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Adolescence Chapter 14- 16

question

T/F: The frontal lobes (prefrontal cortex) are the last part of the brain to develop.
answer

True
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T/F: It is most likely that the abuser in child abuse cases is a relative of the victim.
answer

True
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T/F: Late-maturing girls tend to have a worse body image than their early-maturing peers do.
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False
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T/F: Menarche does not usually occur until a girl weighs 100 pounds.
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True
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T/F: Emotional control is fully developed by adolescence.
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False
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T/F: The prefrontal cortex is where planning ahead and emotional regulation occur.
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True
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T/F: Most teens are satisfied with their physical appearance.
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False
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T/F: Secondary sex characteristics signify masculinity and femininity.
answer

True
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T/F: The major events of growth and sexual maturation associated with puberty typically are completed a year or two after puberty begins.
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False
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T/F: The average age of menarche for girls of normal weight is 15 years 6 months.
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False
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T/F: Many adolescents enjoy intense sensory experiences due to the difference in maturation rate between the limbic system and the prefrontal cortex.
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True
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T/F: According to research women who were abused have temporary but not life-long alteration of their cortisol responses.
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False
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T/F: Brain immaturity is the origin of every “troublesome adolescent behavior.”
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False
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T/F: It appears that the timing of menarche is related to the accumulation of a certain amount of body fat, which is why heavy girls generally menstruate earlier than other girls do.
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True
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T/F: During the past several decades, the so-called “double standard”—that boys are expected to be sexually active while girls are not—has narrowed in every ethnic group.
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True
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Peak fertility occurs _____ years after activated gonads produce mature ova and sperm. A. 2-4 B. 4-6 C. 6-8 D. 8-1
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B
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In the twenty-first century, early puberty positively correlates with _____. A. girls choosing to date younger boys B. girls entering into early, nurturing relationships C. aggression and antisocial behavior in boys D. boys becoming leaders in their schools
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C
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Jill learned in health class that _____ is a hormone that is necessary for puberty. A. estrogen B. cortisol C. lipid D. leptin
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D
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The sequence of puberty hormone production that originates in the brain and ends with glands located atop the kidneys is known by the acronym _____. A. HAG pathway B. HAP pathway C. HPG axis D. HPA axis
answer

D
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A female just gave birth to a baby who is preterm and low-birthweight. In addition, the female experienced high blood pressure throughout her pregnancy. This female is most likely _____ years old. A. 14 B. 21 C. 28 D. 31
answer

A
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Family conflict and stress _____. A. may contribute to an early onset of puberty B. may contribute to a late onset of puberty C. typically increases after the onset of puberty D. typically decreases after the onset of puberty
answer

A
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During adolescence, the _____ matures before the _____ in the brain. A. prefrontal cortex; limbic system B. limbic system; prefrontal cortex C. prefrontal cortex; amygdala D. cerebellum; amygdala
answer

B
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What article of clothing is Xavier most likely to outgrow first when he experiences the adolescent growth spurt? A. shirt B. pants C. belt D. shoes
answer

D
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Changes in primary sex characteristics include _____. A. growth of pubic hair and underarm hair B. rapid increase in height C. growth of the uterus or the testes D. deeper voices
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C
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The first hormones to begin the process of puberty are triggered in the child’s _____. A. gonads B. penis or uterus C. adrenal glands D. hypothalamus
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D
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Nancy, age 12, has just experienced a sudden growth spurt. According to the usual sequence of puberty, soon she will notice _____. A. initial pubic hair growth B. breast development C. her hips growing wider D. an increase in her shoe size
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C
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Which pair of nutrients is MOST likely to be lacking in the adolescent diet? A. magnesium and B vitamins B. iron and calcium C. sodium and potassium D. vitamins A and C
answer

B
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Josefina is obsessed with her weight. She sometimes eats a whole package of Oreos at once and then makes herself vomit. Josefina is of normal weight, but she constantly has heartburn. She MOST likely suffers from _____. A. anorexia nervosa B. degenerative organ disease C. anxiety D. bulimia nervosa
answer

D
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Bill, age 11, noticed that he has some pubic hair. According to the usual sequence of puberty, his next pubertal event will probably be _____. A. beard development B. penis growth C. spermarche D. voice change
answer

B
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_____ are the sex hormones secreted in greater amounts by males than females. A. Progesterones B. Androgens C. Estrogens D. Adrenalines
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B
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T/F: Most American high-school students eat the recommended amount of vegetables daily.
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False
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T/F: Abnormalities in the HPA axis have been associated with many different types of psychopathology.
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True
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T/F: During adolescence, the heart doubles in size, the pulse rate decreases, and blood pressure increases.
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True
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T/F: Both boys and girls produce androgens and estrogens.
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True
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T/F: In adolescence, growth proceeds in a proximodistal pattern.
answer

False
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Precocious puberty is sexual development before the age of 6.
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False
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T/F: Deepening of the voice is among the last signs of pubertal changes in males.
answer

True
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T/F: Stress in an adolescent’s family decreases the hormones of puberty.
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False
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What substance(s) cause(s) the ovaries and testes to greatly increase their production of estradiol and testosterone? A. human growth hormones B. follicle-stimulating hormones C. gonadotropin-releasing hormone D. cortisol
answer

C
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One of the first signs of the growth spurt is _________. A. lengthening of the torso B. increased muscle mass C. growth of arms and legs D. growth of fingers and toes
answer

D
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The period when children’s bodies become adult in terms of size, shape, and sexuality is called ________. A. puberty B. youth C. the growth spurt D. secondary sex development
answer

A
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Many adolescents think carefully and answer correctly when responding to paper-and-pencil questions about hypothetical risk-taking situations, yet in the real world they engage in risky behavior. This is due in part to their _____. A. genes B. peers C. formal operational thinking D. intuitive thinking
answer

B
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During puberty, the growth spurt sequence typically occurs in this order. A. weight, height, muscles B. weight, muscles, height C. height, weight, muscles D. muscles, height, weight
answer

A
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Later high school start times have been associated with all of the following EXCEPT __________. A. less adolescent depression B. higher grades C. less student absenteeism D. decreased college attendance
answer

