print more pages
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More Drawbacks of Magazines
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Circulation is down Especially in newsstands the more valuable magazine buyer is the one time buyer (new buyer) compared to a subscriber
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Magazine Users
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90% of the population reads magazines “occasionally” Secondary readership is high 4.64 readers
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Magazine Categories
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Content General or Consumer (Time, Cosmopolitan, Outdoors) (for entertainment, news, and match their lifestyle) Business (B2B)(largest category) (pollution equipment news) Farm (pork challenger)
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Prospects?
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Circulation Flat Costs increasing Paper Postage Competition from web
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Radio advantages
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Radio is inexpensive (low cost) Inexpensive to buy and to produce Buying the ad and producing the ad is low Radio is Selective better to get your target market
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More Radio Advantages
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Radio is local Radio has the best reach of any medium 99% of homes have radio Radio ads can be created very quickly Radio audience is bigger than TV! (at least between 5am and 5pm) Very flexible (anti-freeze)
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Radio Drawbacks
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No visual channel (biggest drawback!) Short ad Times (5sec – 30sec) hard for people to respond or capture info Clutter Weak nationally (broadcast) Zapping (change to a different channel)
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Radio Ads
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Network advertising (5%) spent on Ad is carried to all network members
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Sport radio (20%)
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National advertiser buys from station does not use a network
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Local Radio (75%)
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Local advertiser buys from station (this is how radio survives Local advertiser buys from station (this is how radio survives) Difference: Who is advertising
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How much did Sirius XM give Howard stern to move his station to Sirius XM
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half a billion dollars
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All night radio listeners maximizes which of the two Rating, Share or Both.
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They maximizes both Rating and Share
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Time | Name | Audience 6-10am | Morning drive | peak 10am – 3pm | Daytime | Large 3-7pm | Afternoon drive | Peak 7pm-12am | Night time | Small 12am – 6am | All night | Tiny
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Dr. Weigold radio career was between 3am-6am
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Rating (measures in 15min intervals)
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station’s percentage of all households
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Share (larger number)
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station’s percentage of all households using radio (HHUR)
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Sirius XM
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25.6 million subscribers Increasing about 1.3 million per year 70 million cars with Sirius XM * Needs high end talent for their radio programs
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HD radio
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Percent of people interested: <8% Percent w/ HD in car: 2%
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Television Strengths
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Powerful ads Captive audience Broadcast targets unsegmented audience Cable targets segmented audiences Still the glamour medium
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TV Threats?
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Delayed viewing options TIVO Hulu Network sites iTunes
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Television Weaknesses
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Expensive to produce ads Average ad cost: $300,000 for 30sec can be more expensive than movies Expensive to buy ads Clutter (16-18 minutes per hour of ads) Fleeting messages (15 – 30sec) Eroding audiences no one has figured out what to do next that is why they continue to pay more and more for tv ads Avoidance: zapping = recorded shows that you fast forward, zapping = go from channel to channel, surfing = watch only snippets
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How does broadcast work? Part 2
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The pilot is what the producer releases on to sell their show to a network downside is it costs to much Network buy shows that they think people will watch thus the can sell ads for the show
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How does broadcast work?
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Network • buys shows • sells ads • sends to affiliates Producer/Syndicator • Produce shows • pitch show Station A • Network Affiliate • Local ads make them money Station B • Independent Station • they buy their own shows/first run/old show
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Marketing Research
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The systematic gathering, recording, and analysis of information to help managers make marketing decisions
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The 3 R’s of Marketing Research
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1) Recruiting new customers 2) Retaining current customers 3) Regaining lost costumers
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IMC Research
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Uncovers the information needed in making IMC decisions; It is the systematic gathering and analysis of information to help develop message strategies, individual promotions, and whole campaigns
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The 4 Purposes of IMC Research
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1) Strategy research 2) Creative concept research 3) Pretesting 4) Posttesting
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(1) IMC Strategy Research
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Is used to help define: 1) Product concept = unique benefits to the consumer, that still encompasses their brand 2) The target audience = study their behavior, demographics 3) The communication media = use media research to select media, see that medias results 4) The creative message
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(2) Creative Concept Research
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Research is again helpful in determining which concepts will be best accepted by the targetted audience
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(3) Pretesting
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Testing the effectiveness of an advertisement for gaps or flaws in message content before recommending it to clients, often conducted through focus groups; helps determine decisions about the 5 M’s
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(4) Posttesting
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Testing the effectiveness of an advertisement after it has been run; also called tracking; provides guidelines for future advertising
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The 5 M’s of Pretesting:
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1) Merchandise 2) Markets 3) Motives (consumers) 4) Messages 5) Media
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Media Terms
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Media classes: print, electronic, out of home, etc Media subclasses: newspapers, magazines, tv, radio, etc Media vehicle: the particular publication or program Media units: the size or length of an ad (15 sec, 4 pages, etc)
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5 Steps of Marketing Research Process
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1) Situation analysis and problem definition 2) Informal (exploratory) research 3) Construction of research objectives 4) Primary research 5) Interpretation and reporting of findings
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(2) Informal Research
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Two types of research data: 1) Primary data = Research info gained directly from the market place 2) secondary data = info that has previously been collected or published (more often used)
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(4) Conducting Primary Research
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-When a company wants to collect its own data about a specific problem -Two types of primary research 1) qualitative 2) quantitative
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Methods of Qualitative Research
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Either (1) Projective or (2) Intensive techniques
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(1) Projective Techniques
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Used to unearth peoples underlying or subconscious feelings, attitudes, interest, opinions, needs, and motives; using in-direct questions
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(2) Intensive Techniques
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Typical methods include in-depth interviews & focus groups
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Methods of Quantitative Research
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(1) observation = researchers monitor consumer activities (2) experiment = to measure cause and effect relationships; use “test markets” (3) survey = common method of gathering primary research date
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Methods of Pretesting
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Companies pretest ads for likability and comprehension; they use both a variety of qualitative and quantitative techniques -Ex: Direct questioning -Pretesting helps distinguish from weak messages but there is no way to guarantee its success
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Methods of Posttesting
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More costly and time consuming than pretesting BUT it can test a campaign under actual market conditions; 5 most common post-testing techniques are 1. Aided recall = measure what respondents noticed, not whether they actually buy the product 2. Unaided recall = (Same as above) 3. Attitude test = effectiveness in creating a favorable image for a company, brand, or its product 4. Inquiry test = a form of test in which consumer responses to an ad for info or free samples 5. Sales test = suited for gauging the effectiveness of campaigns than of individual messages or promotions
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Issues with Quantitative Research
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Must consider whether the research is valid and reliable
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Is the test Valid?
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Meaning: Results must be free of bias and reflect the true statue of the market
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Is the test Reliable?
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Meaning: it must be repeatable – it must produce the same result each time it is administered
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Key elements of Validity & Reliability
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1) Sampling Methods 2) Data tabulation 3) Analysis methods
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(1) Sampling methods
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-the sample must reflect the universe (the entire population) -greatest accuracy is ‘random probability samples’ -but more accessible is ‘nonprobability samples’ -also question cant be asked with a bias
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(2) Data tabulation & (3) Analysis
answer

Collected data must be validated, edited, coded, and tabulated; must be checked to eliminate errors or inconsistencies
question

Which of the following is true of an IMC message? A. It is a combination of copy, art, and production elements. B. It is a nonverbal representation of a company’s sales-target objectives C. It is a representation of the types and levels of consumer involvement D. It is a verbal representation of a company’s communications objectives
answer

A. It is a combination of copy, art, and production elements.
question

___-___ ___ are marketing objectives that include goals related to increasing or maintaining sales volume and market share
answer

Sales-target objectives
question

The ___ ___ refers to the specific people that the IMC will reach
answer

Target audience
question

The Kim-Lord grid, which depicts the level of consumer involvement in a purchase, recognizes that ___ A. people can be cognitively and affectively involved at the same time B. Consumers feel rather than think when purchasing C. Consumers never have a high degree of personal involvement D. Different products do not require different kinds of advertising
answer

A. people can be cognitively and affectively involved at the same time
question

A company is planning its promotional budget. Its planners have been running tests in various markets with different budgets in order to determine the appropriate amount of advertising expenditure. In this scenario, the company is using the ___ ___ method for promotional budgeting.
answer

Empirical research
question

A consumer receives ___ ___ from the marketer in the form of a “bundle of values”
answer

Product concept
question

The ___ is a specific action for helping to accomplish a marketing strategy A. creative mix B. Attribute C. Marketing objective D. Tactic
answer

D. Tactic
question

A document that serves as a guide for the present and future marketing activities of an organization is referred to as a ___ ___
answer

