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Abnormal Psychology Test 1 Chapter 1

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Psychological disorder
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some psychological dysfunction associated with distress or impairment in functioning that is not typical or culturally expected response
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Abnormal Behavior
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actions that are unexpected and often evaluated negatively because they differ from typical or usual behavior
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3 criteria for defining psychological abnormality
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dysfunction, distress, deviance
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Dysfunction
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behavioral, emotional, cognitive. most common. something is obviously different about your life, no environmental trigger. other people in your life might notice it
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Distress and/or impairment
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upset. you recognize it yourself. isolation, verge of breaking down, “suffering in silence”, functioning but can’t handle emotional distress. example: waitress crying
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Deviance
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atypical or not culturally excepted response. least common. example: dress differently
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Psychopathology
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scientific study of psychological disorders
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Scientist-practitoner
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mental health professional who takes a scientific approach to clinical work
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Function of scientist-practitioner
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consumer, evaluator, creator of science
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Consumer of science
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research. keep up with latest developments in their field and therefore use the most current diagnostic and treatment procedures.
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Evaluator of science
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clination. evaluate their own assessments or treatment procedures to see whether they work. accountable to government, insurance, patients. determining the effectiveness of the practice. basic scientific methods are used in their own treatment. continue to measure so you know if treatment is working
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Creator of science
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academic. conducting research that leads to new information about disorders or their treatment. research attempts to: describe psychological disorder, determine their causes, and treat them
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Presenting problem
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original complaint. what brings a person in, not the disorder but could be a symptom. how a person’s life if being altered in a negative way
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Prevalence
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current number of people displaying a disorder in the total population at any given time. current: suffer from mental illness right now 1 in 3, lifetime: develop over the course of a lifetime 48%. In a form of numbers or percentages
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Incidence
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number of new cases in a year. measuring how worse or better in the population
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Course
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pattern of development and change of disorder over time
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Chronic course
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without treatment it won’t go away and could get worse. could last for long time
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Episodic course
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comes and goes, time limited. ex: stressed during semester but stress goes away when school is over
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Time limited course
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will improve without treatment in a relatively short period. ex: cold. goes away in a few days
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Etiology
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examination of cause
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Onset
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how quick it develops
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Acute onset
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quick, symptoms develop in days or weeks. respond to treatment better
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Insidious onset
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develop slow, steady
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Prognosis
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predicted development with or without treatment (good, guarded, poor) of a disorder over time
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Supernatural model
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agents outside our bodies and environment influence our behavior, thinking, and emotions. These agents that might be divinities, demons, spirits, or other phenomena such as magnetic fields or the moon or stars– driving forces behind the supernatural model
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Supernatural tradition
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mental illness is caused by something evil (demonic possession, witches, sorcery, curses) or punishment for misbehaving
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Supernatural tradition treatments
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exorcism, quarantine, sacrifice, magic potions, rituals, devices, punishment of the evildoer, banishment
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Psychological tradition
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two causes of maladaptive behavior were the social and cultural influences in one’s life and the learning that took place in that environment
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Psychological tradition treatment
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reeducate the individual through rational discussion so that the power of reason would dominate
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Exorcism
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most widely used treatment in history, often leading to death. attempted expulsion of an evil spirit from a person or place
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Biological tradition
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assumption of biological/medical causes for mental illness (disease, neurochemistry and anatomy, genetics). disorders were caused by brain pathology or head trauma and could be influenced by genetics. causes of insanity were always physical
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Biological tradition treatment
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humors: bloodletting, induced vomiting. bed rest, healthful diet, exercise
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Lunatic
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violent behavior would be controlled by cycles of the moon. moon and stars had profound effects on people’s psychological functioning. latin word
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Hippocrates
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corner stoned modern medicine. cause of mental illness was internal not external. theory of anxiety and depression in women, mistreated
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Hysteria
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emotional discontrol, “wandering womb” because disorders occurred primarily in women
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How to manage 4 fluids
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bloodletting (laceration or leaches), vomitorian (vomit inducing agent, keep going until tired or relived)
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Humoral Theory
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Galen did autopsy, we contain 4 fluids. medical/psychological heath under the influence of fluids. too much or too little of one of the humors it was the cause of a mental/medical problem
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Bloodletting
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going to relax and balance you out. stressed? bloodletting. second most common way to treat mental illness
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Chemical imbalances
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neurotransmitters influences physical/psychological health
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Syphilis
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sexually transmitted disease caused by a bacterial microorganism entering the brain. believing that everyone is plotting against you or that you are god. first cured with injecting with malaria, later used penicillin
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General paresis
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caused by syphilis. characterized by symptoms similar to psychotic disorders (hallucination, delusions). consistent symptoms (presentation) and a consistent course that resulted in death.