D
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The more successful therapy for eating disorders during adolescence appears to be ___________. A. individual therapy B. family-based therapy C. behavioral modification D. systematic desnsitization
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B
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Which gland(s) receive(s) signals directly from the hypothalamus? A. adrenals B. testes C. pituitary D. gonads
answer

C
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Unhappiness with one’s physical appearance is a _________ phenomenon. A. city B. county C. national D. worldwide
answer

D
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In adolescent brain development, myelination and maturation occur in sequence, proceeding from the __________. A. cortex to the inner brain and from front to back B. cortex to the inner brain and from back to front C. inner brain to the cortex and from front to back D. inner brain to the cortex and from back to front
answer

D
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The first hormones to begin the process of puberty are triggered in the child’s __________. A. gonads B. penis or uterus C. adrenal glands D. hypothalamus
answer

D
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William was an early-maturing boy in the 1930s. William would have been predicated to __________. A. be aggressive as an adolescent B. be a school leader as an adolescent C. use alcohol as an adolescent D. have an older romantic relationship partner
answer

B
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Ellie is 10 years old and well into puberty. She will probably experience ___________. A. welcome attention from boys her age B. pride that she is ahead of her friends C. teasing from boys her age D. a better body image than her peers
answer

C
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T/F: In the United States, 50 percent of adolescent mothers are unwed.
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False
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T/F: Boys may experience some breast swelling during puberty.
answer

True
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T/F: It is typical for children to begin seeing pubertal changes in their bodies between ages 8 and 14.
answer

True
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T/F: In the United States, STIs are over-represented among 15- to 25-year-olds even though this age group is under-represented among all the sexually active adults.
answer

True
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T/F: Studies suggest that genes influence the timing of puberty.
answer

True
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Latisha experienced menarche when she was 8 years old. She experienced ___________. A. precocious puberty B. abnormal hormonal fluctuations C. preterm menarche D. excessively high levels of androgens
answer

A
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According to research, which of the following strategies could be implemented in order to encourage adolescents to make better food choices? A. increase prices of healthy foods B. provide healthier selections in school vending machines C. increase parental monitoring of food choices D. put unhealthy foods in closer proximity to where students hang out
answer

B
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Bulimia nervosa is clinically present in ________ percent of young women in the United States. A. 1 to 3 B. 5 to 7 C. 8 to 10 D. 11 to 13
answer

A
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Young people who are sexually exploited/abused _________. A. usually forget about the abuse B. tend to devalue themselves throughout life C. do not usually know their abuser D. are not likely to be aggressive
answer

B
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A young boy experienced ongoing sexual abuse until he was 15. Now that he is a grown man, it is likely that he ___________. A. has forgotten the experiences over time B. suffers from biological harm resulting from the abuse C. is depressed and has difficulty with sex or other psychosocial problems D. has outgrown the biological and psychological effects of the abuse
answer

C
question

The average age of the onset of puberty has changed over time. Which of the following individuals is most likely to have started puberty at the latest age. A. Louis, born in 1910 B. Allen, born in 1950 C. Rita, born in 1975 D. Ted, born in 1990
answer

A
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In 2011, only _________ percent of adolescents consumed the recommended three or more servings of vegetables daily. A. 10 B. 15 C. 20 D. 25
answer

B
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One reason adolescents’ nutritional habits may be poor is ________. A. lack of media attention to the importance of good nutrition B. misunderstanding about what is and is not healthy food C. altered taste buds due to hormonal surges D. anxiety about their body image
answer

D
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For girls, the usual sequence of physical changes in puberty is ____________. A. menarche, the growth spurt, and the beginning of breast development B. nipple growth, the growth spurt, and menarche C. the growth spurt, menarche, and the beginning of breast development D. the growth spurt, the beginning of breast development, and menarche
answer

B
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Xavier, 16, invites a group of his high school friends to swim in a neighbor’s pool late at night while that neighbor is away. They climb the fence and jump in, playing wildly and loudly in the water. Just a few minutes later, the police arrive. How does adolescent brain development help explain Xavier’s poor decision making? A. His limbic system is underdeveloped. B. His prefrontal cortex is underdeveloped. C. His amygdala is underdeveloped. D. The regions regulating his emotions are underdeveloped.
answer

B
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Evolutionary theory suggests that the relationship between childhood stress and onset of puberty exists to ____________. A. delay childbearing in strife-filled environments B. encourage stressed youth to take more risks C. ensure that reproduction occurs early in stress-filled environments D. ease the transition to adulthood for individuals who need to grow up fast
answer

C
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Research indicates that female children who experienced a great deal of _________ while very young also experienced early puberty. A. attention B. stress C. exercise D. starvation
answer

B
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At adolescence, the pituitary activates the _________, which are the ovaries in females and testicles in males. A. gonads B. pituitary glands C. adrenal glands D. sex glands
answer

A
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Which individual would be at the greatest risk for diet deficiencies? A. Sam, who was born in 1950 and is 10 years old B. Greg, who was born in 1960 and is 18 years old C. Tim, who was born in 1990 and is 10 years old D. George, who was born in 1990 and is 18 years old
answer

D
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T/F: The changes of puberty are initiated by a part of the brain called the hypothalamus.
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True
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T/F: Anita is within the normal range for weight, but she uses laxatives in order to control her severe overconsumption of calories. Anita suffers from anorexia.
answer

False
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T/F: Learning something new is difficult for adolescents because of the continued synaptic pruning occurring within their brains.
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False
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T/F: Some of the problems associated with teenage pregnancy, including malnourishment and postponed prenatal care, depend mostly on the SES of the expectant mother.
answer

False
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A school schedule that begins at _____ and ends at _____ would be the best fit for adolescent sleep patterns. A. 8:00 a.m.; 3:10 p.m. B. 6:00 a.m.; 1:10 p.m. C. 7:00 a.m.; 2:10 p.m. D. 9:00 a.m.; 4:10 p.m
answer

D
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Sharon is concerned about deficiencies in her daughter Alana’s diet. If Alana is a typical teen, Sharon should feed her _____. A. potatoes to increase her starch B. carrots to increase her vitamin A C. orange juice to increase her vitamin C D. spinach to increase her iron
answer

D
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For girls, menarche is _____. A. the beginning of growth of the uterus B. the first ovulation of a mature egg C. a girl’s first menstrual period D. the first year of menstruation
answer