Marketing Plan
question

The product, price, place, and promotion are elements of the? A. Target Market B. Marketing Mix C. Price Mix D. Target Mix
answer

B. Marketing Mix
question

___ is used to define and select a target market. A. Product development B. Product diversification C. Market penetration D. Market segmentation
answer

D. Market segmentation
question

The percentage of sales method is based on the fallacy that ___. A. IMC invalidates the sale B. IMC closes a sale C. IMC is a result of sales D. IMC reduces sales
answer

C. IMC is a result of sales
question

What are the first 3 steps in the objective/task method?
answer

1. Defining objectives 2. Determining strategy 3. Estimating cost
question

As an element of creative strategy, all the vehicles that might transmit a marketer’s message are referred to as the ___ ___.
answer

Communications media
question

According to the DAGMAR system, good objectives___ A. specify an audience B. Are time independent C. Avoid defining outcomes D. Define indefinite outcomes
answer

A. specify an audience
question

True or False: Successful organizations separate IMC plans from marketing
answer

False
question

Based on Professor Ernest Martin’s approaches to developing a position strategy define “product attribute”
answer

Stressing a particular product feature important to consumers
question

Based on Professor Ernest Martin’s approaches to developing a position strategy define “price/quality”
answer

Positioning on the basis of price or quality
question

Based on Professor Ernest Martin’s approaches to developing a position strategy define “use/application”
answer

Positioning on the basis of how a product is used
question

Based on Professor Ernest Martin’s approaches to developing a position strategy define “product class”
answer

Positioning against other products that offer the same class of benefits
question

Based on Professor Ernest Martin’s approaches to developing a position strategy define “product user”
answer

Positioning against the particular group that uses the product
question

Based on Professor Ernest Martin’s approaches to developing a position strategy define “product competitor”
answer

Positioning against competitors
question

Based on Professor Ernest Martin’s approaches to developing a position strategy define “cultural symbol”
answer

Positioning through the creation or use of an icon
question

The IMC pyramid ___ A. Shows that the traditional mass marketing monologue is inappropriate B. Assumes that people follow the do-feel-learn that model for high-involvement products C. Represents the do-feel-learn model of effects D. Reflects the traditional mass marketing monologue
answer

C. Represents the do-feel-learn model of effects
question

The first part of a good marketing plan is the ___ A. Marketing strategy B. Mission statement C. Situation analysis D. Marketing objective
answer

B. Mission statement
question

The task of determining the objectives for a marketing program was simplified considerably when Russell Colley introduced a system known as the ___ system
answer

DAGMAR
question

IMC is used as a(n) ___ A. Ploy to prevent repeated purchases of a product B. Investment in a product or brand C. Tactic to curb immediate sales of product D. Short-term capital investment
answer

B. Investment in a product or brand
question

What is the first step in Wang and Schultz’s IMC planning model?
answer

Segment the customers and prospects in the database
question

What is the second step in Wang and Schultz’s IMC planning model?
answer

Analyze information on customers
question

What is the third step in Wang and Schultz’s IMC planning model?
answer

Set objectives related to nurturing brand loyalty
question

What is the fourth step in Wang and Schultz’s IMC planning model?
answer

Identify brand contacts required to support consumers’ change of purchase behavior
question

What is the fifth step in Wang and Schultz’s IMC planning model?
answer

Set communications objectives and strategies
question

What is the sixth step in Wang and Schultz’s IMC planning model?
answer

Determine what communications tactics to use
question

The place that a brand occupies competitively in the minds of consumers is referred to as ___
answer

Positioning
question

The creative mix, whose elements are blended by the IMC strategy, consists of ___ A.product, place, price, and promotion B. target market, people, processes, communication, and convenience C. target market profiles, consumer, cost, communication, and convenience D. target audience, product concept, communications media, and advertising message
answer

D. target audience, product concept, communications media, and advertising message
question

All the facts are relevant for ___ are presented by the situation analysis in a marketing plan. A. planning a marketing strategy B. understanding an organization’s purpose and philosophy C understanding the growth history of competitors D. developing a mission statement
answer

A. planning a marketing strategy
question

What media is used to create awareness?
answer

Public relations activités supported by mass media advertising
question

What media is used to create comprehension?
answer

Direct mail brochures and special events
question

What media is used to create desire?
answer

Good reviews in magazines and beautiful brochure photography
question

What media is used to create action?
answer

Direct mail solicitation, sales promotion, and the attentive service of a retail salesperson
question

True or False: Although IMC affects sales, it is just one of many influences on consumers.
answer

True
question

When a company uses IMC in campaigns, the campaigns ___. A. prevent customers from making repeat purchases B. are irrelevant to the reputation of the company C. build consumer preference and promote goodwill D. are independent of the value of the company name and brand
answer

C. build consumer preference and promote goodwill
question

One of the big mistakes that a company can make in developing its marketing strategy is ___. A. having precise communication objectives B. not staking out any position in the market C. having realistic sales-target objectives D. not having mass marketing monologue
answer

B. not staking out any position in the market
question

True or False: Advertising people must avoid integrating marketing communications because consumers view advertising as IMC
answer

False
question

The communications media used to promote a product must also___ A. be identical to that of competing brands B. treat customers in different target markets similarly C. Create a special environment for the product D. appeal to customers across all target market segments
answer

C. Create a special environment for the product
question

A product’s location on the Kim-Lord grid indicates how__ A. expensive it is V. it is accessible C. It is purchased D. it is produced
answer

C. It is purchased
question

Using the outside-in process, the IMC approach to marketing and campaign planning ___. A. starts with a customer and works back to a brand B. separates marketing and communications planning C. dedicates all marketing functions to building market share D. focuses on reducing overheads instead of stakeholder loyalty
answer

A. starts with a customer and works back to a brand
question

How many steps are in Wang and Schultz’s IMC planning model process?
answer

Seven
question

A company can acknowledge that a sale is just the beginning of a valuable relationship between a marketer and a customer by ___. A. engaging in sales promotion for newer products B. soliciting feedback on that customer’s experience C. conducting special events to showcase a product D. printing good product reviews in enthusiast magazines
answer

B. soliciting feedback on that customer’s experience
question

The term “share of voice” refers to ___. A. the shares issued for sale to the public B. a company’s share of all promotional spending C. the shares owned by the board of directors D. a company’s overall market share
answer

B. a company’s share of all promotional spending
question

When a company finds a market position not held by a competitor, this hole in the market is most likely filled through ___. A. bottom-up marketing B. top-down marketing C. market penetration D. product differentiation
answer

D. product differentiation
question

By starting with the customer and then integrating all aspects of their marketing communications, companies hope to ___. A. mimic the traditional mass marketing monologue B. pursue the learn-feel-do models of effects C. accelerate the communications process D. coerce the consumer into making a purchase
answer

C. accelerate the communications process
question

Businesspeople like the percentage of sales method because it ___. A. takes into consideration the strategic nature of marketing B. does not cost anything, is related to revenue, and is safe C. encourages planners to think carefully about a proper budget D. follows the principle that macerating activities must stimulate demand
answer

B. does not cost anything, is related to revenue, and is safe
question

Advertising returns ___. A. build over time and remain stable thereafter B. continually increase over time C. increase, plateau, and then decline D. do not require consistent investment
answer

C. increase, plateau, and then decline
question

How many dimensions does Richard Vaughn’s FCB grid have?
answer

Two
question

A shortcoming of the percentage of sales method is that it ___. A. violates the principle that marketing activities should stimulate demand B. is unrelated to revenue, and it is quite risky C. treats marketing activities as a main driver of sales D. discourages planners from developing objectives to fit a budget
answer

A. violates the principle that marketing activities should stimulate demand
question

___ are outcomes that are associated with promotional activities, such as increase in brand awareness or increased comprehension of a brand’s attributes. A. production objectives B. sales objectives C. manufacturing objectives D. communication objectives
answer

D. communication objectives
question

Marketing objectives should be ___. A. unattainable B. tangible C. vague D. measurable
answer

D. measurable
question

The Kim-Lord grid, which depicts the level of consumer involvement in a purchase, recognizes that ___. A. consumers never have a high degree of personal involvement B. people can be cognitively and affectively involved at the same time C. consumers feel rather than think when purchasing D. different products do not require different kinds of advertising
answer

B. people can be cognitively and affectively involved at the same time
question

The place that a brand occupies competitively in the minds of consumers is referred to as ___.
answer

Positioning
question

What is the equation for the Category Development Index
answer

CDI = (Percent of the product category’s total U.S. sales in the area/Percent of total U.S. population in the area) (100)
question

