Adolescent Development (Test 2)

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Age grouping in contemporary education
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-started with free public education (age grouping) middle 19th century -20th century –> adolescents were affected by education age grouping -adolescent peer groups based on friendships formed in school were not prevalent until well into the 20th century
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Changes in the size and diversity of the adolescent population
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-largest influencing factor in the rise of the adolescent peer group –> baby boom – 1955-1975, ages 15-19 doubled -1970, 1 out of every 6 americans was a teenager -Adolescents in 60s/70s, trend downturned in 1975 -Last decade of 20th century, population increased again when baby boom was raising adolescents -2000- 20 million 15-19 year olds in the US, 20 million 10-14 year olds Changes: -allocation of funds for social services, education programs, health care -implications for understanding the behavior of cohorts
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Changes in groups, differentiate between cliques and crowd, and changes in cliques and crowds over time
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1. sharp increase in sheer amount of time individuals speed with peers relative to adults 2. function much more often without adult supervision 3.more contact with peers is with other-sex friends 4. adolescents marks the emergence of larger collective of peers or crowds Why does this shift occur? -cogntive -biological -social
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Clique
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small, tightly knot group between 2-12 friends; same sex and age • Common activities for friendships • Stability in adolescents tendency to join cliques • Main social context • Almost always same age (sex) • Girls are more likely to be in cliques then boys o Identifiable cliques o Girls are able to name clique members opposed to boys • Switch cliques throughout year • ½ adolescents in cliques o not a bad thing o where we learn a lot of our social skills • affects of dating relationships o if you date someone outside crowd, less likely to be accepted • strongest effects on day-to-day achievement o very influential on how you dress, what music you listen to, what you do after school o arguments with parents • don’t tend to have much influence on big life things o religious views, future occupational goals, I want to go to college • parents still tend to be the strongest on the big life decisions • as you get closer to end of adolescence parents gain more importance • Clique members, liaison, isolates
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Crowds
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large, loosely organized groups of young people • Multiple cliques • Social ‘labels’ • Common labels across the US o Jocks, brains, nerds, popular, druggies • Less control over crowd then cliques • Crowds are reference points to navigate social setting • More based on reputations and stereotypes • Provide social norms o Hierarchical, higher up people make the norms and then others are expected to follow it • Don’t have well defined number but smaller crowds stick together longer, and influence behavior more • Crowds change over time o Generally if we are changing cliques, we are changing cliques within the same crowded o Harder to switch crowds then cliques 3 purposes of a crowd? -locate adolcesnts with in the social structure of the school (to themselves and others) -channel adolescents into associations with some peers -to provide context that rewards certain lifestyles and desperate others
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Changes in cliques and crowds
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• May change friends but unlikely to change types of friends • Changes based on activities changing in cliques • Cliques gradually form larger, mixed-sex groups which break down in late adolescence when people start dating • People move between cliques within the crowd, then move crowds • Crowds become more differentiated and permeable during high school and influence is less significant
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Describe the relationship between adolescents and their crowd (Influence of the crowd on the individual and using the crowd as a social reference)
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• Adolescents’ crowds can be placed along two dimensions o How involved they are in institutions controlled by adults o How involved they are in informal, peer culture • Crowds contribute to the definition of norms and standards for things like clothing, leisure, taste, etc. • Adolescents accept many values of adults around them, and also elements of their contemporary peer culture • Reference groups- a group against which one compares himself o Provide adolescents an identity in the eyes of other teens o Judge one another on the basis of the company they keep • Influence on behavior, activities, self-concept • Antisocial group members fared the worst • Often imitate crowd behavior • Crowds establish norms that members strive to follow • Reinforced for norm consistent behaviors • Reinforcement→ feeling better about themselves and incorporating crowd into identity crowds= social identity, cliques= social development
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Describe the relationship between adolescents and their cliques (Similarities between clique members, common interests, and selection and socialization of friendships)
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• Composition of cliques dictated by similarity! • Typically friends with your age, same sex (stronger for Whites than Blacks), ethnicity and social class greater factors in later adolescence • Orientation toward school, teen culture, antisocial activity, role of parents • More tight knit *based on activity and friendship *learn social skills *start as same sex, mix sexed, then disperse
