2-2

1 kg equals _____ pounds.
1 kg equals 2.2 pounds.
A serious side effect of the immunosuppressives is:
an increased susceptibility to infections
An agent used to promote weight loss is:
Orlistat
Common causes of urolithiasis include all of the following except:
Hyperlipidemia
Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR)
Rate at which RBCs settle out of a blood specimen (containing anti-coagulant), an elevation in ESR is a general characteristic of inflammation
Elevated plasma proteins ↑ rate at which RBCs settle in a blood sample
Factors that may precipitate an angina attack include all of the following except:
walking down stairs
Glucocorticoids are used to treat inflammation because they directly:
decrease capillary permeability
steroid hormones from the adrenal cortex e.g., cortisol (hydrocortisone), that ↑ blood glucose levels & act to ↓ inflammation in allergic reactions
How do testicular tumors usually present?
hard, painless mass
Hydroxyurea is believed to function in cancer therapy by:
interfering with the formation of DNA
One reason for staging a malignant tumor at the time of diagnosis is to:
determine the best treatment and the prognosis
Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
sudden acute type of dyspnea common in patients w/left sided congestive heart failure
during sleep the body fluid is redistributed, leading to pulmonary edema & the individual wakes up gasping for air & coughing
Role of memory cells is to:
support the immune response by recognizing certain antigens
Roman numeral LXI equals:
61
Routine application of sun block to skin would be an example of:
preventative measure
The abbreviation for “every day” is:
qd
The common local effects of an expanding tumor mass include:
The common local effects of an expanding tumor mass include obstruction of a tube or duct and cell necrosis and ulceration.
The manifestations of a disease are best defined as the:
signs & symptoms of a disease
The term nosocomial infection means
infection acquired in a hospital or medical facility
Varicella is another word for
Chickenpox
What are the early signs & symptoms of myocardial infarction?
persistent chest pain radiating to the left arm, pallor, and rapid, weak pulse
What causes the itching associated with scabies?
mites burrowing into the epidermis
What characteristic do all individuals with cerebral palsy have?
a form of motor disability
What is the cause of psoriasis?
increased mitosis and shedding of epithelium
What is the cause of sickle-cell anemia?
a defective gene inherited from both parents
What is the cause of Tinea infections?
fungus
What is the most common cause of endocrine abnormalities?
benign tumor
What is the most common cause of viral pneumonia?
influenza virus
What is the spread of malignant cells through blood & lymph to distant sites called?
Metastasis
What method do viruses use to replicate?
using a host cell to produce &assemble components
What would be the result of a reduced number of erythrocytes in the blood?
a decreased hematocrit
Where is a Colles’ fracture located?
wrist (distal radius)
distal radius is broken
Which anemia is considered to result from a malabsorption problem?
pernicious anemia
Which are predisposing factors to thrombus formation in the circulation?
Damaged blood vessel walls, immobility, and prosthetic valves are all predisposing factors to thrombus formation in the circulation.
Which area of the body is sterile?
stomach
Which disease is manifested by dysuria & pyuria?
Cystitis
Which is/are sexually transmitted infection(s) usually considered asymptomatic in women?
chlamydia
gonorrhea
syphilis
Which of the following does not usually develop as a complication of diabetes?
osteoporosis
Which of the following is the common first site for metastasis from prostatic cancer?
bone
Which of the following would be significant signs of bronchiectasis?
chronic cough producing large quantities of purulent sputum
Which signs are typical of Graves’ disease?
Exophthalmos, heat intolerance, and restlessness are typical signs of Grave’s disease.
1 kg equals _____ pounds.
1 kg equals 2.2 pounds.
A brain tumor causes headache because the tumor:
stretches the meninges and blood vessel walls
A cathartic may be necessary if:
there is discomfort associated w/elimination
A digestant is intended to:
: Replace deficient enzymes of the gastrointestinal tract
A frequent cause of peptic ulcer disease is:
Helicobacter pylori infection
A modifiable factor that ↑ risk for atherosclerosis is:
sedentary lifestyle
A serious side effect of the immunosuppressives is:
an increased susceptibility to infections
A serious side effect of the immunosuppressives is:
↑ susceptibility to infections
A tissue in which the cells vary in size & shape + show ↑ mitotic figures would be called:
dysplasia
An agent used to promote weight loss is:
orlistat
An agent used to promote weight loss is:
Orlistat
An atheroma develops from:
accumulated lipids, cells, and fibrin where endothelial injury has occurred
Chemotherapy usually involves a combination of drugs in order to:
↓ adverse effects + be effective in more phases of the cell cycle
Common causes of urolithiasis include all of the following except:
hyperlipidemia
Common causes of urolithiasis include all of the following except:
Hyperlipidemia
Destruction of alveolar walls & septae is typical of:
emphysema
Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR)
Rate at which RBCs settle out of a blood specimen (containing anti-coagulant), an elevation in ESR is a general characteristic of inflammation
Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR)
Elevated plasma proteins ↑ rate at which RBCs settle in a blood sample
Factors that may precipitate an angina attack include all of the following except:
walking down stairs
Factors that may precipitate an angina attack include all of the following except:
walking down stairs
Glucocorticoids
steroid hormones from the adrenal cortex e.g., cortisol (hydrocortisone), that ↑ blood glucose levels & act to ↓ inflammation in allergic reactions
Glucocorticoids are used to treat inflammation because they directly:
decrease capillary permeability
Glucocorticoids are used to treat inflammation because they directly:
↓ capillary permeability
How do testicular tumors usually present?
