1 MET is equal to?

3.5 ml.Kg-.min-

Cardiac output(Q) at rest is appoximatley

5L/min

Cardiac output(Q) is the product of?

Stroke volume(SV)xHeart Rate(Hr)

Predicted Heart Rate maximum formula is

220-age

Stroke volume is found by what equation?

EDV(End Diastolic Volume)-ESV(End Systolic Volume)

diastolic is relaxation phase. systolic is contraction

diastolic is relaxation phase. systolic is contraction

Heart Rate Reserve=

(MHR-RHR)%+RHR

max. HR – resting HR x percent target + resting Hr

max. HR – resting HR x percent target + resting Hr

VO2 reserve=

(vo2max-vo2rest)% + vo2rest

vo2rest= 3.5 ml.kg-.min-

vo2rest= 3.5 ml.kg-.min-

1mph= to want in m/min

26.8

1 watt=

6 kg.m.min-

1 lbs of Fat= how many Kcals

3500 Kcals

1L of consumed o2 infers how many kcal ?

5 Kcals

1 in to cm and m

2.54 cm or .0254 m

1l is how many ml?

1000ml

MAP(mean arterial pressure)=

(SBP-DBP)/3 + DBP

where SBP=sysytolic BP and DBP is diastolic

where SBP=sysytolic BP and DBP is diastolic

EF(ejection Fraction)=

(SV/EDV)x 100 = ef in % of 100

SV= stroke volume

EDV= end diastolic volume

SV= stroke volume

EDV= end diastolic volume

Double Product(Rate Pressure Product)=

SBPxHR

SBP= systolic BP

SBP= systolic BP

formula for Vo2 on leg ergometer is?

(10.8x W)/m + 7.0 or (1.8xW)/m + 7.0

where W is work rate in Watt or Kg.m.min-1 respectively

m is Mass in Kg

7.0 is a constant taking into account vertical and horizontal components of resting metabolism.

where W is work rate in Watt or Kg.m.min-1 respectively

m is Mass in Kg

7.0 is a constant taking into account vertical and horizontal components of resting metabolism.

formula for Vo2 on arm ergometer is?

(18x W)/m + 3.5 or (3.0xW)/m + 3.5

where W is work rate in Watt or Kg.m.min-1 respectively

m is Mass in Kg

3.5 is resting vo2

where W is work rate in Watt or Kg.m.min-1 respectively

m is Mass in Kg

3.5 is resting vo2

formula for Vo2 walking on a treadmill is?

(0.1xS)+(1.8xSxG)+ 3.5

S is speed in m/min

G is grade in decimal form so 10% grade is .1

S is speed in m/min

G is grade in decimal form so 10% grade is .1

formula for Vo2 running on a treadmill is?

(0.2xS)+(0.9xSxG)+ 3.5

S is speed in m/min

G is grade in decimal form so 10% grade is .1

S is speed in m/min

G is grade in decimal form so 10% grade is .1

formula for Vo2 on a step ergometer is?

(0.2xF)+(1.33×1.8xFxH)+3.5

where F is frequency in steps per min

H is height in meters

where F is frequency in steps per min

H is height in meters

Formula for finding Work rate on bike or arm ergo?

RxRPMXD

where R is the resistance on the flywheel.

RPM is Rotations per Minute

and D is the distance the flywheel travels in on revolution.

where R is the resistance on the flywheel.

RPM is Rotations per Minute

and D is the distance the flywheel travels in on revolution.

o2 carrying capacity of hemoglobin is?

~1.34 ml of O2 / gram of Hb.

~ grams of Hemoglobin per 100 ml of blood?

20 g of Hb/ 100 ml blood

formula for the Fick equation?

Vo2= Q x a-vo2 diff

where Q is cardiac output

and a-vo2 diff is the difference in arterial and venous oxygen concentration.

where Q is cardiac output

and a-vo2 diff is the difference in arterial and venous oxygen concentration.

absolute indications to terminate exercise testing are?

-drop in systolic BP > or = to 10mm Hg w/ increase work rate when -s/s present w/ the drop

-angina > or = 3/ 4 on the scale

-increasing nervous system symptoms

-signs of poor perfusion

-difficulties monitoring ECG or BP

-patient requests to terminate test

-sustained VT

-ST elevation greater than 1mm in leads w/o diagnostic Q wave (other than v1 or aVR)

-angina > or = 3/ 4 on the scale

-increasing nervous system symptoms

-signs of poor perfusion

-difficulties monitoring ECG or BP

-patient requests to terminate test

-sustained VT

-ST elevation greater than 1mm in leads w/o diagnostic Q wave (other than v1 or aVR)

relative indications to terminate exercise testing are?

