ACC Government Chapers 9 and 10

question

The average number of attempts required for successful smoking cessation is
answer

seven.
question

The ultimate goal of nicotine replacement therapy is to
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gradually wean the smoker off nicotine dependence.
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Dieting is not recommended while trying to quit smoking.
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True
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Using nicotine replacement therapy decreases one’s chances of success in quitting.
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False
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The smoking cessation drugs Chantix and Zyban are classified as nicotine replacement therapies.
answer

False
question

One drink is defined by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism as ___________ ounce(s) of alcohol.
answer

0.5
question

Alcohol is removed from the liver at a rate of ________ ounce per hour.
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one-half
question

Alcohol abuse can lead directly to all of the following, EXCEPT
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lung cancer.
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You have been successfully treated for alcoholism. Which of the following is true?
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You will probably always have an urge to drink, however mild.
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Setting goals is important to behavior change.
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True
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The smoking rate for adults in the United States has leveled off at approximately _____ percent.
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20
question

A common symptom of nicotine’s effect on the brain is
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heightened alertness.
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Smoking is estimated to play a role in ______ percent of all cancer deaths.
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30
question

Nicotine replacement therapy is safer than smoking.
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True
question

The nonsmokers’ rights movement arose as a result of
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a growing concern about tobacco’s health hazards.
question

Most mental health experts agree that controlled drinking is the most effective approach for recovery from alcoholism.
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False
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Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding relapse prevention from alcoholism?
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The challenge of relapse may be caused by alcohol-induced changes in the brain.
question

A practice that has substantially increased compliance with drunk-driving laws is
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sobriety checkpoints.
question

Taxation of alcoholic beverages reduces consumption by underage and moderate drinkers.
answer

True
question

In 2008, a collection of college and university presidents and chancellors joined to form the Amethyst Initiative (AI), which seeks to spark a national debate about whether the current legal drinking age of 21 is actually an effective way to keep teens from drinking.
answer

True
question

Which population group tends to drink very little or abstain from alcohol because of a biological reaction to alcohol?
answer

Asian Americans
question

You drank far too much last night, and as a result this morning you feel like you have a bad case of the flu. The best way to cope with your hangover is to
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take a painkiller and rest until you feel better.
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Alcohol use is a factor in about ________ of suicides in the United States.
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one-third
question

Your friend was arrested for drunken driving; police said they had smelled alcohol on his breath. How is this possible?
answer

The body excretes some alcohol directly into exhaled air.
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Which of the following is the first recommended step in creating a behavior change plan for alcohol use?
answer

record your current drinking patterns
question

Which of the following is TRUE of cigar smoking?
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Cigars contain more nicotine than cigarettes.
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What is the typical number of pounds gained when a person stops smoking?
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7 to 10 pounds
question

Approximately _____ percent of lung cancer deaths are caused by smoking.
answer

87
question

Nearly four of every five smokers want to quit smoking.
answer

True
question

Which of the following is a common harm reduction approach to tobacco use?
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increasing taxes on the sale of tobacco products
question

Which of the following statements regarding alcohol use in the United States is TRUE?
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About one-third of adults call themselves abstainers
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Which of the following statements is TRUE about ethnic differences in alcohol use?
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Socioeconomic and environmental factors influence ethnic differences in alcohol use.
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Alcoholism is recognized by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services as the number one health problem for which population?
answer

Native Americans
question

College binge drinkers are more likely to meet the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria for alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence 10 years after college.
answer

True
question

Binge drinking on college campuses is most strongly influenced by
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the social environment.
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Which of the following is TRUE of alcohol-induced cirrhosis?
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It usually takes about 10 years of steady, heavy drinking for cirrhosis to develop.
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All of the following statements are TRUE about the health benefits of moderate alcohol consumption, EXCEPT
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the type of alcoholic beverage is more important than the pattern of drinking.
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Alcohol is associated with a number of cancers, particularly cancers of the head and neck, digestive tract, and breast.
answer

True
question

Alcohol is more likely than any other drug to be associated with violence.
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True
question

Alcohol drinking has been shown to be a factor in about one-third of suicides.
answer