hard, painless mass
Hydroxyurea is believed to function in cancer therapy by:
interfering with the formation of DNA
Hydroxyurea is believed to function in cancer therapy by:
interfering w/formation of DNA
Individuals with type O blood are considered to be universal donors because their blood:
Type O blood lacks A and B antigens.
Obstruction in the upper airway would be indicated by:
stridor
One reason for staging a malignant tumor at the time of diagnosis is to:
determine the best treatment and the prognosis
One reason for staging a malignant tumor at the time of diagnosis is to:
determine the best treatment & prognosis
Oral candidiasis is considered to:
be an opportunistic fungal infection of the mouth
Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
sudden acute type of dyspnea common in patients w/left sided congestive heart failure
Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
during sleep the body fluid is redistributed, leading to pulmonary edema & the individual wakes up gasping for air & coughing
Petechiae and purpura are common signs of:
increased bleeding tendencies
Prolonged administration of glucocorticoids such as prednisone, may cause:
Prolonged administration of glucocorticoids may cause atrophy of lymphoid tissue and decreased protein synthesis.
Role of memory cells is to:
support the immune response by recognizing certain antigens
Roman numeral LXI equals:
61
Routine application of sun block to skin would be an example of:
preventative measure
Routine application of sun block to skin would be an example of:
preventative measure
Tears are considered to be part of the:
1st line of defense/nonspecific defenses
The abbreviation for “every day” is:
qd
The common local effects of an expanding tumor mass include:
The common local effects of an expanding tumor mass include obstruction of a tube or duct and cell necrosis and ulceration.
The common local effects of an expanding tumor mass include:
obstruction of a tube or duct + cell necrosis & ulceration
The functional unit of the kidney is the:
Nephron
The manifestations of a disease are best defined as the:
signs and symptoms of a disease
The manifestations of a disease are best defined as the:
signs & symptoms of a disease
The most critical adverse effects of chemotherapy & radiation therapy include:
thrombocytopenia & leukopenia
The process of phagocytosis involves the:
ingestion of foreign material or cell debris by leukocytes
The term nosocomial infection means
infection acquired in a hospital or medical facility
The term nosocomial infection means:
infection acquired in a hospital or medical facility
Therapeutic measures for osteoporosis include:
dietary supplements of Calcium & Vitamin D
uretics are generally administered in the:
morning
Varicella is another word for
Chickenpox
Varicella is another word for:
Chicken Pox
Vasodilation
relaxation of smooth muscle causing an ↑ in the diameter of arterioles
W/acute leukemias, ↑ # of malignant leukocytes leads to:
↓ hemoglobin, thrombocytopenia, constant bone pain, splenomegaly
Warmth & redness related to the inflammatory response results from:
↑ blood flow into the area of the inflammation
What are early signs & symptoms of infectious rhinitis?
serous nasal discharge, congestion, and sneezing
What are the early signs & symptoms of myocardial infarction?
persistent chest pain radiating to the left arm, pallor, and rapid, weak pulse
What are typical early general signs/symptoms of anemia?
pallor, dyspnea, and fatigue
What are typical signs &symptoms of epiglottitis?
sudden fever, sore throat, and drooling saliva
What causes the itching associated with scabies?
mites burrowing into the epidermis
What characteristic do all individuals with cerebral palsy have?
a form of motor disability
What does orthopnea mean?
difficulty breathing in a recumbent position
What does the term arteriosclerosis specifically refer to?
degeneration with loss of elasticity and obstruction in small arteries
What is a common cause of gastroenteritis due to Salmonella?
raw or undercooked poultry or eggs
What is a common predisposing factors to leukemia?
exposure to radiation
What is a common sign of acute gastritis?
vomiting w/epigastric tenderness
What is a major predisposing factor to cervical cancer?
sexually transmitted diseases, particularly viral
What is a predisposing factor to bladder cancer?
exposure to chemicals and cigarette smoke
What is a raised, thin-walled lesion containing clear fluid called?
vesicle
What is the cause of psoriasis?
increased mitosis and shedding of epithelium
What is the cause of psoriasis?