How are gross rating points calculated for Broadcast Media?
answer

Gross rating points are often calculated for a week or a month
question

How are gross rating points calculated for Print Media?
answer

Gross rating points are calculated for the number of ads in a campaign
question

How are gross rating points calculated for Outdoor Advertising?
answer

Gross rating points are calculated on the bases of daily exposure
question

The sales potential of a particular brand in a specific market area is indicated by the ___ ___ ___.
answer

Brand Development Index
question

Order of components in a media strategy statement.
answer

1. A brief definition of target audiences. 2. An explanation of the nature of the message. 3. An outline of the specific reach, frequency, and continuity goals. 4. A budget for each medium including the cost of production. 5. A statement about the intended size of message units.
question

The steps for meeting marketing objectives by blending the four elements of the marketing mix are laid out by ___. A. audience objectives B. marketing strategies C. value-added packages D. gross rating points
answer

B. marketing strategies
question

To conceive, analyze, and creatively select channels of communication that will direct advertising messages to the right people in the right place at the right time is the purpose of ___ ___.
answer

Media planning
question

Based on repeated exposures to the medium or the program, the intensity of a media schedule is measured by ___. A. circulation B. frequency C. reach D. continuity
answer

B. frequency
question

The specific types of people the advertiser wants to reach is defined by ___ ___.
answer

Audience objectives
question

Larger media companies bundle the various stations, publications, or properties they own and offer them in integrated combos as further incentives in order to ___. A. get a share of the advertiser value-added program B. get a bigger share of the advertiser’s budget C. be a part of the advertiser’s contingency plan D. be part of the advertiser’s audience objectives
answer

B. get a bigger share of the advertiser’s budget
question

A(n) ___ is the total number of people or households exposed to a medium.
answer

Audience
question

Due to the advent of modern technology and the natural maturation of the marketplace, ___. A. major advertisers can ensure a audiences by advertising on TV B. below-the-line activities show the slowest growth in large agencies C. the television is now fragmented into multiple sections D. magazines now aim at the population as a whole
answer

C. the television is now fragmented into multiple sections
question

What is a continuous schedule?
answer

Advertising runs steadily and varies little over the campaign period.
question

What is a flighting schedule?
answer

Periods of advertising alternate with periods of no advertising.
question

What is pulsing schedule?
answer

This schedule mixes advertising that runs steadily and periods of advertising that alternate with periods of no advertising.
question

___ refers to the percentage of homes exposed to an advertising medium.
answer

Rating
question

Cannon and Riordan point out that conventional media planning is based on media vehicle exposure, but effectiveness should relate to ___. A. message continuity B. overexposure C. gross rating point systems D. advertising message exposure
answer

D. advertising message exposure
question

As the prominence of media departments rose in the late 1990s, agencies started ___. A. demanding more from clients in terms of accountability B. competing for media buying assignments separately from the creative business C. selling their services to clients in the form of package deals only D. focusing more on the rate of returns rather than efficiency
answer

B. competing for media buying assignments separately from the creative business
question

Media messages are delivered to the media audience that most closely resembles the desired target consumer using ___ ___.
answer

Media vehicles
question

How do you calculate gross rating points?
answer

GRP = Reach x Frequency
question

___ ___ is the local media that many consumers in a neighboring country inadvertently receive.
answer

Spillover media
question

The cost of reaching many target audiences is increasing for almost all media due to ___. A. a decrease in below-the-line activities B. the media restricting the number of ads they sell C. the integration of many media platform D. magazines publishing for the audience as a whole
answer

B. the media restricting the number of ads they sell
question

The ___ ___ ___ is the cost divided by the number of thousands of people in the audience.
answer

Cost per thousand
question

All communications vehicles available to a marketer make up the ___. A. mechanics B. market C. currencies D. media
answer

D. media
question

By adding the ratings of several media vehicles we can determine the message weight of a given advertising schedule that is expressed as ___ ___ ___.
answer

Gross rating points
question

___ refers to scheduling tactic flooding the airwaves with advertisements thereby making it virtually impossible to miss ads. A. burst B. blinking C. pulsing D. flighting
answer

B. blinking
question

A feature of continuity is that it ___. A. reduces gross rating points B. reduces circulation C. creates memory D. sustains memory
answer

D. sustains memory
question

In a media plan where, when, and how often advertising should appear is defined by ___ ___.
answer

Distribution objectives
question

What is the major responsibility of the media department?
answer

To ensure that advertising messages reach the correct target audience
question

What is the major responsibility of the creative department?
answer

To develop advertising messages
question

What is the major responsibility of the marketing managers and account executives?
answer

To establish the correct target audience for advertising messages
question

What is the major responsibility of the research department?
answer

To measure the effectiveness of advertising messages
question

A true statement about gross rating points is that ___. A. the more GRPs you buy, the more it costs B. they represent the number of times an advertisement is used C. they are the percentage of homes exposed to advertising mediums D. the unit cost per GRP increases as more GRPs are bought
answer

A. the more GRPs you buy, the more it costs
question

An agency’s strategic ability to understand the target market and the most optimal time and place to communicate with them is attested by the work of a ___. A. social media manager B. supplier C. logo designer D. media planner
answer

D. media planner
question

___ often employ communications vehicles outside traditional media planning, such as public relations activities, sales promotion, and direct marketing. A. sales communications B. employee compensation packages C. value-added packages D. internal communications
answer

C. value-added packages
question

A possible exposure of the advertising message to one audience member is called a(n) ___ ___.
answer

Advertising impression
question

Most consumer campaigns are supported by a ___ ___ directed to the trade because retailers may construe a change in media strategy as a loss of advertising support.
answer

Concurrent campaign
question

Studies of the advertising response curve indicate that with repeated exposures incremental response to advertising ___. A. plateaus, and then dips sharply B. diminishes, rather than builds C. rises sharply D. rises steadily
answer

B. diminishes, rather than builds
question

___ should be an advertiser”s medium of choice in order to reach whole urban populations where TV ownership is low. A. magazines B. movies C. listening D. internet radio
answer

B. movies
question

In the past, people who planned and bought media were ___. A. given the highest salaries for job positions at the entry level B. ignored since media decisions were made by software programs C. irrelevant to the success of the overall marketing plan D. anonymous in comparison to the stars in the creative department
answer

D. anonymous in comparison to the stars in the creative department
question

The total size of the audience for a set of ads or an entire campaign is called ___ ___.
answer

Message weight
question

The overall strategy of selecting and scheduling media vehicles to achieve the desired reach, message weight, frequency, and continuity objectives is referred to as ___ element. A. media B. mechanics C. money D. methodology
answer

D. methodology
question

True or False: A medium’s attention value and motivation value are impacted in the same way by a similar set of factors.
answer

False
question

In order to reach the upper class, auto manufacturers make use of __ advertising. A. internet radio B. radio C. internet D. TV
answer

D. TV
question

Media planners calculate the total gross impressions for a schedule by summing the ___. A. gross impressions for each medium used B. television households across different states C. readers per copy of different publications D. advertising impressions per audience member
answer

A. gross impressions for each medium used
question

___ refers to the number of unique people or households exposed to a medium during a given period of time. A. frequency B. circulation C. reach D. continuity
answer

C. reach
question

A factor that significantly affects a medium’s motivation value is the ___. A. quality of advertising reproduction B. placement of the ads in the vehicle C. media choice with ad space D. senses used to perceive messages from the mediums
answer

A. quality of advertising reproduction
question

How do you calculate average frequency?
answer

Average frequency = total exposures/audience reach
question

The average number of times a person must see or hear a message before it becomes effective is defined as ___. A. effective reach B. effective frequency C. continuity D. gross impression
answer

B. effective frequency
question

One of the factors that affects the probability of ad exposure is the ___. A. number of competitive advertisers B. quality of advertising reproduction C. price of the product D. placement of the ad in the media vehicle
answer

D. placement of the ad in the media vehicle
question

___ concerns the advertising message and copy, as well as the medium. A. attention value B. gross value C. exposure value D. circulation value
answer

A. attention value
question

Making comparisons between media plans for various markets is virtually impossible because ___. A. of the difference in media research methodology used across different markets B. the media plans for each market are based on similar data C. the circulation figures and audience demographics are constant for most markets D. most countries are limited to upper-income consumers only
answer

A. of the difference in media research methodology used across different markets
question

Based on Cannon and Riordan’s analysis of frequency as a media objective, the basic emphasis in advertising should switch from maximizing frequency to maximizing ___. A. second exposures B. target market reach C. circulation D. gross impressions
answer

B. target market reach
question

The term effective reach is used to describe the ___. A. intensity of a media schedule B. duration of an ad campaign over a given period of time C. quality of exposure to a medium D. percentage of homes exposed to an advertising medium
answer

C. quality of exposure to a medium
question

A continuous schedule is used for products that ___. A. consumers purchase regularly B. have a slim media budget C. are consumed more heavily during a certain period D. experience large fluctuations in demand
answer