C
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Statistically, which student is MOST likely to fall asleep during class? A. Ariel, age 5 B. Wilhelm, age 8 C. Allen, age 11 D. Rose, age 14
answer

D
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Research indicates that a majority of adolescent girls in the United States are trying to _____. A. gain weight B. lose weight C. lift weights D. not focus on their appearance
answer

B
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Holly, age 13, notices that her hips are widening and her breasts are developing. Holly is noticing changes in her _____ sex characteristics. A. primary B. secondary C. puberty D. prefrontal
answer

B
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Statistically, which person is MOST likely to have the greatest health problems due to iron deficiency? A. 16-year-old Marilyn, who is menstruating B. 12-year-old Monica, who has not yet experienced menarche C. 15-year-old Nathan, who exercises very little D. 25-year-old Ben, who has three children
answer

A
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A study of adult women in the United States found that those who voluntarily had sex before the age of 16 were _____. A. likely to have a successful marriage as an adult B. likely to use birth control C. not likely to use birth control D. likely to get a divorce as an adult
answer

D
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T/F: Primary sex characteristics include pubic hair and nipple changes.
answer

False
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Statistically, which adolescent is MOST apt to experience menarche first? A. Michelle, who is European American B. Cecilia, who is Hispanic American C. Rebecca, who is African American D. Maria, who is Chinese American
answer

C
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Once the primary sexual organs begin to function, adolescents are biologically capable of _____. A. reproduction B. weight loss C. giving blood D. sleeping fewer hours
answer

A
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Lea, age 16, is travelling with her family to Spain. In preparation for the trip, Lea and her parents take Spanish language classes. Lea learns the language more quickly than her parents, most likely because of her _____. A. greater interest in the culture B. still-developing brain C. stronger levels of self-control D. greater cognitive rigidity
answer

B
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Which statement about the correlation between body fat and onset of puberty among females is correct? A. There is no correlation between body fat and the onset of puberty among females. B. There is a positive correlation between body fat and onset of puberty among females. C. There is a negative correlation between body fat and the onset of puberty among females. D. There is a correlation between body fat and the onset of puberty only among female adolescents who are Native American.
answer

B
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A determining factor in whether an adolescent experiences early and late pubertal maturation is when their _____ through puberty. A. friends go B. siblings go C. grandparents went D. parents went
answer

A
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Garry is taking a weight-lifting class in high school. The weights he lifts should _____. A. match his projected size for next year B. cause him maximum exertion C. match his size from the previous year D. be doubled each week
answer

C
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T/F: During their growth spurt, females gain more fat than males do.
answer

True
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T/F: One reason for nutritional deficiencies during adolescence is preoccupation with body image.
answer

True
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Jose enjoys sports, especially running. As an adolescent, he has the potential to become a star athlete. Which pair of influences will be MOST beneficial to him in reaching his full potential? A. the development of his prefrontal cortex and the support of his peers B. the encouragement of his family and the myelination of his sensory cortex C. the development of his limbic system and the influence of male hormones D. changes in myelination in his brain and the guidance of an experienced coach
answer

D
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The day-night cycle that occurs approximately every 24 hours is the ___________. A. biorhythm B. night-day cycle C. sleep cycle D. circadian rhythm
answer

D
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For boys, the first ejaculation generally occurs _________. A. when facial hair first appears B. after the peak growth spurt C. following growth of the penis D. when the final pubic hair pattern is established
answer

C
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Data indicates a marked decline in __________ rates in most countries for the past few decades. A. teenage pregnancy B. teen birth C. romantic relationship D. contraception use
answer

B
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The recommended daily dose of calcium is _________ milligrams; most teens consume less than _________ milligrams per day. A. 1,000; 300 B. 1,000; 500 C. 1,300; 800 D. 1,300; 500
answer

D
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For both girls and boys, puberty typically begins as young as _________ years of age or as late as __________ years of age. A. 5; 18 B. 7; 16 C. 8; 14 D. 10; 13
answer

C
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T/F: The invincibility fable reflects adolescent egocentrism.
answer

True
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T/F: Adults are usually aware of the “sexting” that occurs between adolescents.
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False
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T/F: Parents and teachers are often unaware of cyberbullying among adolescents.
answer

True
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T/F: Andre, an adolescent, constantly thinks about himself and how others perceive him. This egocentrism is common at his age.
answer

True
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T/F: The United States has the best high school graduation rates of all developed nations.
answer

False
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T/F: Adolescents place a very high value on social warmth and friendships.
answer

True
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T/F: Adolescents from low-income households are less likely to use the Internet at home than those from higher-income households.
answer

True
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T/F: Madeleine invested significant amounts of time, money, and effort while a member of a specific club. She now thinks she must continue as a member in order not to waste all that she invested. Madeleine is experiencing a sunk cost fallacy.
answer

True
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T/F: Because the limbic system is activated by puberty but the prefrontal cortex matures more gradually over time, adolescents might be swayed by their intuition instead of by logic.
answer

True
question

T/F: Adolescents’ belief that others are as intensely interested in them as they are in themselves is referred to as the invincibility fable.
answer

False
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T/F: Egocentrism leads adolescents to interpret everyone else’s behavior as if it were a judgment on them.
answer

True
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T/F: “This creature barks and wags its tail. Dogs bark and wag tails. Therefore, this must be a dog.” This is an example of deductive reasoning.
answer

False
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T/F: Antisocial students (e.g., aggressive, drug-using) tend to be popular in middle school.
answer

True
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T/F: Some adolescents do not feel invincible; instead, they have exaggerated perceptions of risks.
answer

True
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T/F: Video games with violent content have not been associated with aggression in adolescents.
answer

False
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Research has shown that adolescents who drop out of high school may show early signs of high school dropout by _____. A. preschool B. elementary school C. middle school D. high school
answer

C
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Benjamin has heard repeatedly from his parents about the potential dangers of smoking and he agrees with his parents about the potential dangers. At a party Benjamin is offered a cigarette but declines it even though the person who offered the cigarette is one of the most popular students at school. In this situation, what type of thinking is most likely dominating Benjamin’s decision to decline the cigarette? A. inductive reasoning B. intuitive thought C. concrete reasoning D. analytic thought
answer

