A.P. Psychology Prologue

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Humanistic Psychology
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The historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individual’s potential for personal growth
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Natural Selection
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The principle that among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding phenomenon
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Levels of Analysis
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The differing complementary views, from biological psychological to social-cultural for analyzing any given phenomenon
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Basic Research
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One of the two main types of research, pure research that aims to confirm an existing theory or to learn more about a concept or phenomenon
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Applied Research
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One of the two main types of research-conducted specifically to solve practical problems and improve the quality of life
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Functionalism
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A school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes enable us to adapt survive and flourish
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Biopsychosocial Approach
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An integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological and social-cultural levels of analysis
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Nature vs. Nurture
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The longstanding controversy over the relative contribution that genes and experience make to development of psychological traits and behaviors. Today’s science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of the two
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Clinical Psychology
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A branch of psychology that studies, assess and treats people with psychological disorders
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Counseling Psychology
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A branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, works, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being
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Empiricism
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The view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should therefore rely on observation and experimentation
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Psychiatry
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A branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders, practiced by physicians who often provide medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy
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Structuralism
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Developed by Edward Bradford Titchener, it focused on self-reflection and introspection. Highly unreliable
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Psychology:
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The science of behavior and mental process
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Mary Calkins
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First women to become president of an American Psychological Association
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Charles Darwin
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English naturalist and geologist, best known for his contributions to evolutionary theory.
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Dorothea Dix
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American activist who was the main leader for the creation of mental asylums
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Sigmund Freud
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Austrian neurologist, father of psychoanalysis
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G. Stanley Hall
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First president of the American Psychological Association
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William James
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First educator to offer psychology course in the United States
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Ivan Pavlov
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Russian physiologist known primarily for his work in classical conditioning
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Jean Piaget
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Swiss developmental psychologist and philosopher known for his epistemological studies with children. Came up with genetic epistemology theory.
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Carl Rogers
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One of the founders of the humanistic approach to psychology
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B.F. Skinner
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Behaviorist; developed the theory of operant conditioning which is still around today.
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Margaret Washburn
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Leading psychologist in the early 20th century, known for her experimental work in animal behavior and motor theory development
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John B. Watson
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Psychologist who established the psychological school of behaviorism
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William Wundt
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One of the founding figures of modern psychology. Was a German physician, physiologist, philosopher, and professor
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Which philosopher most clearly rejected the idea that the mind is separable from the body?
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Aristotle
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Professor Schroeder argues that children have an innate concept of justice that enables them to make distinctions between fair and unfair rules. This argument is most consistent with the views of:
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Socrates
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In the context of debates over the origins of knowledge, nature is to nurture as ________ is to ________.
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Descartes; Locke
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Edward Titchener was concerned primarily with the study of:
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Sensory experiences
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The early school of psychology that employed the method of introspection was known as:
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Structuralism
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Who was the functionalist who authored a textbook for the emerging discipline of psychology?
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James
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Ivan Pavlov pioneered the study of:
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Learning
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Compared with the structuralists, early behaviorists were much less likely to focus on the study of:
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Thinking
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Debates as to whether alcohol abuse is biologically determined or culturally influenced are most relevant to the issue of:
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Nature vs nurture
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A unified understanding of the explanations provided by the neuroscience, cognitive, social-cultural, and other perspectives in psychology is most clearly provided by:
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a biopsychosocial approach.
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Understanding why the fear of darkness may have contributed to the survival of our human ancestors is most relevant to the ________ perspective.
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evolutionary
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Inherited traits are to learned habits as the ________ perspective is to the ________ perspective.
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evolutionary; behavioral
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Which perspective would be most relevant to understanding the role of spaced practice on long-term memory of information.
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Cognitive
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Basic research on persistent human traits like optimism and pessimism is most characteristic of the specialty known as ________ psychology.
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Personality
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Professor Thurstone conducts basic research to investigate whether a teacher’s negative perceptions of some students can affect the students’ subsequent academic performance. Professor Thurstone is most likely a ________ psychologist.
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social
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The growth potential of healthy people was emphasized by:
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humanistic psychology
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Which perspective is most relevant to understanding the linkages between hormone levels and sexual motivation?
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neuroscience
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A focus on the different marriage rituals practiced by members of different ethnic groups is of most relevance to the _______ perspective.
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social-cultural
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Professor Helms conducts basic research on the progressive changes in infants’ perceptual skills during the first year of life. Professor Helms is most likely a ________ psychologist.
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developmental
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Dr. Stevens provides psychotherapy to people who suffer from excessive anxiety. Dr. Stevens is most likely a ________ psychologist.
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Clinical
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Edward Titchener used the research method known as:
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Introspection
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Which research method was introduced by structuralists to identify basic elements of sensory experience?
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Introspection
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T of F Pyschology is best defined as the study of mental life
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False
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T or F Questions about human nature date back to the speculations of the ancient philosophers Socrates, Plato and Aristotle
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True
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T or F Psychology is a way of asking and answering questions
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True
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T or F Sigmund Freud is generally considered to be the father of psychology
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False
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T or F the science of psychology evolved from the older, more established fields of biology and philosophy
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True
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T or F The biggest and most persistent issue in psychology concerns the nature-nurture controversy–that is, the relative contributions of biology and experience to mental processing and behavior
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True
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T or F Evolution has become an important principle of psychology
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True
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T or F Psychology’s different perspectives contradict each other
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False
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T or F In contrast to sociology and anthropology, contemporary psychology has little interest in how behavior varies across cultures
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False
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T or F Psychiatry is a branch of psychology that involves the assessment and treatment of how psychological disorders.
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True

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