Acid-Base Inorganic Chemistry (Chapter 6)

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Arrhenius Acid
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PRODUCES H+ (H₃O+ ions)
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Arrhenius Base
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PRODUCES OH-
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Bronsted-Lowry Acid
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H+ DONOR
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Bronsted-Lowry Base
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H+ ACCEPTOR
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Bronsted-Lowry general Acid-Base reaction focuses on what?
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Transfer of H+ (Focuses on H+ moving around)
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Deprotonation
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Loss of a proton
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Conjugate Acid
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Has an extra H+ (Example: NH₄⁺ is the conjugate acid of NH₃)
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Conjugate Base
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Lost an H+ (Example: NH₃ is the conjugate base of NH₄⁺)
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Autoionization
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When water molecules react with one another to form ions. (Kw is ionization constant of water.)
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pH Equation
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pH = -log[H₃O⁺]
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[H₃O⁺] Equation
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[H3O+] = 10^-pH
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Kw Equation (with concentration, then with acid/base) and Value of Kw
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Kw = [OH-][H₃O⁺] = Ka*Kb Kw = 1×10^-14
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Ka (Acidity Constant) equation to find it?
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Ka = products/reactants ( Ka = [H₃O⁺][A⁻]/[HA] )
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Acid Base Shortcut
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Ka = x²/[HA initial concentration] ( where x=[H₃O⁺] )
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Metal oxides are ____ (acidic, basic, neutral)
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Basic (Eg: MgO is basic)
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Non-Metal oxides are ____ (acidic, basic, neutral)
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Acidic (Eg: SO₂ is acidic)
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Percent % Ionization Equation
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% Ionization = ([H₃O⁺]/[HA initial]) *100%
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Amphoteric/amphiprotic
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Able to act as an acid or a base.
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Neutralization
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Acids and bases react with each other to produce a salt and water.
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Basic Salt
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A salt that makes pure water basic when added. (Eg: NaHCOO)
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Acidic Salt
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A salt that makes pure water acidic when added. (Eg: CH₃NH₃(⁺)Cl(⁻) )
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Neutral Salt
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A salt that DOESN’T AFFECT the pH of pure water when added. (Eg: Ba(NO₃)₂ )
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SuperAcid
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more acidic than H₂SO₄
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SuperBase
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Bases with gas-phase proton affinities (PA’s) greater than 1000 kJ/mol.
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Acid Strength Trend
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↓→ Right and Down Periodic Table (points towards stronger acids)
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Base Strength Trend
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↑← UP and left Periodic Table (points towards stronger bases)
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Acid Structure Trend for Oxoacids (3 things)
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More Oxygen attached to central acid gives a stronger acid. Greater Oxidation # of central atom gives a stronger acid. More electronegative central atom gives stronger acid (inductive effect).
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Lewis Acid
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Electron pair ACCEPTOR
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Lewis Base
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Electron pair DONOR
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Adduct
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Product of a Lewis acid-base complex.
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Coordination Compounds
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Lewis acid-base adducts involving metal ions.
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In Hard/Soft AB Theory what is an acid?
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A metal or cation
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In Hard/Soft AB Theory what is a base?
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A nonmetal or anion
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Where are hard acids and bases found?
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Upper left periodic table, highly charged transition metals. (Small size, nonpolarizable, large charges)
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Where are soft acids and bases found?
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Transition metals with small or zero charge (right of d-block). (Large size, polarizable, small charges).
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What is H₂O in HSAB theory?
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Hard Base.
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Basolo Rule
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Larger both ions are, the less soluble in water they will be.
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List the 6 Strong Acids
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HCl, HBr, HI, HNO₃, HClO₃, HClO₄, H₂SO₄
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List the 6 Strong Bases
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LiOH, NaOH, KOH, Ca(OH)₂, Sr(OH)₂, Ba(OH)₂ (Left side of table, groups 1(p2,3,4) and 2(p4,5,6))
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Non-aqueous Acid-base system: what does it do?
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Autodissociation. (Autoionization)
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Kion equation and pKion equation
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Kion = [products] (concentration of products multiplied together) pKion = -log (Kion) Kion = 10^(-pKion)

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