D
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Fifteen-year-old Richard wants to be allowed to drive the family car, even though he does not yet have a driver’s license. When his parents ask him why he thinks he should have driving privileges, he answers, “I know other kids who do it, and it’s just stupid that I have to wait another three months until I turn 16.” This is an example of what kind of thinking? A. reasoning B. intuitive C. logical D. analytical
answer

B
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Which statement is TRUE? A. Hypothetical thought is tied to the everyday world as the individual knows it. B. Hypothetical thought is emotionally based. C. Hypothetical thought involves imagined possibilities. D. Hypothetical thought is an aspect of concrete operational thinking.
answer

C
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A strategy to increase student motivation in middle schools is to encourage a belief in _____. A. students’ ability to master whatever they seek to learn B. doing homework C. the entity approach to learning D. studying for tests
answer

A
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Who are considered to be “digital natives” in the United States? A. infants B. adolescents C. adults between the ages of 35 and 55 D. adults over the age of 65
answer

B
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Spencer is the only one in his class who does not have high-speed Internet at home. Spencer most likely comes from a _____. A. low-income family B. middle-income family C. upper-income family D. highly educated family
answer

A
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Most U.S. high schools emphasize learning based on _____, which is developmentally appropriate. A. formal thinking B. memorization C. practical cognition D. international standards
answer

A
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Which of the following is TRUE about the best pedagogical style for adolescents? A. Co-education and high-stakes testing produce the best results. B. Co-education and practical skills-focused instruction produce the best results. C. Single-sex education allows for higher academic achievement. D. There is no best structure or pedagogy for every student.
answer

D
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Which factor is a good predictor of health for people around the world? A. obtaining a master’s degree or a Ph.D. B. completing secondary education C. attending private instead of public schools D. attending schools that follow Western academia
answer

B
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What group is likely to experience logic failures in thinking? A. adolescents only B. adults only C. adolescents and adults D. neither adolescents or adults
answer

C
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The power of the invincibility fable may be observed in _____. A. a 17-year-old boy who drives cautiously B. an 18-year-old girl who insists that her boyfriend use a condom C. young military recruits who hope to be sent into combat D. an adolescent who sings, thinking that the neighbors must be listening
answer

C
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Avery, who is 14 years old, is attending her first swim team practice. She is very sensitive to the facial expressions, body language, communication styles, and other social cues given by her new teammates. Avery’s sensitivity to these social cues is aided by her adolescent _____. A. hypothetical thinking B. deductive thinking C. inductive thinking D. egocentrism
answer

D
question

In recent years, the so-called digital divide has _____ among adolescents. A. increased B. decreased C. remained steady D. disappeared
answer

B
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Middle school typically includes grades _____. A. 4 to 6 B. 5 to 7 C. 6 to 8 D. 7 to 9
answer

C
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T/F: Secondary school teachers typically assume that their pupils have mastered formal thinking instead of teaching them how to do it.
answer

True
question

T/F: Video games with violent content have not been associated with aggression in adolescents.
answer

False
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T/F: Today, about 75 percent of adolescents spend time online.
answer

False
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T/F: Usually academic achievement increases and behavioral problems decrease during middle school.
answer

False
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T/F: In an experiment by Inhelder and Piaget that involved balancing a scale with weights, the age at which children were first able to use the trial-and-error method to achieve some understanding of balancing was approximately 10 years.
answer

True
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T/F: High school students can think abstractly, analytically, hypothetically, and logically as well as emotionally and intuitively.
answer

True
question

T/F: As adolescents develop their capacity for hypothetical thinking, they become more capable of deductive reasoning.
answer

True
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T/F: Acute self-consciousness about physical appearance is much more prevalent between the ages of 16 and 20 than earlier or later.
answer

False
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T/F: Hypothetical thought involves reasoning only about propositions that reflect reality.
answer

False
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T/F: The belief in an imaginary audience makes adolescents self-conscious.
answer

True
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T/F: A dual-process model of thinking includes inductive and deductive thinking.
answer

False
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T/F: Intuitive thought is cognitively easier than analytic thought.
answer

True
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Fifteen-year-old Latrina has a 10 P.M. curfew. She asks her parents to extend her curfew to 11 P.M. on weekends. When her parents ask her why, Latrina replies, “I’ve never been late for my 10 P.M. curfew. You can trust me. Can we at least give it a try?” This is an example of what kind of thinking? A. concrete operational B. intuitive thought C. emotional thought D. analytical thought
answer

D
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Many adolescents feel that their own thoughts and experiences are far more extraordinary than those of other people. This is part of their _____. A. personal fable B. post-operational thought C. moral reasoning D. invincibility fable
answer

A
question

Which statement is FALSE? A. secondary education refers to schooling completed after high school graduation, such as college or vocational training. B. No matter where they live, individuals who complete secondary education are healthier. C. Every nation is increasing the number of students in secondary education. D. As the age of puberty has decreased, some schools of secondary education now start with grade 5.
answer

A
question

Jeremy is 7 years old and has been asked to balance a scale with weights that can be hooked to the arms of the scale. Jeremy will probably _____. A. solve the problem through a trial-and-error strategy B. put weights on both sides without considering distance from the center of the scale C. understand the inverse relationship between distance and weight D. put all the weights on one side of the scale
answer

B
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Which student is MOST likely to be admired during middle school? A. Allie, who is a straight A student B. Lloyd, who attends school regularly but fails most of his classes C. Louisa, who uses marijuana and frequently finds herself in physical fights. D. Chong, who is conscientious and friendly
answer

C
question

Albert et al. (2013) ran a series of experiments in which adults and adolescents, alone or with peers, played a video game. In the game, taking risks could lead to crashes or gaining points. The experiments found that _____, unlike the _____, were much more likely to take risks and crash when they were _____. A. adults; adolescents; alone B. adolescents; adults; alone C. adults; adolescents; with peers D. adolescents; adults; with peers
answer

D
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Rachel and Matt are in their first year of middle school. Statistically, one would expect their academic achievement to _____. A. improve B. decline C. remain the same as in elementary school D. exhibit an erratic pattern of rising and falling
answer

B
question

Juanita just solved this math problem: (35xy2)(6zy3). Her ability to do so places her in which of Piaget’s stages of cognitive development? A. sensorimotor B. preoperational C. concrete operational D. formal operational
answer

D
question

During puberty, adolescents’ thoughts center on _____. A. friends B. society C. family D. themselves
answer

