A.P. Psych. Social Psychology vocab. – Flashcards

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social psychology
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The scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
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attribution theory
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the theory that we tend to give a casual explanation for someone's behavior, often by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition
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fundamental attribution error
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the tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition
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attitude
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a belief and feeling that predisposes one to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events
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foot-in-the-door phenomenon
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The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
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cognitive dissonance theory
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the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. For example, when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes
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conformity
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adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
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normative social influence
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influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval
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informational social influence
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influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality
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social facilitation
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improved performance of tasks in the presence of others; occurs with simple or well-learned tasks but not with tasks that are difficult or not yet mastered
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social loafing
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the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable
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de-individuation
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the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
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group polarization
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the enhancement of a group's prevailing attitudes through discussion within the group
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groupthink
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the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
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prejudice
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An unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members.
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stereotype
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a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people
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ingroup
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"Us" - people with whom one shares a common identity
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outgroup
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"them"—those perceived as different or apart
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ingroup bias
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The tendency to favor one's own group
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scapegoat theory
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the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame
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just-world phenomenon
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the tendency of people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get
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aggression
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any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy
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frustration-aggression principle
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the principle that frustration- the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal- creates anger which can generate aggression
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conflict
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a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas
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social trap
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a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior
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mere exposure effect
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the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them
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passionate love
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an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship
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companionate love
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the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined
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equity
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a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it
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self-disclosure
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revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others
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altruism
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unselfish regard for the welfare of others
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bystander effect
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the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present
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social exchange theory
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the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs
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superordinate goals
answer
shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation
question
GRIT
answer
strategy designed to decrease international tensions.
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question
social psychology
answer
The scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
question
attribution theory
answer
the theory that we tend to give a casual explanation for someone's behavior, often by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition
question
fundamental attribution error
answer
the tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition
question
attitude
answer
a belief and feeling that predisposes one to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events
question
foot-in-the-door phenomenon
answer
The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
question
cognitive dissonance theory
answer
the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. For example, when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes
question
conformity
answer
adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
question
normative social influence
answer
influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval
question
informational social influence
answer
influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality
question
social facilitation
answer
improved performance of tasks in the presence of others; occurs with simple or well-learned tasks but not with tasks that are difficult or not yet mastered
question
social loafing
answer
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable
question
de-individuation
answer
the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
question
group polarization
answer
the enhancement of a group's prevailing attitudes through discussion within the group
question
groupthink
answer
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
question
prejudice
answer
An unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members.
question
stereotype
answer
a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people
question
ingroup
answer
"Us" - people with whom one shares a common identity
question
outgroup
answer
"them"—those perceived as different or apart
question
ingroup bias
answer
The tendency to favor one's own group
question
scapegoat theory
answer
the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame
question
just-world phenomenon
answer
the tendency of people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get
question
aggression
answer
any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy
question
frustration-aggression principle
answer
the principle that frustration- the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal- creates anger which can generate aggression
question
conflict
answer
a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas
question
social trap
answer
a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior
question
mere exposure effect
answer
the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them
question
passionate love
answer
an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship
question
companionate love
answer
the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined
question
equity
answer
a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it
question
self-disclosure
answer
revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others
question
altruism
answer
unselfish regard for the welfare of others
question
bystander effect
answer
the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present
question
social exchange theory
answer
the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs
question
superordinate goals
answer
shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation
question
GRIT
answer
strategy designed to decrease international tensions.