↑ mitosis & shedding of epithelium
What is the cause of sickle-cell anemia?
a defective gene inherited from both parents
What is the cause of sickle-cell anemia?
defective gene inherited from both parents
What is the cause of Tinea infections?
fungus
What is the cause of Tinea infections?
fungus
What is the maximum volume of air a person can exhale after a maximum inspiration?
vital capacity
What is the most common cause of death immediately following a myocardial infarction?
cardiac arrhythmias
What is the most common cause of endocrine abnormalities?
benign tumor
What is the most common cause of endocrine abnormalities?
benign tumor
What is the most common cause of viral pneumonia?
influenza virus
What is the most common cause of viral pneumonia?
influenza virus
What is the prognosis for osteoarthritis?
damage is irreversible and usually progressive
What is the spread of malignant cells through blood & lymph to distant sites called?
Metastasis
What is/are common locations for oral cancer?
floor of the mouth or tongue borders
What may result from cryptorchidism?
testicular cancer
What method do viruses use to replicate?
using a host cell to produce and assemble components
What method do viruses use to replicate?
using a host cell to produce &assemble components
What results from ↑ secretion of epinephrine?
↑ heart rate & force of contraction
What would be an external source of ionizing radiation?
gamma rays delivered by a cobalt machine
What would be the result of a ↓ # of erythrocytes in the blood?
↓ hematocrit
What would be the result of a reduced number of erythrocytes in the blood?
a decreased hematocrit
Where does urine flow?
Urine flows from the collecting duct to the renal pelvis to the ureter to the bladder
Where is a Colles’ fracture located?
Wrist (distal radius)
Where is a Colles’ fracture located?
wrist (distal radius)
Which anemia is considered to result from a malabsorption problem?
pernicious anemia
Which anemia is considered to result from a malabsorption problem?
Pernicious anemia
Which are local signs of infection?
pain, erythema, and swelling
Which are predisposing factors to thrombus formation in the circulation?
Damaged blood vessel walls, immobility, and prosthetic valves are all predisposing factors to thrombus formation in the circulation.
Which are predisposing factors to thrombus formation in the circulation?
damaged blood vessel walls, immobility, prosthetic valves
Which are the first arteries to branch off the aorta?
coronary arteries
Which area of the body is sterile?
Stomach
Which area of the body is sterile?
stomach
Which disease is manifested by dysuria & pyuria?
Cystitis
Which disease is manifested by dysuria and pyuria?
cystitis
Which is/are sexually transmitted infection(s) usually considered asymptomatic in women?
chlamydia
gonorrhea
syphilis
Which of the following activities does not require muscle contractions and energy?
quiet expiration
Which of the following applies to cerebral palsy?
Cerebral palsy is nonprogressive brain damage to the fetus or neonate.
Which of the following apply to cleft palate?
the hard and soft palates do not fuse during the first trimester
Which of the following causes bronchodilation?
Epinephrine
Which of the following congenital defects is a common cause of cystitis in young children?
vesicoureteral reflux
Which of the following constitutes a Colles’ fracture?
distal radius is broken
Which of the following does not usually develop as a complication of diabetes?
osteoporosis
Which of the following does not usually develop as a complication of diabetes?
osteoporosis
Which of the following drugs decreases sodium & fluid retention in the body?
hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDIURIL)
Which of the following is a characteristic of a benign tumor?
cells appear relatively normal
Which of the following is an agent used to treat the anemia that often occurs after chemotherapy?
Epoetin Alfa
Which of the following is caused by an irregular curvature of the cornea or lens?
astigmatism
Which of the following is not classified as protozoa?
Plasmodium vivax
Trichomonas vaginalis
Mycoplasma pneumonia
Entamoeba histolytica
Mycoplasma pneumonia
Which of the following is related to Wilms’ tumor?
a genetic defect
Which of the following is the common first site for metastasis from prostatic cancer?
bone
Which of the following is typical of Hodgkin’s disease?
initial tumor is single, painless, enlarged lymph node, often cervical
Which of the following statements applies to bile salts?
they emulsify lipids & lipid-soluble vitamins
Which of the following statements regarding acute necrotizing fasciitis is true?
infection that rapidly causes extensive tissue necrosis & toxic shock.
Which of the following would be significant signs of bronchiectasis?
chronic cough producing large quantities of purulent sputum
Which of the following would be significant signs of bronchiectasis?
chronic cough producing large quantities of purulent sputum
Which signs are typical of Graves’ disease?
Exophthalmos, heat intolerance, and restlessness are typical signs of Grave’s disease.
Which signs are typical of Graves’ disease?
Exophthalmos, heat intolerance, and restlessness
Which statement defines a sprain?
tear in a ligament
Which statement describes a coronary artery bypass procedure?
attaching a section of vein to the coronary artery proximal & distal to the obstruction
Which type of immunity is provided by a vaccination?
active artificial
Why is amputation frequently a necessity in diabetics?
necrosis & gangrene in the legs
With the acute leukemias, the increased number of malignant leukocytes leads to:
The increased number of malignant leukocytes in acute leukemias leads to decreased hemoglobin, thrombocytopenia, constant bone pain, and splenomegaly
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