2015 Final Exam Study/Review, Chem 1 – Flashcards

question
Horizontal row in the Periodic Table
answer
Period
question
Vertical column in the Periodic Table
answer
Group
question
A repetition of properties occurs when elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number.
answer
periodic law
question
type of element that is a good conductor of heat/current
answer
metal
question
type of element characterized by the presence of electrons in the D orbital
answer
transition metal
question
one-half the distance between the nuclei of two atoms when the atoms are joined
answer
atomic radius
question
basis for Mendeleev's arrangement of the periodic table
answer
atomic mass
question
subatomic particles that are transferred to for positive and negative ions
answer
electrons
question
ability of an atom to attract electrons when the atom is in a compound
answer
electronegativity
question
energy required to remove an electron from an atom
answer
ionization energy
question
an electron is the highest occupied energy level of an atom
answer
valence electron
question
atoms react so as to acquire the stable electron structure of a noble gas
answer
octet rule
question
a depiction of valence electrons around the symbol of an element
answer
electron dot structure
question
an anion of chlorine or other halogen
answer
halide ion
question
the force of attraction binding oppositely charged ions together
answer
ionic bond
question
the attraction of valence electrons for metal ions
answer
metallic bond
question
the number of ions of opposite charge surrounding each ion in a crystal
answer
coordination number
question
a depiction of the arrangement of atoms in molecules and poly-atomic ions
answer
structural formula
question
a covalent bond in which only one pair of electrons is shared
answer
single covalent bond
question
a covalent bond in which the shared electron pair comes from only one of the atoms
answer
coordinate covalent bond
question
a covalent bond between two atoms of significantly different electronegativities
answer
polar bonds
question
a type of bond that is very important in determining the properties of water and of important biological molecules such as proteins and DNA
answer
hydrogen bonds
question
consists of a single atom with a positive and negative charge
answer
monatomic ion
question
atom or group of atoms having a negative charge
answer
anion
question
atom or group of atoms having a positive charge
answer
cation
question
tightly bound group of atoms that behaves as a unit and carries a net charge
answer
polyatomic ion
question
compound composed of two different elements
answer
binary compound
question
produces a hydrogen ion when dissolved in water
answer
acid
question
produced a hydroxide ion when dissolved in water
answer
base
question
In any chemical compound, the masses of elements are always in the same proportion by mass
answer
law of definite proportions
question
when two elements form more than one compound, the masses of one element that combine with the same mass of the other element are in the ratio of small, whole numbers
answer
law of multiple proportions
question
a chemical equation that does not indicate relative amounts of reactants and products
answer
skeleton equation
question
a new substance formed in a chemical reaction
answer
product
question
a starting substance in a chemical reaction
answer
reactant
question
a concise representation of a chemical reaction
answer
chemical equations
question
an equation in which each side has the same number of atoms of each element
answer
balanced equation
question
This quantity can always be used in the same way as moles when interpreting balanced chemical equations
answer
number of molecules
question
This is conserved only in reactions where the temperature is constant and the number of moles of gaseous reactants is the same as that of gaseous products.
answer
volume
question
This is conserved in every ordinary chemical reaction
answer
mass
question
the reactant that determines the amount of product that can be formed in a reaction
answer
limiting reagent
question
the maximum amount of product that could be formed from given amounts of reactants
answer
theoretical yield
question
the reactant that is not completely used up in a reaction
answer
excess reagent
question
the amount of product formed when a reaction is carried out in the laboratory
answer
actual yield
question
the ratio of the actual yield to the theoretical yield
answer
percent yield
question
Compared with the electronegativities of the elements on the left side of a period, the electronegativities of the elements on the right side of the same period tend to be ____.
answer
higher
question
The octet rule states that, in chemical compounds, atoms tend to have ____.
answer
the electron configuration of a noble gas
question
A compound composed of cations and anions is called a(n) _______.
answer
ionic compound
question
An ionic bond is a bond between ____.
answer
a cation and an anion
question
The chemical formula of an ionic compound shows
answer
the lowest whole-number ratio between ions in the ionic compound
question
The shape of the methane molecule is ____.