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Psychosocial treatment
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treatment practices that focus on social and cultural factors (family experience), as well as psychological influences. These approaches include cognitive, behavioral, and interpersonal methods.
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Moral therapy
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Philippe Pinel, treated humanly they acted better. treating humans like humans in a normal environment increased the number of people being admitted
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Mental hygiene
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no reason to put people with mental disorders on display. informed public of their mistreatment
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Downfall of moral therapy
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This was so effective it was also the downfall, not enough staff for number of patients and cost
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Hypnosis
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Anton Mesmer. altered state of consciousness, heightened suggestibility. emotional release. 1. would not remember things from hypnosis 2. emotional release would cause issue to go away
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Psychoanalytic model
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seeks to account for the development and structure of personality, as well as the origin of abnormal behavior based primarily on inferred inner entities and forces
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Psychoanalysis
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exploration of, and insight into, unconscious processes and conflicts
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Unconscious
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completely outside conscious awareness. no control. controls personality, daily functions, instincts, think, feel, behave
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Catharsis
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rapid or sudden release of emotional tension thought to be an important factor in psychoanalytic therapy
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ID
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instinct, born with, biological, have to learn rules, (hunger, sex, shelter)
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Ego
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recognizes desires but realizes appropriate/inappropriate way to approach them. guidelines, socially acceptable, learned from people who raised us
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Superego
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conscious, morality, sense of guilt, learned, cares about other people
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Defense Mechanisms
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unconscious protective processes that keep emotions associated with conflicts in check so that the ego can continue to function
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Projection
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falsely attributes own unacceptable feelings, impulses, or thoughts to another individual or object
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Repression
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blocks disturbing wishes, thoughts, or experiences from conscious awareness
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Sublimation
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directs potentially unhealthy feelings or impulses into socially acceptable/healthy behavior
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Neurosis
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psychological disorder thought to result from an unconscious conflict and the anxiety it causes
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Free association
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being able to lay everything out on the table. patient is instructed to say whatever comes to mind without censoring
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Transference
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have unresolved social/emotional issue, take emotional energy and play it out in a healthy way. seek to relate to therapist as they do to important authority figures, particularly their parents.
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Humanistic psychology
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humans are unique and good natured. motivated to be best person we can be. focused on social relationships
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Rogers person-centered therapy
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comfortable/relaxed in environment. people felt accepted. could heal themselves in right environment.
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Carol Rogers
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most influential humanist, originated client centered therapy
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Unconditional positive regard
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develop non-judgemental attitude, verbal/nonverbal. acceptance to client’s feelings and actions, recognizes issues with no judgement
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Empathy
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put yourself if someone else’s shoes, experience situations they way they do, feel the way they feel
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Behavioral model
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explanation of human behavior, including dysfunction, based on principles of learning and adaptation derived from experimental psychology
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John Watson
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father of behaviorism. learn how to act based on stimulus
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Behaviorism
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learned techniques, targeting problematic behaviors. example: cant get out of bed. treatment: do what you need to do to get out of bed “behavioral activation”
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Behavioral/Cognitive theory
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thinking errors. example: depression thinks no one likes me, I’m worthless. treatment: challenge thought, call parents and ask if you are worthless
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Classic Conditioning
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type of learning in which a neutral stimulus is paired with a response until it evokes that response. Ivan Pavlov. development of phobias, food aversions, sexual arousal
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Joseph Wolpe
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developed a variety of behavioral procedures for treating his patients, many who suffered from phobias
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Systematic Desensitization
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behavioral therapy technique to diminish excessive fears, involving gradual exposure to the feared stimulus paired with a coping experience, usually relaxation
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Marry Cover Jones
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fear is unlearned or extinguished. peter’s fear of furry objects and the white rabbit
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Behavior therapy
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goal: to improve behavior/mood/thought by creating new cognitive associations, practicing new behavioral habits, and reinforcing adaptive behaviors. scientific approach, evidence based, moves quickly, targets specific symptoms. “talk therapy”- change structure of brain
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B.F. Skinner
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behavioral scientist, operant conditioning. behavior come to be controlled by responses. stimuli responses change behavior
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Operant conditioning
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consequences for behavior that strengthen it or increase frequency
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Reinforcement
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“reward”, any consequence that functions to strengthen or increase behavior again. used to shape desired behaviors
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Shaping
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development of new response by reinforcing successively more similar versions of that response.