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popularity
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sociometric popularity: how well liked someone is (detemerined by social skills and abilities) : stable across most ages and backgrounds perceived popularity: how much status or prestige and individual has, different across different schools • can be higher in one than the other can be mean but popular • know how to manipulate people to get to place • reaching too high of popularity status, could jeopardize current friendships o can gain status and loose on sociometeric people • \”used to me, now they are popular\”
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rejection
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• Get negative nominations • Often aggressive • If rejected in MS will be in HS • May be shy/anxious → bullying • Higher stress, higher levels of depression and anxiety • The bullied kids • Rejection types: aggressive, withdrawn, and both hostile attribution bias: tendency to interpret ambiguous interactions with others a deliberately hostile
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Discuss the use of aggression in adolescents and its affects on social status
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• Instrumental: aggressive behavior that is desperate and planed o Using it to get something you want o Maintaining status, changing a peer group (I no longer want you in my peer group) -you are always getting something out of it o Little kids: I’m going to push you to get the toy I want o For thought is before actions o More likely used by girls (MORE POPULAR) • Reactive: acts behavior that is unplanned and impulsive o Not planned o More likely used by boys -More rejection • Relation aggression: act intended to harm another thought the manipulation of his of her relationship with others – can be I want jessies bf or we want to change the social structure of our group • Can use instrumental for relational, o Adolescence think it is acceptable • Report less negativity feels towards it Unless victim -> don’t think its okay
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Describe those who victimize and those who are harassed and the effects of each
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• Directly exposed: you are the one being bullied • Indirectly exposed: you see someone else being bullied • Cycle; victims more likely have depressive symptoms → they get bullied → more depressive symptoms • More likely to become bullied • Social media • Aggressive and withdrawn have the most psychological damage • \”Different kids\” typically bullied, and often bully as a result • Usually unpopular/rejected • Popular/majority kids do the victimizing • Hard to transition from rejected to popular • Categories of victims- social status affects response • Passive • Aggressive back • Seek support • Combination • Rejected individuals are at risk for psychological and behavioral problems, academic failure, conduct problems, and depression • Undermines feelings of academic competence, academic performance, and school engagement
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How does the peer group affect the psychological development of adolescents?
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-low school achievement, higher rates of delinquent behavior, emotional and mental heath probe as adult (both cause and restyle from poor peer relationships. -Crucial role in development of identity, autonomy, intimacy, sexuality, achievement -peer groups and family are not competitive instutatutions but rather contrasting –familes is organized around work and other tasks –> respobsilitbty and achievement — peer group is more for lesure, helps with moos –> intancmy and adolescents mood and psycho logical well being * you need both to contribute to a healthy psychological development of adolcesnts
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Discuss the changes in compulsory education in the US
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• Kids are in school longer • More people in schools o Do not require citizenship • See more females in school over time • From high school to college: 70% • The pressure in school o Standardized education • Much less vocational o Don’t have vocational track o Much more compulsory o Result of industrialization, urbanization, and immigration o Industrialization→ less children in the work place, needed more skill to work o Urbanization→ more concentrated -IMMIAGTION: influx of people, more people o Education seen as way of improving life circumstances for crowded, immigrant, urban areas o Seen as means of social control- taking teens off the streets, socializing immigrants o Secondary education was not compulsory until the 1900s o Comprehensive high school is a varied curriculum to meet the needs of a diverse population o Standards based reform- all schools need to teach to this o 1920’s compulsory o No Child Left behind? o WHY DOESNT REFORM WORK o Poverty leads to personal and situational problems o Lots of burocrecy o Students in urban schools less sense of belongings
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Discuss what research has shown us about optimal school size, classroom size, etc.
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o Ideal size 600-900 students o Variations in class size (20-40) do not generally affect academic achievement in adolescence o Transitions can be difficult-have close friends makes it easer o K-8 model→ higher achievements, and fewer behavior problem o Tracking bad o Academic disabilities o Effects of changing ethnic composition are modest, happier to be not the minority though o What takes place in school is more important than organization and funding o Grades tend to drop from junior high to school
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What are some of the positive and negative effects of tracking on adolescents?