-drop in systolic BP > or = to 10mm Hg w/ increase work rate not accompanied by s/s’s

-ST or QRS changes such as >2mm st depression downsloping or horizontal.

-arrhythmia other than VT(multifocal pvc’s, triplet pvc’s, SVT, high grade Heart blocks or bradycardia.

-fatigue, SOB, wheezing, claudication

-BBB or IVCD that can not be differentiated from VT ( such as new onset LBBB)

-increasing CP

-hypertensive response SBP >250 or DBP>115

-ST or QRS changes such as >2mm st depression downsloping or horizontal.

-arrhythmia other than VT(multifocal pvc’s, triplet pvc’s, SVT, high grade Heart blocks or bradycardia.

-fatigue, SOB, wheezing, claudication

-BBB or IVCD that can not be differentiated from VT ( such as new onset LBBB)

-increasing CP

-hypertensive response SBP >250 or DBP>115

absolute contraindications to exercise testing are?

-recent change in resting EKG suggestive of significant ischemia, recent MI or other acute cardiac event.

-unstable angina

-uncontrolled cardiac dysrhythmias causing symptoms.

-symptomatic severe aortic stenosis

-symptomatic Heart Failure

-acute myo- or peri- carditis

-dissecting aneurysm

-unstable angina

-uncontrolled cardiac dysrhythmias causing symptoms.

-symptomatic severe aortic stenosis

-symptomatic Heart Failure

-acute myo- or peri- carditis

-dissecting aneurysm

relative contraindications to exercise testing are?

-left main coronary stenosis

-moderate stenotic valvular heart disease

-electrolyte abnormalities

-severe arterial Htn SBP>200 DBP>110 @ rest

-tachy or brady dysrhythmias

-hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

-neuromotor, musculoskeletal, rheumatiod disorders worsened by exercise.

– High degree AV blocks

– Ventricular aneurysm

-uncontrolled metabolic disease

-Chronic infectious disease

-mental or physical impairments

-moderate stenotic valvular heart disease

-electrolyte abnormalities

-severe arterial Htn SBP>200 DBP>110 @ rest

-tachy or brady dysrhythmias

-hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

-neuromotor, musculoskeletal, rheumatiod disorders worsened by exercise.

– High degree AV blocks

– Ventricular aneurysm

-uncontrolled metabolic disease

-Chronic infectious disease

-mental or physical impairments

CVD Risk stratification as Low Risk

CVD Risk stratification as moderate Risk

>=2 RF and asymptomatic

CVD Risk stratification as High Risk

Symptomatic or known known cardiovascular, pulmonary, renal or metabolic disease.

cardiovascular RF are?

-Age >= 45 in men; 55 in women

-Family Hx; MI, CABG, SCD before 55 yoa in men and 65 in women owith 1st degree relative.

-Smoking within 6 months or exposure to environmental (2nd hand ex. working in a Bar)

– sedentary lifestyle. = 30kg.m^2 or waist girth >102cm in men, >88 cm in women.

– hypertension sbp >= 140 dbp >= 90 confirmed on at least 2 occasions or on BP Rx.

-Dyslipidemia ldl >= 130, hdl = 200 or on cholesterol Rx.

-Prediabetes aka impaired fasting glucose. >= 100 ans = 60 is a negative RF and one positive RF can be subtracted from the total.

-Family Hx; MI, CABG, SCD before 55 yoa in men and 65 in women owith 1st degree relative.

-Smoking within 6 months or exposure to environmental (2nd hand ex. working in a Bar)

– sedentary lifestyle. = 30kg.m^2 or waist girth >102cm in men, >88 cm in women.

– hypertension sbp >= 140 dbp >= 90 confirmed on at least 2 occasions or on BP Rx.

-Dyslipidemia ldl >= 130, hdl = 200 or on cholesterol Rx.

-Prediabetes aka impaired fasting glucose. >= 100 ans = 60 is a negative RF and one positive RF can be subtracted from the total.

also of importance is if a RF is not known or available it should be counted except prediabetes. for prediabetes it should be counted if their over the age of 45 or if under 45 with a bmi of >=25.

Timmy is a 43 Y.o male who smokes, his HDL is 65 , BMI 31 and He exercises moderately for 1 hr a day 3 time a week. everything else is WNL. what is his Risk Stratification for CVD?

Low.

Why, he has 2 positive RF; smoking and Weight but one negative RF HDL >60

2-1=1

1 RF puts him in the low RS

Why, he has 2 positive RF; smoking and Weight but one negative RF HDL >60

2-1=1

1 RF puts him in the low RS