answer
tetrahedral
question
A bond formed between a silicon atom and an oxygen atom is likely to be ____.
answer
polar covalent
question
When placed between oppositely charged metal plates, the region of a water molecule attracted to the negative plate is the ____.
answer
hydrogen region of the molecule
question
Binary molecular compounds are made of two ____.
answer
nonmetallic elements
question
In naming a binary molecular compound, the number of atoms of each element present in the molecule is indicated by ____.
answer
prefixes
question
When dissolved in water, acids produce ____..
answer
hydrogen ions
question
When naming acids, the prefix hydro- is used when the name of the acid anion ends in ____
answer
-ide
question
When the name of an anion that is part of an acid ends in -ite, the acid name includes the suffix ____
answer
-ous
question
In any chemical compound, the elements are always combined in the same proportion by ____.
answer
mass
question
Avogadro's number of representative particles is equal to one ____.
answer
mole
question
The atomic masses of any two elements contain the same number of ____.
answer
atoms
question
The molar mass of C7H16 and the molar mass of CaCO3 contain approximately the same number of ____.
answer
grams
question
The volume of one mole of a substance is 22.4 L at STP for all ____.
answer
gases
question
The molar volume of a gas at STP occupies ____.
answer
22.4 L
question
The molar mass of a substance can be calculated from its density alone, if that substance is a(n) ____.
answer
gas at STP
question
The lowest whole-number ratio of the elements in a compound is called the ____
answer
empirical formula
question
In every balanced chemical equation, each side of the equation has the same number of ____.
answer
atoms of each element
question
When potassium hydroxide and barium chloride react, potassium chloride and barium hydroxide are formed. The balanced equation for this reaction is ____
answer
2KOH BaCl = 2KCl Ba(OH)2
question
The type of reaction that takes place when one element reacts with a compound to form a new compound and a different element is a ____.
answer
single-replacement reaction
question
The calculation of quantities in chemical equations is called ____.
answer
stoichiometry
question
When two substances react to form products, the reactant which is used up is called the ____.
answer
limiting reagent
question
Give the electron configuration for a neutral atom of beryllium
answer
1s(2) 2s2
question
Give the electron configuration for a neutral atom of chlorine
answer
1s(2) 2s(2) 2p(6) 3s(2) 3p(5)
question
Give the electron configuration for a neutral atom of selenium
answer
1s(2) 2s(2) 2p(6) 3s(2) 3p(6) 3d(10) 4s(2) 4p(4)
question
Which group of elements in the periodic table is known as the alkali metals?
answer
1a
question
Which group in the periodic table is known as the noble gases?
answer
8a
question
What is the name for the Group 2A elements?
answer
alkaline earth metals
question
About what percent of elements is classified as metals?
answer
80%
question
What is the electron configuration of oxygen?
answer
1s(2) 2s(2) 2p(4)
question
What is the electron configuration of sulfur?
answer
1s(2) 2s(2) 2p(6) 3s(2) 3p(4)
question
What orbital is filled when iodine gains an electron to become a negative ion?
answer
5p
question
In which group in the periodic table do the elements have the highest electronegativity values?
answer
7a
question
Give the electron configuration for the lithium ion.
answer
1s(2)
question
Give the electron configuration for the chloride ion.
answer
1s(2) 2s(2) 2p(6) 3s(2) 3p(6)
question
Give the electron configuration for the oxide ion
answer
1s(2) 2s(2) 2p(6)
question
. Write the formula for the compound barium oxide
answer
BaO
question
Write the formula for the compound rubidium phosphide.
answer
Rb3P
question
Write the formula for the compound boron chloride
answer
BCl3
question
How many representative particles are in 1.45 g of a molecular compound with a molar mass of 237 g?
answer
3.68 x 10^21 molecules
question
Find the mass in grams of 3.10 x 10^23 molecules of F2.
answer
19.6g
question
Find the number of moles of argon in 607 g of argon.
