8.1-8.3 Study Guide Biology I

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3 main Scientist
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Griffith, Avery, Hershey & Chase
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What did Griffith do?
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Experimented with the bacteria that cause pneumonia, used two forms: S form which is deadly and R form which is not deadly, a transforming material passed from dead D bacteria to live R bacteria making them deadly.
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What did Avery do?
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Isolated and purified transforming principle. He performed 3 test.
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Name the 3 test Avery performed.
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Qualitative test – showed DNA was present and Chemical test – showed the chemical makeup matched and Enzyme test – showed only DNA ( degrading enzymes )
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What did Hershey & Chase do?
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Studied viruses that infect bacteria or bacteriophages, tagged viral DNA with radioactive phosphorus, tagged viral proteins with radioactive sulfur, and tagged DNA is found inside the bacteria ( tagged proteins are not )
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Which type of bacteria caused disease, the S or R form?
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S form
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Proteins contain
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Sulfur but very little phosphorus
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DNA contain
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Phosphorus but no sulfur
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2 parts of a molecule
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Nitrogen-containing bases; backbone
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Nitrogen-contains bases contain 2 parts
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Pyrimidines; Purines
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Pyrimidines have how many rings?
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1
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Purines have how many rings?
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2
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Types of Pyrimidines
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Thymine ( T ) and Cytosine ( C )
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Types of Purines
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Adenine ( A ) and Guanine ( G )
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Base pairing rules include
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A pairs with T C pairs with G because a pyrimidine pairs with a purine, the helix has a uniform width
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2 types of bonding
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Backbone; Bases
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Backbone is a
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Covalent bond
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Bases is a
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Hydrogen bond
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Chargaff’s rules include
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Adenine ( A ) = thymine ( T ) Cytosine ( C ) = Guanine ( G )
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Backbone has 2 groups
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Phosphate group; Deoxyribose Sugar ( pentagon shaped )
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How many types of nucleotides are present in DNA?
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4
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Which parts are the same in all nucleotides?
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The phosphate group and the deoxyribose sugar
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Which parts are different in all nucleotides?
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The nitrogen containing base ( A, T, C, G )
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What did Franklin’s data reveal about the structure of DNA?
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That it was of uniform width
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How did Watson and Crick determine the 3D shape of DNA?
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By building models or X-rays
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How does DNA base pairing result in a molecule that has a uniform width?
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Purine and Pyrimidine
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What nucleotide pairs with T?
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A
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What nucleotide pairs with C?
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G
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DNA is replicated during what stage/phase?
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S ( synthesis ) stage
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Each what gets a complete set of identical DNA?
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Body cell
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3 Processes during DNA Replication
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1.
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Enzymes unzip the double helix, free-floating nucleotides form hydrogen bonds with the template strand
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2.
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DNA polymerase enzymes bond the nucleotides together to form the double helix. Polymerase form covalent bonds
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3.
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2 new molecules of DNA are formed each with an original strand and a newly formed strand DNA replication is semiconservative
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4. End result
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2 new strands
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What is DNA replication?
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The process by which DNA is copied during the cell cycle
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Where does DNA replication take place in a eukaryotic cell?
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Nucleus
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When is DNA replicated during the cell cycle?
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S stage
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Why does DNA replication need to occur?
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So each cell has a complete strand of DNA
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What is a template?
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Original strand building off of a patter
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If one strand of DNA had the sequence TAGGTAC, what would be the sequence of the complementary DNA strand?
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ATCCATG
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What roles do proteins play in DNA replication?
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Proteins help unzip the DNA strand
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What must be broken for the DNA strand to separate?
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Hydrogen bonds connecting base pairs
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Why is DNA replication called semiconservative?
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Each molecules consists of one old strand and one new strand.
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Human chromosomes have hundreds of what where the DNA is unzipped so replication can begin?
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Origins of replication
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DNA polymerase has a what function that enables it to detect errors and correct them?
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Proofreading
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What is replication?
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The process by which DNA is copied during the cell cycle.

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