D
question

One of the most prominent aspects of formal operational thought is the ability to _____. A. reject adult thought and values B. think in terms of possibilities C. take another person’s point of view D. use practical problem-solving skills
answer

B
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Thinking intensely about themselves and about what others think about them is called _____. A. hypotheticalism B. deductive thinking C. inductive thinking D. egocentrism
answer

D
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One type of high school class that is assessed by externally scored exams that may satisfy college requirements is _____. A. IB (International Baccalaureate) B. PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) C. TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study) D. PIRLS (Progress in International Reading Literacy Study)
answer

A
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“If-then” propositions require _____. A. concrete thought B. operational thought C. postformal thought D. hypothetical thought
answer

D
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T/F: All high school students who take Advanced Placement classes will be well prepared for college.
answer

False
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T/F: The United States has the best high school graduation rates of all developed nations.
answer

False
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A study (Gentile, 2011) of almost 2,000 older children and adolescents in the United States found that these individuals played an average of _____ hours of video games each day. A. 2 B. 4 C. 6 D. 8
answer

A
question

Many developmentalists find middle schools to be “developmentally regressive,” which means _____. A. teachers do not allow students to be independent B. learning goes backward C. the curriculum is not high-quality D. students do not desire autonomy
answer

B
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The nations with the best PISA results do NOT _____. A. focus on memorization of math formulas B. have a culture that strongly values education C. show respect for the teaching profession D. place the best teachers with the students who need them most
answer

A
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A thought that arises through a “feeling” that the thought is right is referred to as a(n) _____ thought. A. intuitive B. factual C. experimental D. logical
answer

A
question

What is an example of the sunk cost fallacy? A. walking out of a movie theater when the movie is only half over because the movie is poor quality B. stopping painting a bedroom because the color is too bright C. reading a book to the end even though the reader was bored by chapter 3 D. sleeping in on the weekend to catch up on sleep
answer

C
question

Today, the most notable digital divide is based on _____. A. age B. gender C. socioeconomic status (SES) D. religion
answer

A
question

Kristy and her friends come up with several options of things to do on Friday night, and ultimately decide to go to a new movie because it received positive reviews. In making this decision Kristy and her friends are using what type of thought? A. deductive reasoning B. intuitive thought C. concrete reasoning D. analytic thought
answer

B
question

When Piaget and Inhelder asked children of different ages to balance a scale using several different weights, they found that _____. A. by age 4, children tended to use logical deduction B. by age 7, children used spatial relationships C. by age 10, trial-and-error strategies based on logic are used to balance the scale D. by age 13 or 14, logic is used to understand a reciprocal relationship
answer

D
question

Blair has heard repeatedly from her parents about the potential dangers of drinking alcohol, yet at a party she gladly accepts a beer from a classmate. Blair thinks that this classmate is one of the most popular students at school. In this situation, what type of thinking is most likely dominating Blair’s decision to accept the beer? A. inductive reasoning B. intuitive thought C. concrete reasoning D. analytic thought
answer

B
question

T/F: Analytic thought and intuitive thought both develop during adolescence, although analytic thought often overrides intuitive thought when many adolescents are together.
answer

False
question

T/F: Mastery motivation among adolescents can be enhanced by encouraging a belief in the incremental approach to intelligence.
answer

True
question

T/F: Middle schools are designed to foster strong teacher-student relationships.
answer

False
question

T/F: Today’s adults are considered to be “digital natives.”
answer

False
question

T/F: Students who are capable of passing their classes as measured on IQ tests drop out of high school almost as often as those who are less capable.
answer

True
question

During puberty, young people center on themselves, in part because brain maturation heightens _____. A. self-esteem B. self-consciousness C. self-concept D. self-identity
answer

B
question

Marsha says, “There is no way I am going to school today with this bruise on my cheek. Everybody is going to laugh at me.” Marsha is demonstrating _____. A. a volatile mismatch B. an implicit judgment C. the imaginary audience D. the invincibility fable
answer

C
question

The notion that two networks exist within the human brain, one for emotional and one for analytical processing of stimuli, is called _____. A. dual-thinking model B. dual-process model C. dual-reasoning model D. emotional-analytic model
answer

B
question

Adolescent egocentrism begins __________, and may increase again at the start of __________. A. in preschool; puberty B. in middle childhood; college C. at puberty; college D. at puberty; adulthood
answer

C
question

Formal, logical, hypothetical-deductive thinking described by Piaget is referred to as _____. A. deductive reasoning B. intuitive thought C. concrete reasoning D. analytic thought
answer

C
question

All Christians believe in the Bible, and Josiah is a Christian; therefore Josiah believes in the Bible. This is an example of _____. A. deductive reasoning B. theoretical reasoning C. concrete reasoning D. formal reasoning
answer

A
question

Justine is 14 years old. Her parents are frequently annoyed because Justine tends to ask critical questions such as, “Why can’t I have wine with dinner? You do,” or “I don’t understand why I’ll be able to vote when I’m 18, but I have to wait until I’m 21 to buy alcohol!” This demonstrates Justine’s _____. A. inductive reasoning B. perceptual thinking C. hypothetical thinking D. deductive reasoning
answer

B
question

Thinking or drawing conclusions based on past personal experience, emotions, or a hunch is referred to as _____. A. deductive reasoning B. intuitive thought C. concrete reasoning D. analytic thought
answer

B
question

Three different girls tell Brian that Titanic is their all-time favorite movie. He concludes that all girls love that movie. Brian has just used _____. A. hypothetical reasoning B. inductive reasoning C. deductive reasoning D. adolescent egocentrism
answer

B
question

Jamal and his classmates are taking a test today that will determine if they graduate from high school. Jamal and his classmates are taking a(n) _____ test. A. Advanced Placement B. International Baccalaureate C. high-stakes D. college entrance
answer

C
question

Piaget called the reasoning that characterizes adolescence _____. A. formal operational thought B. invincibility thinking C. metacognition D. concrete operational thinking
answer

A
question

T/F: Secondary education traditionally consists of grades 7 through 12.
answer

True
question

The school years after elementary or grade school and before college or university are referred to as _____. A. primary education B. secondary education C. tertiary education D. quaternary education
answer