A. consumers purchase regularly
question

Historically, media planning emphasized frequency as the most important media objective and assumed a(n) ___ advertising response curve. A. convex B. concave C. step-shaped D. s-shaped
answer

D. s-shaped
question

The number or percentage of the audience who receive enough exposure to truly receive the message is measured by ___. A. message weight B. continuity C. average frequency D. effective reach
answer

D. effective reach
question

The difference between the contracted rate and the earned rate for the actual inches run is called a(n ___ rate.
answer

Short
question

True or False: Cost per thousand (CPM) is very low in a national consumer magazine advertising.
answer

False
question

What does vertical publication deal with?
answer

Deals with all aspects of a specific industry
question

What does horizontal publication deal with?
answer

Deals with a variety of industries focusing on a particular job function
question

How is secondary readership estimated? A. it is estimated through market research B. it is estimated as 10 percent increase from last year’s primary readership C. it is estimated as a fixed percent yearly D. it is estimated as an approximation from the primary circulations
answer

A. it is estimated through market research
question

___ ___ is a thorough analysis, by companies such as ABC, of the circulation procedures, outlets of distribution, readers, and other factors affecting a magazine.
answer

Circulation audit
question

Identify a major value addition given by newspapers and magazines to their regular advertisers. A. Discounts in TV commercial spots B. Contacts of prominent celebrities and discounts on their services C. Free prime spots in the newspaper and magazines D. Research into brand preferences and market conditions
answer

D. Research into brand preferences and market conditions
question

The rate that an advertiser has to pay to ensure a choice position for an ad is known as the preferred ___ rate.
answer

Position
question

The circulation figure on which the publisher bases its magazine’s rates is called ___ ___.
answer

Rate base
question

True or False: Newspaper provides a clutter-free ad space for advertisers.
answer

False
question

What is the nature of a flat rate?
answer

Allows no discounts
question

What is the nature of an open rate?
answer

Highest rate for a one-time insertion
question

What is the nature of a contract rate?
answer

Obtained by signing a bulk space purchase contract
question

A discount applied retroactively as the volume of advertising increases through the year is called a(n) ___ rate. A. open B. short C. contract D. earned
answer

D. earned
question

A(n) ___ ___ is the person in charge of negotiating and contracting with the media.
answer

Media Buyer
question

Advertisers preprint newspaper advertisements because of the ___. A. low quality color printing of newspapers B. high expense newspaper advertising C. need to save money D. glossy papers used in newspapers
answer

A. low quality color printing of newspapers
question

Identify a key item listed in the newspaper rate card. A. rate of change of readers switching newspapers B. circulation of newspaper C. advertising rates D. demographic data of the newspaper readers
answer

C. advertising rates
question

What is the cover date?
answer

The date printed on the cover of a magazine.
question

What is the on-sale date?
answer

The date the magazine is actually issued.
question

What is the closing date?
answer

The date all ad material must be in the publisher’s hands.
question

A paid ___ business magazine refers to a magazine that is purchased by a subscriber.
answer

Circulation
question

An ad is said to ___ off the page when the dark or colored background of the ad extends to the edge of the page.
answer

Bleed
question

The advertisements that provide a community marketplace for goods, services, and opportunities of every type, from real estate and new-car sales to employment and business opportunities are called ___ ads.
answer

Classified
question

She Voice, a leading publication for women, notices that many of its subscribers, like libraries, circulate their magazines to others. This prompted She Voice to do a market research on how many people actually read a single issue of its publication. This extra audience is called ___. A. uninfluential readership B. primary readership C. pass-along readership D. newsstand readership
answer

C. pass-along readership
question

Moto Unit, a leading car manufacturer, has been having low sales in the past few months. To revive sales, it decides to place large magazine ad that cover almost 60 percent of a middle page and surround it with editorial matter. This usually placing of an ad is called a(n) ___. A. junior unit B. insert C. bleed D. custom magazine
answer

A. junior unit
question

The legal ads showing changes in business and personal relationships, public governmental reports, notices by private citizens and organizations, and financial reports, printed for a nominal fee are called ___ ___.
answer

Public notices
question

The magazine’s total circulation is made available to media buyers through ___. A. newspapers B. publishers C. verified reports D. other advertisers
answer

C. verified reports
question

How is print media reacting to the high influence of Internet in the society? A. print media is incorporating electronic media in its services B. print media is giving up paper as a medium altogether C. print media is trying to completely take over the online business platform D. print media is trying to make restrictions on how people use the Internet
answer

A. print media is incorporating electronic media in its services
question

The one-order, one-bill system for national advertising launched in 1994 by Newspaper Association of America is called the ___. A. newspaper licensing authority B. newspaper network advertising C. newspaper co-op network D. newspaper national network
answer

D. newspaper national network
question

Identify a true statement regarding a custom magazine advertisement. A. it is cheaper than a regular insert B. it will include advertisements of various products C. its pages swing out like a gate to present the advertisement D. it is purchased by the readers from the newsstands
answer

D. it is purchased by the readers from the newsstands
question

Readers who share traits, such as age and income level, are targeted by advertisers with the ___ editions of magazines. A. regional B. industrial C. demographic D. geographic
answer

C. demographic
question

In print media, display advertisements are commonly found in the ___. A. lifestyle page B. editorial page C. obituary page D. classified pages
answer

A. lifestyle page
question

The majority of magazine sales is delivered through ___. A. newsstand sales B. bookstore sales C. online purchases D. subscriptions
answer

D. subscriptions
question

Higher national rates in newspapers are attributed to the ___. A. higher quality paper used in national advertisements B. high investment costs it has to recover through national ads C. high demand for national advertisements D. added costs of servicing national advertisers
answer

D. added costs of servicing national advertisers
question

Identify an important feature of the newspaper rate card. A. the rate card mentions reasons that help the advertisers choose an apt newspaper B. the rates in the rate card are chosen by the government to ensure parity C. the rates in the rate card vary from newspaper to newspaper D. the rate card for a newspaper is similar across local and national advertisements
answer

C. the rates in the rate card vary from newspaper to newspaper
question

Combination rates are given to advertisers when ___. A. they advertise in two unrelated newspapers simultaneously B. they advertise in the morning and evening editions of the same newspaper C. similar kinds of advertisements appear in the same newspaper D. an old advertisement is repeated in the same newspaper
answer

B. they advertise in the morning and evening editions of the same newspaper
question

Identify an additional feature of Sunday newspapers. A. cheaper than usual editions B. fewer commercial advertisements C. increased volume of classified ads D. better quality of paper
answer

C. increased volume of classified ads
question

A newspaper gives the advertiser a ___ to check when it created ad copy and art. A. pasteup B. dub C. proof copy D. rough copy
answer

C. proof copy
question

JeanArt, a popular designer clothes label, wanted to advertise its latest spring collection to its audience. It chose to print a 30-page magazine, in high quality paper, to be supplied free of cost, along with popular lifestyle magazines. JeanArt’s chosen form of advertising is called a(n) ___. A. insert B. gatefold C. custom magazine D. junior unit
answer

A. insert
question

The preprinted insert advertisements in a newspaper are printed by the ___. A. newspaper B. government C. advertiser D. consumers
answer

C. advertiser
question

Cost per thousand (CPM) is computed by dividing the full-page rate of a magazine by the number of thousands of ___. A. vendors B. copies C. publishers D. subscribers
answer

D. subscribers
question

Independent shopping guides are also called ___. A. inserts B. tabloids C. pennysavers D. Sunday supplements
answer

C. pennysavers
question

True or False: Split run is a free service given by a newspaper to an advertiser
answer

False
question

Identify a main content of an insertion order. A. steps on the strategy followed by the advertisement B. size and desired position of the advertisement C. a statement of the relevance of the cast to the product advertised D. pasteup of the advertisement
answer

B. size and desired position of the advertisement
question

Identify the role of media-buying software in print media. A. it helps the creative design a strategically relevant commercial B. it helps a team bring down the number of advertisements C. it helps media buyers keep track of orders D. it helps an advertiser choose the most efficient forms of media
answer

C. it helps media buyers keep track of orders
question

Today, the ___ handles most of the trashiest for national advertisers. A. advertiser and its board of directors B. agency and its creatives C. audit bureau of circulation D. advertising Checking Bureau
answer

D. advertising Checking Bureau
question

Newsstand sales for magazines are impressive from an advertiser’s point of view because they indicate ___. A. that the magazine is really wanted by the purchaser B. the buyer’s habitual nature of buying the magazine C> that the magazine has a high rating D. that the magazine has credibility and is talked about in the society
answer

A. that the magazine is really wanted by the purchaser
question

After an insertion order is given to the publication, if an advertiser fails to pay, ___. A. the advertiser’s assets are attached to the publisher B. the agency is held liable C. the government decides the person liable D. the publication has to bear the loss
answer