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Positive • Appropriate challenge • Good learning environment • Opportunities to excel at the correct level • High ability students have heightened expectations and higher grades for within-classroom grouping, opposite for lower ability students as a negative • Teachers more finely tune their classroom Negative • Smart get smarter, low get lower • Bad teachers placed in low classes so its changes the quality of education • Widens achievement gap • Hard to move out of the track once in it • Discrimination against minorities
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Discuss the differences between secondary and elementary schools and how they may affect adolescents
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o Different environments (secondary trust less, more rigid requirements, less freedom, greater expectations- opposite of what adolescents need because they need responsibility and autonomy) o Transitions can decrease self-esteem and academic achievement (worse for minority students) o Jr high and high school, less likely to feel confident about their teaching
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Discuss what research has shown us about the classroom climate and the approach teachers should take for achievement in secondary schools
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o Can increase student morale and achievement o Structure with high student involvement and high teacher support, cooperation between students as opposed to competition, strong and clear expectations and standards→ best combination for classroom o Supportive and demanding o Cooperation vs. competition o Authoritative teacher parents important
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Talk about the importance of school engagement and how schools can encourage engagement among the students
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o Disengaged students→ deliquent behavior, bored, less excited about learning o How schools can be engaging→ helps encourage academic success, provide support, extra curricular activities o Strong correlation between teacher expectations and performance o Teachers should assign work that is authentic and relevant -peer groups are important
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Discuss the current state of violence in schools and how this may affect students
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o 1 in 4 has been victimized, 1 in 6 is worried about being physically attacked at school o zero-tolerance policy was enacted but not that effective because it is too strict and puts admin at war with students • can discriminate against minorities o Better option is to create a more humane climate of respect o Excessive violence in school→ feel unsafe, not want to go to school, can interfere with academic performance, desire to fight back leads to more deliquent behavior
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Be able to talk about the differences between those who are college bound and those who are not directly after high school
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o Schools are college driven o Those who enter workforce aren’t as prepared o Don’t learn skills to find an enjoyable, well-paying job o More jobs want college degrees o 1/3 goes into the work force right away o College grads make more money o increase in women
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Discuss characteristics of good schools and their effects on adolescents’ overall development
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1. empahsis intellectual acitivies (learning as the most important activity, value a quality education) 2. teachers who are committed to their students, fivven a good deal of freed and autonomy by administrates. (more atustomny to decided how their lessons are planned, and how their classroom is controlled) 3. well integrated into the community they serve (involve parents, links between high schools and colleges (and emporylers) 4. composed of good classrooms (active participants in the process of education) 5. staffed by teachers who are well qulalfited and have specific training for adolescents
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Discuss the rise in free time among adolescents and the patters of how they use this time in the US and other countries
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-half of time in lisure actives (far more than most other industrialized countries, where more time is devoted to school, and in developing nations where more time is devoted to work) -passive activities (little intellectual or physical demands) o 2/3 of leisure time is watching TV or socializing (passive actives) – average american student spends 5 hours a week doing hw, but in asians con tires the average is 4-5 per day -decrease in time spend in paid jobs, incase in leisure
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Discuss the role of work in affecting adolescent development
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• Pros • Autonomy • Keeps you busy and out of trouble • Can increase responsibility, decision making, etc. if the job fit is right • Beneficial to family/decrease stress if finances are used • Cons • Long hours (20+)→ delinquency, drugs and alcohol use, takes away from schooling • Less time for other things • Socialization with colleagues and takes away from time with peers • Monetary gains lead to more spending and disposable income (used irresponsibly) • Premature affluence: having more income than one can manage maturely o What is the limit on the number of hours a student should work? • Less than 20 o What kinds of jobs have the most positive outcomes for students? • Responsibility, good leadership, good number of hours, allows for focus on school work, the ones that teach you something -doesnt help pyscholocial development