answer
15.2 mol
question
What is the percent composition of NiO, if a sample of NiO with a mass of 41.9 g contains 33.1 g Ni and 8.8 g O?
answer
21% O 79% Ni
question
If a total of 13.5 mol of NaHCO3 and 4.5 mol of c6h8O7 react, how many moles of CO2 and Na3C6H5O7 will be produced?
answer
13.5 mol CO2 4.15 mol Na3C6H5O7
question
If 8.00 mol of NH reacted with 14.0 mol of O , how many moles of H O will be produced?
answer
12 mol h20
question
What is the mole ratio of D to A in the generic chemical reaction? 2A + B = C + 3D
answer
3:2
question
How many electrons are in the highest occupied energy level of a neutral strontium atom?
answer
2
question
How many electrons are there in the highest occupied energy level of atoms in Group 5A elements?
answer
5
question
How many electrons are in a rubidium ion (Rb+)?
answer
36
question
How many electrons does the ion Ca^(2+) contain?
answer
18
question
How many valence electrons are in bromine?
answer
7
question
What is the charge of a particle having 9 protons and 10 electrons?
answer
1-
question
How many valence electrons does an iodine atom have?
answer
7
question
What is the total number of covalent bonds normally associated with a single carbon atom in a compound?
answer
4
question
How many electrons are shared in a single covalent bond?
answer
2
question
How many electrons does a nitrogen atom need to gain in order to attain a noble-gas electron configuration?
answer
3
question
How many unshared pairs of electrons does the nitrogen atom in ammonia possess?
answer
1
question
How many electrons does carbon need to gain in order to obtain a noble-gas electron configuration?
answer
4
question
How many electrons are shared in a double covalent bond?
answer
4
question
How many covalent bonds are in a covalently bonded molecule containing 1 phosphorus atom and 3 chlorine atoms?
answer
3
question
What is the bond angle in a water molecule?
answer
105
question
Write the charge of an chloride ion.
answer
-1
question
What is the charge on the polyatomic nitrite and chlorite ions?
answer
-1
question
What is the charge on the cation in CuSO ?
answer
+2
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question
Horizontal row in the Periodic Table
answer
Period
question
Vertical column in the Periodic Table
answer
Group
question
A repetition of properties occurs when elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number.
answer
periodic law
question
type of element that is a good conductor of heat/current
answer
metal
question
type of element characterized by the presence of electrons in the D orbital
answer
transition metal
question
one-half the distance between the nuclei of two atoms when the atoms are joined
answer
atomic radius
question
basis for Mendeleev's arrangement of the periodic table
answer
atomic mass
question
subatomic particles that are transferred to for positive and negative ions
answer
electrons
question
ability of an atom to attract electrons when the atom is in a compound
answer
electronegativity
question
energy required to remove an electron from an atom
answer
ionization energy
question
an electron is the highest occupied energy level of an atom
answer
valence electron
question
atoms react so as to acquire the stable electron structure of a noble gas
answer
octet rule
question
a depiction of valence electrons around the symbol of an element
answer
electron dot structure
question
an anion of chlorine or other halogen
answer
halide ion
question
the force of attraction binding oppositely charged ions together
answer
ionic bond
question
the attraction of valence electrons for metal ions
answer
metallic bond
question
the number of ions of opposite charge surrounding each ion in a crystal
answer
coordination number
question
a depiction of the arrangement of atoms in molecules and poly-atomic ions
answer
structural formula
question
a covalent bond in which only one pair of electrons is shared
answer
single covalent bond
question
a covalent bond in which the shared electron pair comes from only one of the atoms
answer
coordinate covalent bond
question
a covalent bond between two atoms of significantly different electronegativities
answer
polar bonds
question
a type of bond that is very important in determining the properties of water and of important biological molecules such as proteins and DNA
answer
hydrogen bonds
question
consists of a single atom with a positive and negative charge
answer
monatomic ion
question
atom or group of atoms having a negative charge
answer
anion
question
atom or group of atoms having a positive charge
answer
cation
question
tightly bound group of atoms that behaves as a unit and carries a net charge
answer
polyatomic ion
question
compound composed of two different elements
answer
binary compound
question
produces a hydrogen ion when dissolved in water
answer
acid
question
produced a hydroxide ion when dissolved in water
answer
base
question
In any chemical compound, the masses of elements are always in the same proportion by mass
answer
law of definite proportions
question
when two elements form more than one compound, the masses of one element that combine with the same mass of the other element are in the ratio of small, whole numbers
answer
law of multiple proportions
question
a chemical equation that does not indicate relative amounts of reactants and products
answer
skeleton equation
question
a new substance formed in a chemical reaction
answer
product
question
a starting substance in a chemical reaction
answer
reactant
question
a concise representation of a chemical reaction
answer
chemical equations
question
an equation in which each side has the same number of atoms of each element
answer
balanced equation
question
This quantity can always be used in the same way as moles when interpreting balanced chemical equations
answer
number of molecules
question
This is conserved only in reactions where the temperature is constant and the number of moles of gaseous reactants is the same as that of gaseous products.