B. the agency is held liable
question

What is the advantage of using media-buying software? A. it improves the media buyers’ control over placement of ads B. it improves the sales of the advertised product C. it improves the credibility of the product D. it improves the creativity of the commercials
answer

A. it improves the media buyers’ control over placement of ads
question

Identify an important function of an electronic media buying software. A. it can design many layouts for the commercial using its advanced technological measures B. it creates strategies for the company’s growth C. it draws a budget for the agency based on the needs of the advertisement D. it evaluate market-by-market performance of media schedules
answer

D. it evaluate market-by-market performance of media schedules
question

The distribution of the television audience into demographic categories is called ___ ___.
answer

Audience composition
question

Identify why FM band is more popular than AM. A. FM band has better sound fidelity B. FM band is more user friendly C. FM band is cheaper D. FM band has more advertising slots
answer

A. FM band has better sound fidelity
question

The signed and notarized document returned to the advertiser or agency, after the spots run, specifying when the spots aired and what make goods are available is called ___ ___ ___.
answer

Affidavit of performance
question

True or False: When buying radio time, advertisers usually buy the programs and not the station’s format.
answer

False
question

Geographic areas (cities, countries) in which the local TV stations attract the most viewing are termed as ___ ___ ___ by the Nielsen station index.
answer

Designated market areas
question

The most authoritative source of advertising is ___. A. TV B. newspapers C. the Internet D. magazines
answer

A. TV
question

Heaviest radio use occurs when many users are ___. A. working during the day B. commuting to or from work or school C. having breakfast or dinner at home D. jogging or exercising in the morning
answer

B. commuting to or from work or school
question

The program audience of TV and radio stations for advertisers and broadcasters are measured by companies called ___ ___.
answer

Rating services
question

A ___ rate is lower because the advertiser agrees to be “bumped” if another advertiser pays the highest regular rate
answer

Preemption
question

Identify why radio is considered as an active medium/ A. radio ads are more creative and appealing than TV ads B. radio has infomercials that encourage people to purchase product C. radio has product demonstrations that take people to the action feel in the creative pyramid D. radio enables people to call in, make requests, and participate in contests
answer

D. radio enables people to call in, make requests, and participate in contests
question

Marketing Plan (MP)
answer

Serves as a guide for marketing activities of an organization
question

What a Marketing Plan Does
answer

1. States the organizations mission 2. Assess a brand’s current marketing situation and identify helping or hindering factors 3. Set clear marketing objectives 4. Describe strategies that will be used to achieve objectives 5. Describe tactics or actions for implementing the market strategy 6. Explain how the effectiveness of the marketing efforts will be evaluated 7. Propose a budget for marketing activities
question

(MP 1) Mission Statement
answer

= Short description of the organizations purpose and philosopy
question

(MP 2) Situation Analysis
answer

= A detailed description of the brand’s current marketing situation; -use ‘SWOT analysis’ that contains the strengths and weaknesses and opportunities and threats
question

(MP 3) Marketing objectives
answer

= Clear, realistic marketing goals that are to be accomplished; may focus on solving a problem or seizing an opportunity -Two broad categories of objectives: 1) Sales Target objectives 2) Communication objectives
question

(3.A) Sales Target Objectives
answer

[Type of marketing objective] =include goals related to increasing or maintaining sales volume and market share
question

(3.B) Communication Objectives
answer

[Type of marketing objective] =are outcomes that can be associated with promotional activities, such as brand awareness, more positive attitudes about a brand, etc
question

(MP 4) Marketing strategy
answer

= describes how the company plans to meet its marketing objectives; Involves 3 steps: 1) Selecting the target market 2) Positioning the product strategically 3) Determining the market mix
question

Step 1: Selecting the Target Market
answer

= the first step in strategy development is to define and select the target market, using the processes of market segmentation and research (discussed in chapter 7)
question

Step 2: Positioning the Product
answer

Refers to the place a brand occupies competitively in the minds of consumers; setting it apart of competitors either by price, attributes, cultural symbol, etc
question

Step 3: Determining the Marketing Mix
answer

= Determining the a cost-effective marketing mix for each target market the company pursues (the mix blends the marketing elements the company controls: product, price, distribution, and communications)
question

(MP 5) Marketing Tactics
answer

= Determine the specific shot term actions to be taken, by whom and when
question

Bottom – Up Marketing
answer

The opposite of standard, top down marketing planning, bottom up marketing focuses on one specific tactic and develops it into an overall strategy
question

(MP 6) Effectiveness of Marketing
answer

Determine how to measure the effectiveness of marketing
question

(MP 7) Set a budget plan
answer

Set a budget for the marketing activities
question

Marketing plan vs IMC plan
answer

=The written doc that directs the company’s advertising effort; -a natural outgrowth of the marketing plan, it (1) analyzes the situation (2) set advertising objectives (3) lays out a specific strategy from which ads and campaigns are created “Marketing sells, IMC tells”
question

(IMC 1) Analyzes Situation
answer

Reviews the marketing plan, briefly summarize the situation analysis and SWOT analysis
question

(IMC 2) Setting Objectives
answer

Declares what the marketer wants to achieve with respect to consumer awareness, attitude, and preference; focuses on communication goals Should be specific, realistic, and measurable; use IMC Pyramid to help set objectives
question

IMC Pyramid
answer

= a guide to setting communication objectives First create awareness, comprehension, conviction, desire, and finally action
question

(IMC 3) IMC (Advertising) Strategy
answer

Blends the elements of the creative mix: 1. target audience 2. product concept 3. communications media 4. advertising messages
question

(IMC 3.A) Target Audience
answer

The specific people the IMC will reach; (usually larger than the target market); who the ‘end user is’ who makes the purchase
question

(IMC 3.B) Product concept
answer

= how IMC will present the product; the “bundle of values” the marketer presents to the consumer
question

(IMC 4.C) The Communications Media
answer

= are all the vehicles that might transmit the marketers message
question

(IMC 4.D) IMC (Advertising) Messages
answer

= what the company plans to say and how it plans to say it both verbally and nonverbally
question

Different IMC Budget Plans
answer

1. Percentage of sales method 2. percentage of profit 3. unit of sale 4. competitive parity 5. share of market 6. Objective/task methods
question

1. Percentage of Sales method
answer

is one of the most popular; it may be based on a percentage of last years sales, anticipated sales for next year, or a combination of the two
question

5. Share of market/ share of voice method
answer

is an attempt to link promotional dollars with sales objectives; determines the firms goals for a certain share and then applying a slightly higher percentage of industry advertising dollars to the firms budget
question

6. Objective/task methods
answer

aka “budget buildup method” that defines objectives and how advertising is to be used to accomplish them; it has three steps, 1. defining objectives 2. determining strategy 3. and estimating the cost
question

Note on budgeting and IMC:
answer

the principal job of IMC is to influence consumers by informing, persuading, and reminding. IMC affects sales, but it is just one of many influences on consumers. Brand managers must keep this in mind when preparing their plans and budgets.
question

What is Media planning
answer

is the process of conceiving, analyzing, and creatively selecting channels of communication that will direct advertising messages to the right people in the right place at the right time
question

Downside to being a media planner
answer

Among the lowest paid jobs in the business, although their assignment is just as critical as the creative directors
question

The effect/challenges of new technologies being invented:
answer

-Many more media are available to be chosen -It has become much more difficult to reach a big audience with all the new options out there -The cost of reaching target audiences is increasing -The process of selling and buying media has become more complex – The competitive environment is growing fiercely
question

Marketing Mix
answer

Marketing strategies blend these four elements together to form a marketing strategy: 1) Price 2) Product 3) Distribution 4) Communication
question

Creative Mix
answer

Advertising strategies blend these four elements together to form an advertising strategy: 1) Target audience 2) Product concept 3) Advertising messages 4) Communication media
question

Media Planning Steps
answer

1. Analyzing the situation (reviewing the marketing and advertising objectives and strategies) 2. Setting objectives achievable by the media 3. Devising a strategy for achieving these objectives 4. Developing specific tactical details of media scheduling and selection
question

Step 2: Setting Objectives
answer

= Media objectives translate the advertising strategy into goals that media can accomplish Media objectives have two major components: 1. audience objectives 2. message – distribution objectives
question

(2.A) Audience objectives
answer

= the specific types of people the advertiser wants to reach through media vechicles; aka target audience -the target audience is not necessarily the same as the products target market, usually it is larger
question

Media vechicles
answer

= particular programs or publications (ex a specific magazine or show)
question

(2.B) Message distribution objectives
answer

define where, when, and how often advertising should appear; -To determine these, a media planner must understand a set of terms: 1. Message weight 2. Reach 3. Frequency 4. Continuity
question