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Discuss how activities during leisure time affects adolescent’s moods
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-Experience Samping Model: a method of collecting data about adolescents emotional states, in which individuals are pagers and asked to report their mode and activity -curvilinear pattern: a patters of relations between two variables that resembles a u-shape or and inverted u –> modes with family become more negative between elementary and middle school and rise between middle school and high school -in school: moderate levels of concentration, low levels of interest -with friends: low levels of concentration, and moderate levels of interest -***when involved in an extracurricular (arts, sports, hobby): high levels of both concentration and interest (flow experience) 2/3 participate in 1 or more extra curricular o Higher moods→ higher value, higher achievement -MOODS ARE BETTER WITH SCTURCRTED LESUIRE ACTIVITY
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Discuss the difference between structured and unstructured time for adolescents and how they may influence behavior and development STRUCTURED
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o Structured • Intended activity to be done, specific goal or task, beginning and ending time frame • Ex: clubs, athletics, work • Increases connectedness and belongingness adolescents have to school if its a school club→ higher academic achievement→ lower dropout rate • Athletics • Increase in deliquent behaviors because of older peers, group conformity, personal fable, team acceptance, pressure, less focus on academics, more popular • Athletics AND another activity→ good outcome • Athletes who don’t drink likely have higher adult involvement -routine avtivity theoyr: the more instructed leisure time the higher the risk for problems (depression deligquecy, violence)
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Discuss the difference between structured and unstructured time for adolescents and how they may influence behavior and development UNSTRUCTURED
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• No purpose, no time frame, autonomy to choose • More likely to be deliquent behavior • At home alone→ fewer problems than with peers • More likely to be influenced by peers • Less problems if parents are authoritative • Clear expectations, not reliant on parents, have practiced responsibility, check in is less demanding/frequent
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Discuss the patterns of media use for adolescents and the outcomes of these (internet, TV, print media, social media, etc.)
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• Average exposure to mass media is 8 hours a day • 11 hours a day of adolescents being in contact (hours double count if multiple devices) • Context is very important • Unclear if media leads to brain changes or if natural brain settings like aggressive behavior lead to choice of media • Hypothetical causation: beer commercials→ drinking beer • Reverse: drinking beer→ watching commercials • Spurious: liking football → drinking beer and watching the commercials • Watching aggressive things as a young child (4-7) correlates with aggression in adolescence • Sexually explicit content relates to body satisfaction and self-reflection • Men objectifying women in the media- how do boys interpret that? • Media tells us how people should look and act • Internet use is not as bad as people think • Adolescents are aware of internet risk • Media pracice model, cultivation, uses and gratification cultivation: adolcentce are influenced by the content to which they are exposed (wveiwing beer commercials makes adolecentcs drink beer) Uses and Gratifcation approach: adolcentse choose the media to which they are exposed ( aggressive adolecests are more likely to choose violent video games) media practice model: both, adolescents choose that they are exposed to but also they interpret the media in a way that changes them interent Addication: -salience, mood change, tolerance, withdrawal, conflict, replies, reinstatement
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Discuss how the rise in adolescents’ financial freedom has affected the economy/business mindset
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o Marketing more toward teenagers o Marketing goes toward who is spending (adolescents, not thinking about savings, retirement, etc. so they spend a higher percentage of their money) -90 billion = teenager -200 billion = adolcecent
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Discuss why identity is such a salient issue in adolescence (think cognitive development)
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-due to cogntive abilities they are able to think about themselves in new ways -much more able to imagine their possible selves ( the various identities an adolescent might imagine him or herself) -heightend self consciousness -impressive increase in future orientation (the extent to which an individual is able and inclined to think about the potential consequent of decisions and choices) -\”who will i become\” or\” what am i really like\” three aspects: -self concepts: traits and attributes that you use to decider yourself -slef-esteem: the degree to which you feel positbilt or netigivtivlt about yourself aka value sense of identiy: extent to which individual feel secure about who they are and who they are becoming
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Discuss personality in adolescence and how it does or does not change over time
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o Early temperament strongly linked to personality o Stability in basic personality traits over time five factor model: -openness, extraversion, concientiousness, agreeableness, neruotism -gentic and evniromental influnes – increasingly stable as we grow older, on averange between adolecne and young adult hood, become more