answer
volume
question
This is conserved in every ordinary chemical reaction
answer
mass
question
the reactant that determines the amount of product that can be formed in a reaction
answer
limiting reagent
question
the maximum amount of product that could be formed from given amounts of reactants
answer
theoretical yield
question
the reactant that is not completely used up in a reaction
answer
excess reagent
question
the amount of product formed when a reaction is carried out in the laboratory
answer
actual yield
question
the ratio of the actual yield to the theoretical yield
answer
percent yield
question
Compared with the electronegativities of the elements on the left side of a period, the electronegativities of the elements on the right side of the same period tend to be ____.
answer
higher
question
The octet rule states that, in chemical compounds, atoms tend to have ____.
answer
the electron configuration of a noble gas
question
A compound composed of cations and anions is called a(n) _______.
answer
ionic compound
question
An ionic bond is a bond between ____.
answer
a cation and an anion
question
The chemical formula of an ionic compound shows
answer
the lowest whole-number ratio between ions in the ionic compound
question
The shape of the methane molecule is ____.
answer
tetrahedral
question
A bond formed between a silicon atom and an oxygen atom is likely to be ____.
answer
polar covalent
question
When placed between oppositely charged metal plates, the region of a water molecule attracted to the negative plate is the ____.
answer
hydrogen region of the molecule
question
Binary molecular compounds are made of two ____.
answer
nonmetallic elements
question
In naming a binary molecular compound, the number of atoms of each element present in the molecule is indicated by ____.
answer
prefixes
question
When dissolved in water, acids produce ____..
answer
hydrogen ions
question
When naming acids, the prefix hydro- is used when the name of the acid anion ends in ____
answer
-ide
question
When the name of an anion that is part of an acid ends in -ite, the acid name includes the suffix ____
answer
-ous
question
In any chemical compound, the elements are always combined in the same proportion by ____.
answer
mass
question
Avogadro's number of representative particles is equal to one ____.
answer
mole
question
The atomic masses of any two elements contain the same number of ____.
answer
atoms
question
The molar mass of C7H16 and the molar mass of CaCO3 contain approximately the same number of ____.
answer
grams
question
The volume of one mole of a substance is 22.4 L at STP for all ____.
answer
gases
question
The molar volume of a gas at STP occupies ____.
answer
22.4 L
question
The molar mass of a substance can be calculated from its density alone, if that substance is a(n) ____.
answer
gas at STP
question
The lowest whole-number ratio of the elements in a compound is called the ____
answer
empirical formula
question
In every balanced chemical equation, each side of the equation has the same number of ____.
answer
atoms of each element
question
When potassium hydroxide and barium chloride react, potassium chloride and barium hydroxide are formed. The balanced equation for this reaction is ____
answer
2KOH BaCl = 2KCl Ba(OH)2
question
The type of reaction that takes place when one element reacts with a compound to form a new compound and a different element is a ____.
answer
single-replacement reaction
question
The calculation of quantities in chemical equations is called ____.
answer
stoichiometry
question
When two substances react to form products, the reactant which is used up is called the ____.