True
question

The tobacco industry’s 1998 Master Settlement Agreement with the states resulted in
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advertising restrictions and payments to the states for tobacco education.
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Why are lower-tar, lower-nicotine “light” cigarettes considered as dangerous as regular cigarettes?
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Smokers will smoke more light cigarettes to get the same results they got from regular cigarettes.
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States have determined that they have no grounds to sue tobacco companies.
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False
question

Lower-tar cigarettes are safer than regular cigarettes.
answer

False
question

Consumption of cigarettes decreases as they become more expensive through taxation and other such measures.
answer

True
question

According to the data in the graphs, which age group below reported the highest percentage of having “drank heavily in the last month”?
answer

21-25
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According to the data in the text, college enrollment has no bearing on the binge-drinking habits of 18- to 20-year-old Americans.
answer

False
question

Which of the following is NOT one of the questions physicians might ask when trying to identify individuals at risk for alcohol problems?
answer

Have you ever been arrogant about your drinking tolerance?
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If you answer yes to one or more of the questions on the CAGE questionnaire, you may be at risk for alcohol dependence.
answer

True
question

The first step in changing your behavior around alcohol is to set specific goals.
answer

False
question

Which of the following is the best way to break a pattern of excessive alcohol use?
answer

Set goals for change.
question

Behavior change plans do not include what you will do when you are tempted to have a drink.
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False
question

All of the following factors increase the absorption of alcohol, EXCEPT
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nicotine.
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Which of the following statements about the metabolizing of alcohol is TRUE?
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Alcohol that is not immediately metabolized circulates throughout the body.
question

Death can result from alcohol intoxication beginning at a blood alcohol content level of about _________.
answer

0.35
question

Travis passed out on the floor after a drinking contest, and now you can not wake him. The best thing you can do for him is
answer

call 911.
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A 150-pound lean person will have a lower blood alcohol content (BAC) than a 150-pound fat person who drinks the same amount of alcohol.
answer

True
question

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) includes all of the following conditions, EXCEPT
answer

laryngitis.
question

Which of the following statements is TRUE about smoking cessation?
answer

The risk of smoking-related heart attack can fall by half within a year.
question

The decline in one’s senses of smell and taste that result from smoking tobacco will gradually return when one stops smoking.
answer

True
question

Smoking reduces the effectiveness of some medications, particularly anti-anxiety drugs and penicillin.
answer

True
question

Individuals who quit smoking before age 50 cut their risk from dying within the next 15 years in half.
answer

True
question

Key reinforcers of nicotine addiction to cigarettes include all of the following, EXCEPT
answer

relief from cold and flu symptoms.
question

Withdrawal symptoms that occur when you try to quit smoking can typically include all of the following, EXCEPT
answer

lack of appetite.
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Which of the following statements about the short-term effects of smoking on the body is TRUE?
answer

Nicotine causes constriction of blood vessels.
question

Individuals who stop smoking typically lose between 7 and 10 pounds until they adjust to not having nicotine in their system.
answer

False
question

Every day, the tobacco industry loses 4,600 smokers, either to quitting or to death.
answer

True
question

Which of the following statements about tobacco is TRUE?
answer

Tobacco smoke contains dozens of cancer-causing substances.
question

Of the carcinogenic substances in tobacco smoke, which is the most damaging to the lungs?
answer

tar
question

Which of the following statements is TRUE about nicotine?
answer

In the brain, it stimulates the release of adrenaline and endorphins.
question

Every day, an additional 4,000 teenagers under age 18 light up their first cigarette.
answer

True
question

Today, more females than males (over the age of eighteen) smoke.
answer

False
question

The percentage of people in the United States who do NOT use illicit drugs is
answer

91.1 percent
question

About 75 percent of people aged 12 or older have used an illicit drug during their lifetime.
answer

False
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A drug is any substance, natural or artificial, other than food, intended to affect the structure or function of the body through its chemical action.
answer

True
question

Drugs are called pharmaceutical drugs when they are developed
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for medical use.
question

Which of the following routes of drug administration is the fastest way for a drug to reach the brain?
answer

through the nose.
question

If a person’s biochemical state is already altered by another drug, the effect of a drug can be changed.
answer