B
question

When adolescents fantasize about how others will react to their new hairstyle, they are creating a(n) _____. A. personal fable B. abstract audience C. personal identity D. imaginary audience
answer

D
question

Richie just spent $1,000 fixing his car even though the mechanic told him the car will continue to need expensive repairs that may total more than the vehicle is worth. Richie is likely experiencing the _____. A. personal fable B. sunk cost fallacy C. base rate neglect D. invincibility fable
answer

B
question

As the United States moves increasingly toward high-stakes testing, _____. A. other nations are following suit B. other nations are moving away from it C. some nations are following suit and others are moving away from it D. other nations are following suit only if they have high-performing students
answer

C
question

Deductive reasoning is also referred to as _____ reasoning. A. top-down B. theoretical C. concrete D. bottom-up
answer

A
question

Spreading insults and rumors by means of e-mails, text messages, or Web postings is called _____. A. spamming B. cyberbullying C. electronic harassment D. hacking
answer

B
question

Klaczynski’s studies of younger and older adolescents’ analytical thinking indicated that _____. A. younger adolescents were rarely logical, whereas older adolescents were nearly always logical B. individuals who were analytical on some problems were analytical on all problems C. most adolescents do not think as analytically as their capabilities allow D. younger adolescents tended to dismiss research that was contrary to their own beliefs
answer

C
question

In a national sample of 10- to 17-year-olds, almost _____ percent say that a photo of themselves with few or no clothes has been sent electronically (Mitchel et al., 2012). A. 1 B. 3 C. 5 D. 7
answer

B
question

In Inhelder and Piaget’s balance experiment, a child who systematically tests the idea that the relationship between weight and distance is reciprocal is probably age _____. A. 4 B. 7 C. 10 D. 14
answer

D
question

The term imaginary audience refers to adolescents’ _____. A. ability to understand how others perceive them B. belief that everyone is watching their behavior and appearance C. constant posing and posturing before mirrors D. belief that others are spying on them
answer

B
question

A longitudinal study (Harden & Tucker-Drob, 2011) that traced the development of sensation-seeking, which can lead to intuitive thinking, from early adolescence to the mid-20s found that increases in sensation-seeking were notable from ages _____. A. 12 to 14 B. 15 to 17 C. 18 to 20 D. 21 to 23
answer

A
question

An adolescent is told that a person riding the bus is reading the New York Times. The adolescent is asked if the person is more likely to have no college degree or if the person is more likely to have a Ph.D. The adolescent responds that the person is more likely to have a Ph.D. The correct answer, however, is that the person is more likely to have no college degree. The adolescent has experienced _____. A. hypothetical thinking B. sunk cost fallacy C. base rate neglect D. concrete operational thinking
answer

C
question

An approach to understanding intelligence that holds that intelligence can be directly increased by effort is referred to as the _____ approach. A. entity B. incremental C. dual-process D. intrinsic-extrinsic
answer

B
question

According to the results of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), the countries with the highest math test scores are _____. A. Greece, Iceland, and China B. Japan, the United States, and Finland C. Austria, Italy, and South Korea D. China, Singapore, and South Korea
answer

D
question

T/F: In Indonesia, 38 percent of women smoke because cigarettes are closely tied to sexual allure.
answer

False
question

T/F: Most adolescents try psychoactive drugs.
answer

True
question

T/F: In much of the Middle East, alcohol is illegal and adolescents almost never drink.
answer

True
question

T/F: Alcohol affects adolescents more than adults due to their brain immaturity.
answer

True
question

T/F: Most adolescents engage in some law-breaking behaviors during adolescence.
answer

True
question

T/F: Culture influences what kind of information adolescents share with their parents.
answer

True
question

T/F: The process of rumination helps adolescents recover more quickly from the effects of difficult experiences.
answer

False
question

T/F: The four areas of identity formation identified by Erikson include religious, political, familial, and physical identities.
answer

False
question

T/F: Adults are more likely to commit suicide than are adolescents.
answer

True
question

T/F: During adolescence, mother-son pairs tend to bicker more than mother-daughter pairs.
answer

False
question

T/F: Only about one-fourth of adolescent lawbreakers are never caught.
answer

False
question

T/F: Several suicides that occur within a group over a brief span of time are called crowd suicides.
answer

False
question

T/F: Some psychologists and psychiatrists believe that gender-identity problems originate in society rather than in individuals.
answer

True
question

T/F: Early other-sex interactions occur mostly in groups.
answer

True
question

T/F: Sixteen-year-old Andrea quit school, lost her job as a waitress, and spends most of her time online in chat rooms. When her parents voiced their disapproval, she replied, “Leave me alone!” Andrea’s behavior shows role confusion.
answer

True
question

A father says to his son, “I want you home by 10:00 pm.” This best represents which aspect of family closeness? A. control B. support C. communication D. connectedness
answer

A
question

According to Erikson, the ultimate adolescent psychosocial goal is identity __________. A. diffusion B. achievement C. foreclosure D. moratorium
answer

B
question

Alex has decided to pursue a career in music, even though his parents want him to study medicine. Alex has decided not to share his future career plans with his parents. Alex is most likely from _____. A. the United States B. Chile C. the Phillipines D. Hong Kong
answer

B
question

Technology may help adolescents who have diabetes to manage their condition in all of the following ways EXCEPT _____. A. monitor their insulin via cell phone B. talk to the doctor via Skype C. talk with other young people with diabetics via Internet chat D. exercise by playing video games
answer

D
question

According to Erikson, what is one of the four aspects of identity? A. physical B. political C. familial D. economic
answer

B
question

Psychosocial development during adolescence involves the search for a(n) _____. A. soul mate B. career C. set of behaviors to please others D. understanding of oneself
answer

D
question

Restrictive and controlling parenting practices are associated with _____. A. a well-behaved adolescent B. adolescent depression C. adolescent achievement D. closeness with parents
answer

B
question

_____ adolescents totally reject the religion in which they’ve grown up. A. Few B. About half of C. About three-fourths of all D. Almost all
answer

A
question

Which statement is an example of a gender role? A. A man should be the primary wage earner. B. A baby is born with reproductive organs for both sexes. C. A biological male decides to undergo an operation to become a woman. D. A woman decides to try dating men and women.
answer

A
question

According to Erikson, adolescents are in the stage of _____. A. identity versus role confusion B. intimacy versus isolation C. independence versus neediness D. integration versus separation
answer