answer
limiting reagent
question
Give the electron configuration for a neutral atom of beryllium
answer
1s(2) 2s2
question
Give the electron configuration for a neutral atom of chlorine
answer
1s(2) 2s(2) 2p(6) 3s(2) 3p(5)
question
Give the electron configuration for a neutral atom of selenium
answer
1s(2) 2s(2) 2p(6) 3s(2) 3p(6) 3d(10) 4s(2) 4p(4)
question
Which group of elements in the periodic table is known as the alkali metals?
answer
1a
question
Which group in the periodic table is known as the noble gases?
answer
8a
question
What is the name for the Group 2A elements?
answer
alkaline earth metals
question
About what percent of elements is classified as metals?
answer
80%
question
What is the electron configuration of oxygen?
answer
1s(2) 2s(2) 2p(4)
question
What is the electron configuration of sulfur?
answer
1s(2) 2s(2) 2p(6) 3s(2) 3p(4)
question
What orbital is filled when iodine gains an electron to become a negative ion?
answer
5p
question
In which group in the periodic table do the elements have the highest electronegativity values?
answer
7a
question
Give the electron configuration for the lithium ion.
answer
1s(2)
question
Give the electron configuration for the chloride ion.
answer
1s(2) 2s(2) 2p(6) 3s(2) 3p(6)
question
Give the electron configuration for the oxide ion
answer
1s(2) 2s(2) 2p(6)
question
. Write the formula for the compound barium oxide
answer
BaO
question
Write the formula for the compound rubidium phosphide.
answer
Rb3P
question
Write the formula for the compound boron chloride
answer
BCl3
question
How many representative particles are in 1.45 g of a molecular compound with a molar mass of 237 g?
answer
3.68 x 10^21 molecules
question
Find the mass in grams of 3.10 x 10^23 molecules of F2.
answer
19.6g
question
Find the number of moles of argon in 607 g of argon.
answer
15.2 mol
question
What is the percent composition of NiO, if a sample of NiO with a mass of 41.9 g contains 33.1 g Ni and 8.8 g O?
answer
21% O 79% Ni
question
If a total of 13.5 mol of NaHCO3 and 4.5 mol of c6h8O7 react, how many moles of CO2 and Na3C6H5O7 will be produced?
answer
13.5 mol CO2 4.15 mol Na3C6H5O7
question
If 8.00 mol of NH reacted with 14.0 mol of O , how many moles of H O will be produced?
answer
12 mol h20
question
What is the mole ratio of D to A in the generic chemical reaction? 2A + B = C + 3D
answer
3:2
question
How many electrons are in the highest occupied energy level of a neutral strontium atom?
answer
2
question
How many electrons are there in the highest occupied energy level of atoms in Group 5A elements?
answer
5
question
How many electrons are in a rubidium ion (Rb+)?
answer
36
question
How many electrons does the ion Ca^(2+) contain?
answer
18
question
How many valence electrons are in bromine?
answer
7
question
What is the charge of a particle having 9 protons and 10 electrons?
answer
1-
question
How many valence electrons does an iodine atom have?
answer
7
question
What is the total number of covalent bonds normally associated with a single carbon atom in a compound?
answer
4
question
How many electrons are shared in a single covalent bond?
answer
2
question
How many electrons does a nitrogen atom need to gain in order to attain a noble-gas electron configuration?
answer
3
question
How many unshared pairs of electrons does the nitrogen atom in ammonia possess?
answer
1
question
How many electrons does carbon need to gain in order to obtain a noble-gas electron configuration?
answer
4
question
How many electrons are shared in a double covalent bond?
answer
4
question
How many covalent bonds are in a covalently bonded molecule containing 1 phosphorus atom and 3 chlorine atoms?
answer
3
question
What is the bond angle in a water molecule?
answer
105
question
Write the charge of an chloride ion.
answer
-1
question
What is the charge on the polyatomic nitrite and chlorite ions?
answer
-1
question
What is the charge on the cation in CuSO ?
answer
+2
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