True
question

Which type of drug has effects similar to the response evoked during the fight-or-flight reaction?
answer

stimulants.
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Which of the following is a demand reduction strategy in the war on drugs?
answer

treatment.
question

People who abuse heroin are at higher risk for all of the following health conditions EXCEPT
answer

colon cancer.
question

Ativan is an anti-anxiety drug.
answer

True
question

What is the most commonly used illicit drug among persons aged 12 and older?
answer

marijuana.
question

The highest rates of illicit drug use occur among adults aged.
answer

18-20.
question

Abuse of which of the following genres of prescription medications jumped by 343 percent from 1993-2005?
answer

pain relievers.
question

In the United States, drug use is most prevalent in _______, while the lowest occurs in
answer

large metropolitan areas; completely rural counties.
question

Which of the following drugs has seen a dramatic increase in abuse by college students?
answer

prescription drugs.
question

Compared to other routes of administration, ___________________ is the most complicated way for a drug to enter the bloodstream.
answer

oral consumption
question

Which of the following statements about the effects of drugs on the brain is FALSE?
answer

Parts of the brain involved in rational thought are not affected.
question

Paco has come to depend on heroin to be able to function normally. A few weeks ago, he attempted to cut himself off, but he experienced severe diarrhea. Paco’s case illustrates which of the following concepts?
answer

withdrawal syndrome.
question

One indicator of physiological dependence is the development of
answer

tolerance.
question

Neuroscientists have found that many addictive drugs, such as cocaine, marijuana, opiates, alcohol, and nicotine, affect a pleasure and reward circuit lying deep inside the brain.
answer

True
question

Which of the following, by definition, is(are) a drug(s)?
answer

nicotine, aspirin, and caffeine.
question

Which of the following is a term used to refer to a substance that causes changes in brain chemistry and alters consciousness, perception, mood, and thought?
answer

psychoactive drug.
question

When choosing an over-the-counter medication, it is best to choose a medication with a single ingredient targeted at your symptoms rather than a combination of ingredients.
answer

True
question

It is not necessarily safe to consume food or beverages containing grapefruit juice with any medication; grapefruit juice contains an enzyme that can raise levels of some medications in the blood.
answer

True
question

The FDA does have the power to remove an herbal remedy from the market if it has proven harmful.
answer

True
question

Which of the following statements is TRUE about cocaine?
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Cocaine’s effects appear almost immediately after a single dose and disappear within a few minutes.
question

Which of the following combinations/associations is NOT correct?
answer

methamphetamine/panic attacks
question

Which of the following is a possible long-term effect of marijuana?
answer

development of chronic bronchitis
question

LSD does not produce compulsive drug-seeking behaviors, and physiological withdrawal symptoms do not occur when use is stopped.
answer

True
question

Users can develop a tolerance to stimulants and experience serious withdrawal effects without becoming physically dependent on them.
answer

True
question

Drug abuse rates are lower among college graduates than among those with a high school diploma.
answer

True
question

Sheena is engaging in drug misuse when she
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ingests her little brother’s Ritalin.
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Psychoactive drugs are substances that are used only for recreational purposes.
answer

False
question

Most drugs are taken
answer

orally.
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The route of administration may have a profound effect on the speed and efficiency with which a drug acts.
answer

True
question

Probably the most popular psychoactive drug is
answer

caffeine.
question

Amphetamines fall under which category of drugs?
answer

stimulants.
question

The majority of federal funds directed toward fighting the war on drugs is spent on
answer

domestic law enforcement.
question

Most experts agree that drug treatment should be a one-time, short-term process without relapses.
answer

False
question

Dependence on barbiturates and hypnotics is common among middle-aged and older adults who use these sedatives as sleep aids.
answer

True
question

Which of the following is NOT considered a harm reduction strategy?
answer

incarceration.
question

The most effective approaches to drug abuse prevention on college campuses include all of the following strategies, EXCEPT
answer

More than half of the people in jail have been incarcerated for drug offenses.
question

While most of the funding has been for supply reduction efforts, most of the data suggest that treatment is a more effective and cost-effective approach for reducing drug use.
answer

True
question

Harm reduction strategies are based on the same set of assumptions as supply and demand reduction strategies in the war on drugs.
answer

False
question

Although close, which of the following geographic regions in the U.S. does the text’s graph report as having the highest rate of recent illicit drug use?
answer

the West.
question

Surprisingly, the data in the text reports that “completely rural counties” in the U.S. have a higher recent percentage of illicit drug use.
answer

False

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