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Define self-esteem and be able to talk about influences on self-esteem and its stability over time and across contexts
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o Self esteem: the degree to which individuals feel positively or negatively about themselves o Global self-esteem (multidimensional) is stable and increases slightly for most o Males and Blacks generally have higher self-esteem than females or other ethnic groups o Sex differences in self-esteem are greater among Whites o Asians in the US have especially low self-esteem o High self-esteem related to • Parental approval • Peer support • Academic success o High self-esteem→ better mental health, less emotional problems -self-conciousnes: how much they worry about their self image self image stability: how much their self image changes from day to day
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• Discuss Erikson’s theory of the identity crisis that occurs in adolescence o Discuss ways in which to encourage positive identity development o Discuss the problems with identity development
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• Identity vs. identity diffusion • Identity diffusion- incoherent, disjointed incomplete sense of self • Identity foreclosure- premature establishment of a sense of identity without enough experimentation • Negative identity- selection of an identity that is obviously undesirable in the eyes of others and the community -adolescents interactions with others -by responding to the reaction of people who matter adolescents selects and choose from among the many elements that cold conceivably become a part of his or her adult identity -a mirror that reflects back -we learn what we should do and what we shouldny do
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Discuss current research on the development of identity over time
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-a coherent sense of identity generally is not esbalitished before 18, let alone adolescence -a less systematic change in identity development that originally had be hypothesized, don’t follow the patter of diffusion to foreclose to moratorium to achievement -the state of achievement may be temporarty -indviduals who who sings of indifity diffusion early on remain in this sate as well as those who spend time in a state of moratorium
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Discuss the different approaches to determining adolescent’s identity status
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o Who you spend time with o Ethnicity o How you view yourself o How you think others view you o Surroundings o Family o Activities
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Discuss how ethnic identity develops and for whom this is most salient
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• Ethnic identity- aspect of identity concerning ancestry or racial group membership • Ethnic socialization- process through which individuals develop an understanding of their ethnic or racial background • Parents socialize kids to think about races other than their own • Multidimensional model of racial identity (MMRI) • Racial centrality- how important race is in defining one’s identity • Private regard- how individuals feel about being a part of that race • Public regard- how individuals think others feel about their race • Process of ethnic identity development • Unquestioning view of self becomes displaced or upset by an experience • Provokes a period of exploration • Over time, more coherent sense of ethnic identity emerges • Positive mental health among ethnic minority associated with strong ethnic identity and awareness for potential discrimination but not outright rejection of the mainstream culture • High levels of discrimination→ psychological suffering but varies on both ends by individual • Black female adolescents don’t see self-esteem drop as much as White females • White adolescents have the least developed sense of ethnic identity THREE THEMES IN MINORTY FAMILES: -unsertandingand valuing ones culture, dealing with racisms, sucessed in mainstreaming society. strong ethnic identiy= higher self esteem immagrant paradox: adolecnes who immigrated more recentlyscore higher on adjustment, then do same ethinc group who have been here for several generations mutlidemional model race
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Discuss the ways in which gender roles affect identity development and how they differ for boys and girls
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o Gender intensification hypothesis- pressures to behave in sex-appropriate ways intensify during adolescence o Feel strong pressure to adhere to stereotypical roles for gender o Extent to which gender-role behavior changes is influence by: • Birth order • Presence and sex of siblings • Parents’ attitudes o Many traits labeled as masculine are associated with better adjustment and greater peer acceptance o Females with a mix of traits and males with masculine traits report higher self-esteem -gender intensification hypothsis: the idea that pressures to hebachore in sex-aporiotate ways intesifys during adolescnes
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discuss self concepts and how they change and the influences
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-become more differentiated, and better organized -pre adolescense: i am nice -adolcense: i am nice when i am in a good mood -take into account who is describing and you your act differently in different context -more complex view bc recognize your faults and weaknesses -false self behavior- acting in a way that no one knows is inauthentic

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