A
question

Drug use before the age of 18 ___________. A. is rare because it is illegal B. is statistically lower than drug use at age 15 C. is the best predictor or later drug abuse D. usually only involves experimentation with alcohol
answer

C
question

The two most common drugs used by adolescents are ___________. A. inhalants and alcohol B. tobacco and alcohol C. marijuana and alcohol D. prescription drugs and tobacco
answer

B
question

Parents’ awareness of where their adolescents are, what they are doing, and with whom they are doing it is referred to as ___________. A. parental monitoring B. generational stake C. overcontrolling D. connectedness
answer

A
question

Lydia finds that she often thinks about killing herself. This is called _________. A. parasuicide B. self-destructive behavior C. deliberate suicide D. suicide ideation
answer

D
question

Which are two of the aspects of family closeness during adolescence? A. communication and autonomy B. support and connectedness C. connectedness and authority D. openness and control
answer

B
question

T/F: Gender identity refers primarily to a person’s self-definition as a male or a female.
answer

True
question

T/F: Adolescent romantic relationship partners, especially in early adolescence, are often selected based on social connections and status with peer groups.
answer

True
question

T/F: Links between adolescents and relatives are especially common among immigrant groups.
answer

True
question

T/F: The rate of clinical depression is higher for adolescent boys than it is for adolescent girls.
answer

False
question

T/F: Part-time employment during the adolescent years is associated with problems if the adolescent works too many hours.
answer

True
question

T/F: The rate of clinical depression in girls triples during the adolescent years.
answer

False
question

T/F: Identity achievement involves a denial of past experiences and childhood identifications.
answer

False
question

T/F: According to Erikson, the ultimate goal of the identity crisis is identity achievement.
answer

True
question

Sandra is in her bedroom with her mother. Sandra’s mother exclaims, “You need to get these clothes off the floor right now!” Sandra replies, “It’s my room and I will leave things where I want.” Sandra’s mother responds, “I am your mother and you will do what I say.” This is an example of _____. A. bickering B. open communication C. parental monitoring D. family bonds
answer

A
question

Without any thoughtful consideration, Sean took on an identity that is the opposite of what his parents want for him. Sean has adopted a(n) _____. A. negative identity B. positive identity C. non-identity D. over identity
answer

A
question

A recent study of teens in New York City found the teens MOST at risk for sexual violence and STIs had _____. A. exclusively same-sex partners B. exclusively opposite-sex partners C. gender-identity disorder D. both same-sex and opposite-sex partners
answer

D
question

Identity diffusion is typically characterized by _________. A. no focus on or concern about the future B. foreclosure C. following one’s heart D. commitment to a cause
answer

A
question

Erin uses drugs, cuts herself, and engages in risky sexual behaviors. Erin likely has _____. A. low self-esteem B. high self-esteem C. a normal teenage phase D. found ways to avoid depression
answer

A
question

Many longitudinal studies have shown that _____ anger during adolescence is normal and that most adolescents express their anger in _____ ways. A. increased; acceptable B. decreased; acceptable C. increased; illegal D. decreased; illegal
answer

A
question

Enrique believes that males should always be the ones to ask females out on dates. He thinks that if a man accepts an invitation for a date from a girl it makes him a wimp. This is an example of Enrique’s _____. A. sex B. gender identity C. sexual orientation D. gender
answer

B
question

Alisha took an overdose of prescription pills, but before she lost consciousness she called her mom for help. Alisha was rushed to the hospital for medical attention. Alisha’s behavior is defined as _____. A. parasuicide B. self-destructive behavior C. deliberate suicide D. suicide ideation
answer

A
question

Several researchers have compared parent-child relationships in Hong Kong, the United States, and Australia and have found that in all three places, parent-child communication and encouragement benefit adolescents, reducing the risk for all of the following EXCEPT _____. A. depression B. low self-esteem C. suicide D. obesity
answer

D
question

With respect to suicide, what is more common in adolescent boys than in adolescent girls? A. serious consideration of suicide B. parasuicide C. completed suicide D. cluster suicide
answer

C
question

T/F: Parent-adolescent interventions can influence adolescents differently depending on their DNA.
answer

True
question

T/F: Genetic vulnerability is a contributing cause of depression during adolescence.
answer

True
question

T/F: Relationships with parents are the prototype for peer relationships.
answer

True
question

T/F: The rate of clinical depression is higher for adolescent boys than it is for adolescent girls.
answer

False
question

T/F: Hermione accepts her parents’ religious faith without question. She is happy and enjoys participating in religious events with them. Hermione’s behavior shows identity moratorium.
answer

False
question

Identity diffusion refers to the identity status in which adolescents _____. A. pause during their identity formation to explore alternatives B. form their identity prematurely C. do not commit to goals and fail to take on any role D. understand who they are as connected to everything they have learned
answer

C
question

When applied to the discussion of drug abuse, the term “generational forgetting” means that _____. A. adults turn a blind eye to youthful experimentation B. youth seek to get high and forget their age C. adolescents gather with others of their cohort to experiment with drugs D. the new generation ignores what adults have learned about the hazards of drugs
answer

D
question

One study found that the short allele of the serotonin transporter promoter gene (5-HTTLPR) contributes to increased rates of depression in all girls, but only in boys who _____. A. ruminate B. are suicidal C. come from high-socioeconomic status communities D. come from low-socioeconomic status communities
answer

D
question

Approximately 1 in _____ adolescent girls is affected by clinical depression. A. 2 B. 5 C. 10 D. 100
answer

B
question

One reason that the teenage pregnancy rate in most European nations is less than half of that in the United States may be because _____. A. of the European sex-education curriculum B. European adolescents live at home longer C. American parents are too permissive D. European teens reach puberty later
answer

A
question

Ty started to behave aggressively at age 5, and by age 8 was caught shoplifting several times. Ty is now age 25 and has committed armed robbery. Ty would be considered to be a(n) _____. A. hostile offender B. dual offender C. life-course-persistent offender D. adolescence-limited offender
answer

C
question

Angel’s parents wanted him to be part of the family business—and Angel planned to do so. Then, at age 21, he decided to leave the business to study to be a lawyer. Angel resisted _____. A. identity foreclosure B. forced conversion C. role repudiation D. negative identity
answer

