21.4 Leaves

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What are the two main parts of leaves?
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The blade and the petiole.
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What are properties of the blade?
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They are usually broad and flat.
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What does the blade do?
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It collects sunlight for the plant.
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What does the dermal tissue secrete/produce?
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It secretes.produces a waxy water resistant coating (cuticles)
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Where does the leaf \”end\”?
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The leaf \”ends\” at axilllary bud.
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What is the petiole?
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Stalk that connects the blade to the stem.
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What three tissues does the leaf also have?
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Dernal (outer), vascular (xylem and phloem), and ground (chloroplasts) tissues.
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What is the mesophyll?
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The mesophyll is the photosynthetic tissue between the two dermal layers of the leaf.
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What contains most of the leaves chloroplasts?
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The mesophyll contains most of the leaves chloroplasts.
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What does the underside of the leaf have?
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Stomata is on the underside of the leaf.
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What occurs in the stomata?
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Transpiration and gas exchange occur in the stomata.
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What is the palisade layer?
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The palisade layer is the upper meso.
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What does the palisade layer do?
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The palisade layer absorbs light.
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What does the spongy meso do?
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The spongy mess aids in gas diffusion.
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How does the spongy mess aid in gas diffusion?
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It aids in gas diffusion because the air spaces between them open to stomata.
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What does the stomata respond to?
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It responds to the temperature, humidity, hormonal response, and the amount of carbon dioxide.
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Why are the stomata open during the day?
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They are open during the day to allow carbon dioxide to enter and water and oxygen to evaporate out.
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Why does the stomata close at night?
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They close at night to conserve water when photosynthesis is not occurring.
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How do the stomata open and close?
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The guard cells open and close the stomata.
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What is the stomata surrounded by?
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The stomata is surrounded by guard cells.
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What do the guard cells do when potassium ions are high in concentration?
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The guard cells will take in water and plump up, which opens the stomata.
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What happens if too much water is lost?
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The guard cells shrink, closing their stomata.
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What does a desert plant have to prevent water loss?
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It had a very waxy dermis to prevent water loss.
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What are examples of desert plants?
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Cactus and Agave.
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What are some properties that a tree in cold/dry climate may have?
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They may have fine needles that have very low surface area and a tough waxy epidermis that protects them from the cold.
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What is an example of a tree in a cold/dry climate?
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A pine tree is an example of a tree that is in a cold/dry climate.
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Where is the aquatic plants (such as lilies) stoma located and why?
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Aquatic leaves have the underside of their leaves underwater, so water lilies have their stoma on the upper side of the leaves to allow gas exchange.
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Describe the function of the blade and petiole in a leaf?
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The blade collects sunlight and the petiole connects the blade to the stem.
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Grass blades are leaves joined directly to the stem. What structure in grass is missing that is present on other leaves?
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Petioles.
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How do palisade and spongy mesophyll layers help photosynthesis?
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Palisade cells absorb light and spongy mesophyll aid in gas exchange.
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Why might the leaves of aquatic plants that are completely submerged underwater have few stomata?
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They exchange gases with the water environment directly through their dermal layer.

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