Notes about audience size
answer

Marketers want the the media opportunities that offer the largest audience;
question

1. Message weight
answer

= the total size of the audience for a set of ads or an entire campaign; -media planners often define media objectives by the schedule’s message weight because it gives indication of the scope of the entire campaign -Two ways to express message weight: 1. gross impressions 2. gross rating points
question

(1.A) Gross impressions
answer

= [MULTIPLY] Mediums total audience size [BY] the number of times an advertising message is used during the period -type of message weight
question

(1.B) Gross rating points
answer

= [ADDING] the ratings of several media vehicles –type of message weight Rating: is the percentage of homes exposed to an advertising medium
question

2. Reach
answer

= is the total number of people or households, that have the OPPORTUNITY to possibly see the ad or commercial; meaning they used a medium at least once during the given period of time (usually four weeks) -EX: if 40% of 100,000 people in a target market tune in to the radio station WKKO at least once during the time period the reach is 40,000 people
question

3. Frequency
answer

= measure the INTENSITY of a media schedule -the number of times the same person or house hold is exposed to a message in a specific time -calculated as the average number of times their exposed Avg Frequency = Total exposures [DIVIDED BY] Audience reach
question

4. Continuity
answer

= the duration of an advertising message or campaign over a given period of time -While frequency if important to create memory, continuity is important to sustain it
question

Effective Reach
answer

Numbers don’t take into account the quality of the exposure so.. =Effective reach refers to measure of the audience that received enough exposures to the message to truly be received
question

Effective Frequency
answer

=the average number of times a person must see or hear a message before it becomes effective -Advertising response curve: By Cannon and Riordan, indicates that incremental response to adverting actually diminishes (rather than builds with repeated exposures)
question

Step 3: Media Strategy
answer

= Describes how the advertiser will achieve the stated media objectives -Factors that go into developing a strategy, “The Five M’s” 1. Market – audiences 2. Money – budget 3. Media – all communication vehicles 4. Mechanics – dealing creatively with the available advertising media options 5. Methodology – overall strategy of selecting and scheduling media (to achieve desired reach, frequency, and continuity objectives)
question

External factors that influence media strategy
answer

1. Scope of the media plan 2. Sales potential of different markets 3. Competitive strategies & budget considerations 4. Availability of different media vehicles 5. Nature of the medium 6. Mood of the message 7. Message size & length 8. Buyer purchase patterns
question

1. Scope of the media plan
answer

The location and makeup of the target audience strongly influence the breadth of the media plan
question

2. Sales Potential of different markets
answer

Use this factor to determine where to allocate their advertising dollars; planner can determine an area’s sale potential by either: 1. Brand development index (BDI) 2. Category development index (CDI)
question

(2.A) Brand development index (BDI)
answer

indicates the sales potential of a particular brand in a specific market area BDI = (% of the brands total US sales in that area / % of total US population in the area) X 100 -To be successful you want the BDI to be, or over, 100
question

(2.B) Category development index (CDI)
answer

determines the potential of the whole product category CDI = (% of the products category’s total US sales in the area / % of total US population in the area) X 100 -To be successful you want the CDI to be, or over, 100
question

3. Competitive strategies
answer

-Must be aware of what competitors are doing
question

4. Availability of different media vehicles
answer

-lower income markets (around the world) use radio as the medium of choice
question

5. Nature of the medium and message & 6. Mood of the message
answer

-its important how well a medium works with the style or mood of the particular message -complex messages require more space or time for explanation; along with more frequency to be understood by the audience
question

7. Message size & length
answer

-color and larger units of space or time make a huge difference in terms of reach and frequency
question

8. Buyer purchase patterns
answer

-planner must consider how, when, and where the product is typically purchased and repurchased
question

Step 4: Media Tactics
answer

=the specific tactics to make the strategies happen -here the media planner will select and schedule particular media vehicles Several factors to consider: 1. Overall campaign objectives and strategy 2. Size and characteristics of each medium’s audience 3. Attention, exposure, and motivational value of each medium 4. Cost efficiency
question

1. Overall campaign objectives and strategy
answer

-Have the medium match the product or service being advertised
question

2. Size and characteristics of each medium’s audience
answer

-The planner needs to know how closely the medium’s audience matches the profile of the target market and how interested prospective customers are in the publication or program
question

3. Attention, exposure, and motivational value of each medium
answer

Exposure Value= The value of a medium determined by how well it exposes an ad to the audience -aka how many people an ad “sees” rather than the other way around -relates only to the medium Attention value = selecting media based on the degree of attention paid to ads -relates to the medium and and the advertising message Motivation Value: selecting media based on the medium’s ability to motivate people to act
question

4. Cost efficiency
answer

=the cost of exposing the message to the target audience rather than to the total circulation
question

Mixed media approach
answer

-Using a combination of media -More beneficial Helps produce synergy (= the total effect is greater than the sum of its parts)
question

Terms for scheduling media
answer

1. continuous schedule = advertising runs steadily and caries little over the campaign period 2. flighting = alternates periods of advertising with periods of no advertising 3. Pulsing = mixes continuous and flighting strategies 4. Bursting = running the same commercial every half hour on the same network during prime time 5. Roadblocking = buying air time on all three networks simultaneously 6. Blinking = floods the airwaves for one day on both cable and network channels to make it virtually impossible to miss the ads
question

Media buyer
answer

=The person in charge of negotiating and contracting with the media -This is where the big money in advertising is spent, on the actual placement of ads in the media
question

Types of print media discussed in this chapter
answer

1. Magazines 2. Newspapers
question

Pros of Magazine Advertising
answer

-Read at consumers ease -Easy to reach target audience because magazines are specialized -colorful, viberant
question

Cons of Magazine advertising
answer

-expensive -difficult to build up reach and frequency since they only come out monthly (usually)d
question

Creative Possibilities with Magazines
answer

1. bleed – colors, type, or visuals that run all the way to the edge of the page 2. cover position – front, back of both sides of the cover 3. junior unit – large ad placed in the middle 4. insert – printed on stock paper and put in the magazine 5. gatefold – insert that is so wide it has to be folded to match the other pages
question

How magazines are categorized
answer

1. by content 2. geography 3. size
question

1. By content
answer

3 of the broadest magazine categories: 1. consumer 2. farm publications 3, business
question

(1.A) Consumer Magazines
answer

purchased for entertainment, info, or to buy products for own personal consumptions
question

(1.B) Farm publications
answer

directed to farmers and their families, or to companies that manufacture farm equipment
question

(1.C) Business Magazines
answer

the largest category, that targets business readers
question

2. Geography
answer

Can be classified as local, regional, or national
question

3. Size
answer

magazine sizes can vary
question

Steps in analyzing a publication’s potental
answer

step 1: assessing its audience step 2: understanding the magazines rate-card information
question

Step 1: Assessing the Audience
answer

To do this, the buyer studies 1. circulation statistics 2. primary and secondary readership 3. subscription and vendor sales 4. any special merchandising services the magazine offers
question

(1.A) Circulation statistics
answer

Rate base = is the circulation on which the publisher bases its rates Guaranteed circulation = is the number of copies the publisher expects to circulate & if it doesn’t reach the guaranteed amount, the publisher will refund Circulation audit = thorough analysis of the circulation by publishers, so they don’t ever over estimate their circulation
question

(1.B) Primary and Secondary readership
answer

Primary circulation = represents the number of people who buy the publication personally Secondary readership = is an estimate of how many people read the publication in addition to the primary consumers
question

(1.C) Subscription and vendor sells
answer

Buyers want to know the ratio between subscriptions to newsstands sales -subscriptions account for the majority of sales
question

Step 2: Reading Rate Cards of magazines
answer

They help advertisers determine cost, mechanical requirements, closing dates, special editions -they all follow a standard format
question

Rates
answer

-Are a way to compare magazines, by determining how much it costs to reach a 1000 people based on the magazines rate for an ad -use the Cost Per Thousand formula: CPM = Page rate / (circulation / 1000)
question

Discounted rates offered by publishers
answer

1. frequency discounts = based on the number of ad insertions within a year 2. volume discounts = based on the total amount of space bought during a specific peroid
question

Newspapers as a Medium
answer

-newspapers are now the 3 largest medium in terms of advertising volume
question

Pros of Newspaper advertising
answer

-print ads in general are more unique -reasonable cost -broad range of markets
question

Cons of newspaper advertising
answer

-poor production quality -cluttered -lack of of selectivity
question

How newspapers are categoriezed
answer

either by 1. frequency of delivery 2. physical size 3. type of audience
question

1. Frequency of Delivery
answer

daily vs weekly newspapers
question

2. Physical size
answer

two basic newspaper formats: 1. standard size 2. tabloid – smaller -in 1984 the Standard Advertising Unit was put in place, that standardized the newspaper column width, page size, and ad sizes
question