A
question

Parental monitoring is most likely to be effective and healthy when it is _____. A. rigid and controlling B. part of a warm, supportive relationship C. relaxed and permissive D. part of authoritarian parenting
answer

B
question

Abbie is aware of where her son is whenever he goes out, and she requires him to call if there is any change in plans. This is an example of _____. A. generational stake B. foreclosure for her son C. parental monitoring D. negative control
answer

C
question

In the United States, one way for some to legitimatize an identity moratorium is to _____. A. go to college B. get married C. have a baby D. smoke marijuana
answer

A
question

T/F: In the twenty-first century most adolescents affiliate strongly with one political party over another.
answer

False
question

T/F: In most European nations alcohol is widely used by adolescents and even children.
answer

True
question

T/F: Four aspects of family closeness are communication, support, connectedness, and control.
answer

True
question

T/F: Parental monitoring, even if restrictive and controlling, does not usually cause detrimental effects.
answer

False
question

T/F: Advertisements and curricula that rely on scare tactics can actually increase drug use by making it seem exciting.
answer

True
question

Several of Jamel’s friends agree to gather Thursday evening and study for their physics exam, and they invite him to come along. Jamel’s friends are _____. A. selecting destructive behaviors B. facilitating constructive behaviors C. providing deviancy training D. being monitored by parents
answer

B
question

Healthy communication and support from parents make _____ peer relationships more likely. A. constructive B. destructive C. opposite sex D. romantic
answer

A
question

Nicholi’s parents are restrictive and controlling. Compared with his peers whose parents engage in less psychological control, Nicholi is more likely to be _____. A. academically successful B. closer with his parents C. depressed D. happy
answer

C
question

Most drug use begins ___________. A. as social use B. as hidden, individual use C. with heavy, illegal drugs D. with the onset of puberty
answer

A
question

Heavy drinking impairs memory and self-control by _____. A. damaging the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex B. damaging heart and lungs C. increasing blood pressure D. causing strokes in the brain
answer

A
question

Which adolescent’s sexual behavior is likely to be most strongly influenced by peers? A. Hannah, who has a warm relationship with her parents B. Darrel, who has a warm relationship with his parents C. Trista, who has parents who forbid sexual behavior D. Tom, who has parents who forbid sexual behavior
answer

D
question

T/F: Internet connections may encourage descriptive behavior among adolescents.
answer

True
question

T/F: Contrary to adult fears, many adolescent romances do not include sexual intercourse.
answer

True
question

T/F: Familism refers to parents’ ongoing awareness of their children’s activities and friendships.
answer

False
question

Inhalants, which are used more by younger adolescents to get high, include _____. A. marijuana B. cocaine C. tobacco D. aerosols
answer

D
question

Following Erikson’s lead, _____ distinguished four specific ways young people cope with the identity crisis. A. Baumrind B. Freud C. Marcia D. Skinner
answer

C
question

The term for a pause in identity formation, when alternatives are explored before final choices are made, is known as _____. A. identity diffusion B. role confusion C. negative identity D. moratorium
answer

D
question

Harold readily adopted his parent’s political beliefs without question. Happy and secure, he enjoys participating in political events with his parents. His identity status reflects _____. A. diffusion B. achievement C. foreclosure D. moratorium
answer

C
question

An intervention study designed to improve family communication and cohesion between parents and their sons (Brody et al., 2009) revealed that the sons’ DNA was important to the outcome. Which of the following was a finding from the study? A. The intervention had an impact on boys with a long allele of the 5-HTTLPR gene. B. The intervention had an impact on boys with a short allele of the 5-HTTLPR gene. C. The control experience had an impact on boys with a long allele of the 5-HTTLPR gene. D. The control experience had an impact on boys with a short allele of the 5-HTTLPR gene.
answer

B
question

Parasuicide refers to _____. A. a suicide attempt that does not end in death B. helping someone else to commit suicide C. several people in a group committing suicide D. the serious consideration of suicide
answer

A
question

In general, as children experience puberty, their self-esteem _____. A. rises B. declines C. rises then declines D. remains stable
answer

B
question

Eva is about to become an adolescent mother. Based on recent research, she and her child will better handle the situation if her parents _____. A. assume care for Eva and her child B. adopt Eva’s child and raise the child as their own C. encourage Eva to move out of the house to raise her baby alone D. are supportive, but do not assume complete care for her child
answer

D
question

T/F: Moratorium is an identity status that is considered to be a more mature response to identity exploration than foreclosure.
answer

True
question

T/F: The completed suicide rate is higher for males than for females.
answer

True
question

T/F: Peers are more helpful than harmful.
answer

True
question

T/F: Alcohol is widely enjoyed in North America and is only infrequently abused.
answer

False
question

T/F: Abstinence-only sex education programs that were federal policy until 2009 in the United States had little to no impact on reducing adolescent sexual activity.
answer

True
question

An example of a behavior that demonstrates identity foreclosure is _____. A. dropping out of high school B. choosing a different career path than what parents wanted C. being eager to vote D. working in the family business because it is expected
answer

D
question

In the United States, parent-child conflict is most common when children are in _____. A. late childhood B. early adolescence C. late adolescence D. emerging adulthood
answer

B
question

Suicidal ideation is most common around age _____. A. 9 B. 12 C. 15 D. 18
answer

C
question

An individual who commits crimes during adolescence but stops by the age of 21 is considered a(n) _____. A. repeat offender B. career criminal C. life-course-persistent offender D. adolescence-limited offender
answer

D
question

Suicidal ideation refers to _____. A. a deliberate act of self-destruction that does not end in death B. thinking about suicide C. the belief that suicide is an effective way of getting back at one’s parents or peers D. feelings of sadness or hopelessness
answer

B
question

Today, vocational identity often takes _____ to establish, and most work demands very specific skills that cannot be learned except on the job. A. days B. months C. years D. decades
answer

C
question

According to the text, which is NOT a possible reason for the decrease in juvenile criminal behavior? A. fewer school dropouts B. lenient drug laws C. smaller families D. less lead poisoning
answer

B
question

An adolescence-limited offender refers to someone who _____. A. attacks only other adolescents B. stops committing crimes by age 21 C. is never arrested D. is a juvenile delinquent
answer

B