Types of Newspaper Advertising
answer

1. Display 2. Classified 3. Public notices 4. Pre-printed inserts
question

1. Display advertising
answer

=includes copy, illustrations or photos, headlines, coupons, etc
question

2. Classified advertising
answer

provides a community market place for goods, services, and opportunities of every type
question

3. Public notices
answer

tell of changes in business, governmental reports, and
question

4. Preprinted inserts
answer

like magazines, newspapers can have inserted ads as weel
question

Rates of Newspapers
answer

1. national vs local rates -national ads in newspapers are about 75 percent more expensive
question

Mediums of Television
answer

1. Broadcast TV – uses electromagnetic waves through the air to reach audience 2. Cable TV – uses wires to reach audience
question

1. Broadcast tv as a medium
answer

-grew faster than any other advertising medium in history -first to offer sight, sound, and motion -still attracts the largest volume of national advertising
question

2. Cable TV as a medium
answer

-followed after broadcast tv, and grew quickly stealing broadcasts dominance
question

TV Audience trends
answer

-No other medium today was the unique creative abilities as tv to reach a mass audience -most authoritative advertising source -rated most popular source of medium -tv viewing hours is increasing -cable advertising revenues have grown steadily
question

Use of TV in IMC
answer

TV is now affordable for even small advertisers, making it a great option for an IMC program
question

Network Advertising
answer

= any of the national tv or radio broadcasting chains or companies such as ABC, CBS, NBC, or fox; -Networks offer the large advertiser convenience and efficiency because the message can be broadcast simultaneously throughout the country
question

Types of Network Advertising
answer

1. sponsorship 2. participation basis 3. spot annoucement
question

1. Sponsorship
answer

=the presentation of a radio or tv program, event, or website by a sole advertiser -very expensive -but can offer good advantages to the sponsoring compant
question

2. Participation basis
answer

= the basis on which most network tv advertising is sold on -advertisers buy 30-60 second segments within the program -allows the advertiser to spread out the budget -allows the advertiser to be in the program without a long term commitment
question

3. Spot announcement
answer

= an individual commercial message that runs between program but has no relationship to either -spots can be sold nationally or locally -must be purchased through individual stations directly -less expensive; the route most advertiser choose
question

Syndication
answer

= is the sale of programs directly from the producer to the stations, instead of going through the networks -has become largest source of programming in the US
question

Pros to syndication
answer

-gives local tv station more programming control and greater profits -allows advertisers to affiliate with popular programs, gaining back much of the audience they used to reach through the networks -powerful tool for building reach;
question

3 Forms of TV syndication
answer

1. off network syndication 2. first run syndication 3. barter syndication
question

1. Off network syndication
answer

=former popular network programs (reruns) are sold to individual stations for rebroadcast
question

2. First run syndication
answer

=original shows that are produced specifically for the syndication market
question

3. Barter syndication
answer

=first run programs offered at a reduced rate, but with some of the ad space pre-sold to national advertisers -aka advertiser supported syndication -fast growing trend in tv
question

Program length advertisement (PLA)
answer

=a long tv commercial that gives consumers detailed info about a product or service; may run for as long as an hour -aka infomercial
question

Rating Services
answer

= companies that measure the program audiences of tv and radio stations for advertisers and broadcaster
question

Prime time
answer

= highest viewing ratings -during 7-10pm CST / 8-11pmEST
question

Day part mix
answer

=A media scheduling strategy based on the tv usage levels reported by the rating services -media planners determine a daypart mix to reach the greatest percentage of the target audience
question

Program Rating
answer

= refers to the tv households in an area that are tuned in to a specific program -Rating = TVHH tuned in to program / Total TTHH in area
question

Gross rating points
answer

In tv, GRPS are the total rating points that a particular media schedule achieves over a specific period GRPs = Reach (avg rating) X Frequency
question

The Process of Buying TV
answer

Step 1. Determine which programs are available at what cost Step 2. analyze the various programs for efficiency Step 3. negotiate price with station reps Step 4. determine what reach and frequency they are achieving Step 5. Sign broadcast contracts Step 6. review affidavits of performance to be sure the commercials ran as agreed
question

Step 1. Requesting Avails
answer

-the media buyer contacts a rep, and asks the rep to supply a list of ‘avails’ (available time slots) along with prices and rating
question

Step 2. Selecting programs to buy
answer

-media buyer selects the most efficient programs in relation to the target audience using ‘cost per rating point’ and the ‘cost per thousand’ for each program
question

(2.A) Cost per rating point (CPP)
answer

CPP = Cost / Rating
question

(2.B) Cost per thousand (CPM)
answer

CPM = cost / (people / 1000)
question

Step 3. Negotiating prices and contracts
answer

-preemption rate = is lower because the advertisers agree to be “bumped” (preempted) if another advertiser pays the higher, nonpreemption rate
question

Step 4-6. Finishing the Process
answer

with today’s electronic media buying software, the rest of the process can all be done online
question

Medium of Radio
answer

= is a personal, one on one medium; and mobile -ideal for IMC because the radio is involves people, and in doing so forms a relationship
question

Programming format
answer

= the genre of music of other programming style that characterizes and differentiates radio stations from each other -Important because when advertisers buy radio time they usually buy the stations format, not its programs
question

Notes about Radio Advertisers
answer

-way cheaper than tv ads -yet it only makes up 4% of all ad spending -has a lot of room to grow
question

Types of Radio advertising
answer

1. network 2. spot radio 3. local radio time
question

1. Network
answer

advertisers may use one the national radio networks to carry their messages to the entire national market
question

2. Spot radio
answer

National advertisers purchase of airtime on individual stations -buying spot radio allows advertisers great flexibility in their choice of markets, stations, airtime, and copy
question

3. Local radio
answer

denotes radio spots purchased by a local advertiser or agency
question

Drive times
answer

heaviest radio use -6-10am & 3-7pm
question

Package offers for advertisers
answer

1. Run-of-station – cheapest, but leaves total control of spot placement up to the station 2. Total audience plan – package rate, guarantees a certain percentage of spots doing high ratings
question

Steps in Research Process
answer

– Situation Analysis -Informal search (internal/external) -Construction of research objectives -Primary research (qualitative/quantitative) -Interpretation and reporting of findings
question

Marketing Information System (MIS)
answer

Set of procedures for generating an orderly flow of pertinent information for use in making marketing decisions -Ensure managers get information they need when they need it
question

Informal Research
answer

Explore a problem by reviewing secondary data and interviewing few key people with the most information to share -learn about market, competition, business environment, and better define the problem.
question

Primary Data
answer

Research information gained directly from the market place. Its expensive to obtain.
question

Secondary Data
answer

Information that has previously been collected or published. It is readily available and inexpensive.
question

Assembling Internal Secondary Data
answer

Company records, product shipment figures, billings, warranty card records, advertising expenditures, sales expenses, customer correspondence, records of meetings with sales staff
question

Assembling Internal Secondary Data helps researchers analyze:
answer

Sales data, review past tracking studies, examine previous marketing research data.
question

External Secondary Data
answer

Much available information at little to no cost from the government, market research companies, trade publications, computerized databases.
question

Quantitative Research
answer

Gain reliable, hard statistics about specific market conditions or situations -observation -experiment -survey
question

Observation
answer

Method of research used when researchers monitor people’s actions
question

Universal Product Code
answer

Identifying series of vertical bars with 12- digit number that atoms every consumer packaged good (observation)
question

Experiment
answer

Measure cause and effect relationship. Scientific investigation– a researcher alters the stimulus received by a test group or groups and compares the results with those of a control group that did not receive the altered stimuli
question

Test market
answer

Isolated geographic area used to introduce and test the effectiveness of a product, ad campaign, prior to a national rollout (experiment)
question

Survey
answer

Basic method of quantitative research to get people’s opinions by mail, telephone and internet.
question

Posttesting Method
answer

Test campaign under actual market conditions. Marketers use both qualitative and qualitative methods
question

5 Categories of Posttesting
answer

1) Aided Recall 2) Unaided Recall 3) Attitude Tests 4) Inquiry Tests 5) Sales Tests
question

Attitude Tests
answer

Measure a campaigns effectiveness in creating a favorable image for a company, its brand, or products.
question

Recall Tests
answer

Determine extent to which an advertisement and its message have been noticed, read or watched.
question

George Gallup
answer

Advanced understanding of power properly conducted surveys. Has a doctorate in Psychology and taught journalism at Drake Northwestern and Columbia. Passion for understanding public opinion. Worked at Young & Rubicam (NY) as head of research and marketing. Left Y&R to run his own polling firm where we accurately forecasted results of 1936 presidential election.
question

Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)
answer

Learning can happen through a thoughtful way (cognition) or simple way (conditioning). Two routes: Central Peripheral
question

Central
answer

High involvement with message Attention- focus on central product related information Comprehension- deep though about product’s attributes Persuasion- product belief, brand attitude, purchase intention
question

Peripheral
answer

Lower involvement with product message Attention- focus on non product information Comprehension- shallow thoughts about non product Persuasion- non product belief, attitude, purchase intention
question

Mission Statement
answer

Short description of the organizations purpose.
question

Situation Analysis
answer

Second part of marketing plan. Detailed description of brand’s current marketing situation.
question

SWOT
answer

Strength Weakness Opportunity Threats
question

Marketing Objectives
answer

Third parking in marketing plan. Goals of marketing effort that may be expressed in terms of the needs of specific target markets and specific sales objectives.
question

Sales Target
answer

Goals related to increasing or maintaining sales volume and market share. Specific to market and product, quantified as to time and amount and realistic. Sales volume, sales by product, market segment, customer type, market share, growth of sales volume and gross profit.
question

Communication Objectives
answer

Outcomes that can reasonably be associated with promotional activities, increase in brand recognition or awareness, increased comprehension of brand’s attributes, more positive attitudes about brand or more favorable image of brand or it’s typical users, and stronger intentions to try and buy a brand.
question

DAGMAR
answer

Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising Results Planning tool for setting communication objectives of a campaign Awareness Comprehension Conviction Action
question

Awareness
answer

Know brand exists
question

Comprehension
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Knowing brand attributes
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Conviction
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Favorable attitude toward brand
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Action
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Purchasing and using brand
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Marketing Strategy
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How company plans to meet its marketing objectives 1) Defining particular target market 2) Determine strategic position 3) Developing appropriate marketing mix for each target market
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Selecting Target Market
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Using market segmentation and research to define and select the target market
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Setting Communication Objectives
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Action Desire Conviction Comprehension Awareness
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Campaigns build consumer preference and promote good will
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Enhances reputation and value of company name and brand. Encourages customers to make repeat purchases.
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Relationship of IMC to sales and profit
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-Consumer good marketing– increases in market share are closely related to increase in marketing budget – Sales increase with additional advertising -Sales response to advertising builds over time, durability of advertising is brief and consistent investment is important -Some sales occur with no advertising -Advertising expenditures below certain minimum levers have no effect on sales.
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5 Categories of Posttesting
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Aided Recall, Unaided Recall, Attitude Tests, Inquiry Tests, Sales Test
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Media Planning
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Process that directs advertising messages to the right people in the right place at the right time. Where should we advertise? Which vehicle should we use? When should we concentrate our advertising during the year? How often should we run the ad?
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Top-Down Marketing
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Defines market need and the company’s sales objectives and details strategies for obtaining those objectives
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Creative Mix (Adv Strategy)
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Advertising elements the company controls to achieve its advertising objectives: -Target Audience -Product Concept -Communications Media -Advertising Message
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Message Weight
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The total size of audience for a set of ads/an entire campaign -Gross Impression -Gross Rating Points
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Advertising Impression
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Possible exposure of the advertising message to one audience member
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Opportunity to See (OTS)
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Advertising impressions, multiplying medium’s total audience size by the number of times an advertising message is used during the period. audience size x # of time an ad message use during the period
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Gross Impression
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Total of all audiences delivered by a media plan
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Rating
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Percent of households or individuals exposed to an advertising medium R= household watching/ total households x 100
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TV Households (TVHH)
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Homes with TV sets
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Gross Rating Points
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Add ratings of several media vehicles Add up all vehicle ratings to get gross ratings
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Five Ms in the Media Mix
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Markets Money Media Mechanics Methodology
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Markets
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Various target markets of media plan. Trade and consumer audience, national or regional audience
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Money
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How much to budget and where to allocate it
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Media
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All communication vehicles available to a marketer
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Mechanics
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Deals creatively with the amiable media options
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Methodology
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Overall strategy of selecting and scheduling media vehicles to achieve the desired message, weight, reach, frequency, and continuity objectives -Creativity in planning -Negotiating -Buying
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Attention Value
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Advertising message and copy
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Motivation Value
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Select media based on medium’s ability to motivate people to act. -Good quality reproduction -Timeliness -Editoral Evidence
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Cost Per Thousand (CPM)
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Cost of media vehicle #charged for ad (vehicle cost) / (gross impression) subscribers x 1,000
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Cost Efficiency
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Cost of reaching the target audiences through a particular medium
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Cost Per Point (CPP)
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vehicle cost / program rating
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Mixed-Media Approach
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Using combination of advertising media vehicles in a single advertising campaign.
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Synergy
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Total effect is greater than the sum of its parts
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Consumer Magazine
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Purchased for entertainment information or both, are edited for consumers who buy products for their own personal consumption
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Business Magazine
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Largest category, target business readers. Trade publications for retailers, wholesalers, business and industrial for business people involved in manufacturing and services, and professional journals for lawyers, doctors…
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Local City Magazine
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Most major U.S. cities have one – typical readership is upscale professional people interested in local arts, fashion and businesses
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Regional Publications
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Targeted to specific areas of the country, such as North, South, East, West
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Vertical Publications
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Business publications aimed at people within a specific industry -Restaurant, Institutions
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Horizontal Publications
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Business publications targeted at people with particular job functions that cut across industry lines -Purchasing magazine
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Cover Date
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Date printed on a cover of a publication
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On-Sale-Date
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Date magazine is actually issued
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Standard-Size Newspaper
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22 inches deep 13 inches wide Divided into 6 columns
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Tabloid Newspaper
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Half as deep as standard 14 inches deep 11 inches wide
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Standard Advertising Unit (SAU)
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Standardized the newspaper column width, page size and ad sizes. 2 1/16 inches wide by 1 inch deep
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Major Classification of Newspaper Advertising
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Display Classified Public Notices Preprinted Inserts
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Display Advertising
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Includes copy, illustrations and photographs, headlines, coupons and other visual components.
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Reading Notice
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Looks like editorial matter and sometimes costs more than normal display advertising. To prevent readers from mistaking it for editorial matter the word ‘advertisement” appears at the top
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Cooperative (co-op) Programs
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Retailers often run news ads through co-op sponsored by manufactures whose products they sell. Manufacturer pays fully or partially to create and run the ad, which features the manufacturer’s product and logo along with the local retailers name and address
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Classified Ads
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Newspapers, magazines, Internet ads usually arranged under subheadings that describe the class of goods or the need the ads seek to satisfy. Rates are based on the number of lines the ad occupies. Most employment housing, and automotive advertising is in the form of a classified ad.
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Classified Display Ads
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Ads that run in the classified section of the newspaper buy have larger size type, photos, art borders, abundant white space and sometimes color
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Public Notice
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For nominal fee, newspapers carry these legal changes in businesses and personal relationships, public government reports, notices by private citizens and organizations and financial reports
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Preprinted Inserts
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Newspaper advertisements printed in advanced by the advertiser and then delivered to the newspaper plant for insertion into a specific edition Insert sizes range from a newspaper page to a double postcard, formats include brochures, mail-back devices, and perforated coupons
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Insertion Order
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A form submitted to a newspaper or magazine when an advertiser wants to run an advertisement. This form states the date(s) on which the ad runs, size, requested position and the rate
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Proof Copy
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Copy of the completed advertisement that is used to check for final errors and corrections
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Tearsheet
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The printed ad cut out and sent by the publisher to the advertiser as a proof of the ad’s print quality and that it was published.
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Inventory
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Commercial time for advertisers
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Off-network Syndication
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Availability of programs that originally appeared on networks to individual stations for rebroadcast
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First-Run Syndication
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Programs produced specifically for the syndication market
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Barter Syndication (advertiser-supported)
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Marketing of first-run TV programs to local stations free or for a reduced price because some of the ad space has been pressed to national advertisers
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Rating Services
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These services measure the program audiences of TV and radio stations for advertisers and broadcasters by picking a representative sample of the market and furnishing data on the size and characteristics of views or listeners
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Designated Market Areas (DMA)
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Geographic area in which TV stations attract most of their viewers
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Dayparts
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Advertisers must decide when to air commercials and on which programs -TV viewers are loyal to programs not stations * 9 a.m. – 4 p.m. EST *daytime and early fringe are viewed most heavily by women
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Primetime
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Viewing is the highest 8p.m. – 11 p.m. EST
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Daypart Mix
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Media scheduling strategy based on TV usage levels reported by rating services
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Bottom-up-Marketing
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Focuses on one specific tactic and develops into an overall strategy

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