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13-14 physics

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The orbital speed for a satellite orbiting very close to Earth’s surface is
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8000 m/s
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The reason satellites orbit Earth at least 150 km above the surface is to
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be above Earth’s atmosphere
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The speed of a satellite in a circular orbit is
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constant
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The speed of a satellite in an elliptical orbit is
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not constant
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A period of a satellite is
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defined as the time for a satellite to make one complete revolution around Earth
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The higher a satellite is,
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the less speed is and longer its period is
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A circle is a special case of
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an ellipse
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The circular orbit of a satellite orbiting Earth is characterized by constant
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speed, radius, magnitude of acceleration
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The fastest moving planet in a solar system is
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the planet nearest the sun
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Pluto takes a longer time to travel around the sun than Earth takes because Pluto
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has farther to go and goes slower
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An object is placed exactly halfway between Earth and the moon. The object will fall toward
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Earth
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A projectile is fired vertically from the surface of Earth as 10 km/s. The projectile will
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rise and then fall back to Earth’s surface
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A vertically oriented rocker that maintains a continuous upward velocity of 8 km/s will
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escape Earth
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The Earlybird communications satellite hovers over the same point on Earth’s equator indefinitely. This is because
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its orbital period is 24 period hours
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A satellite near Earth makes a full circle in about an hour and a half. How long would it take a satellite located as far away as the moon to orbit Earth?
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about 28 days
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Compared to the period of a satellite in orbit close to Earth, the period of a satellite in orbit far from Earth is
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longer
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Where does a satellite in an elliptical orbit have the greatest kinetic energy?
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at the point closest to the planet
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Where does a satellite in a circular orbit have the greatest kinetic energy?
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anywhere- its kinetic energy is constant
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What remains constant for a satellite in an elliptical orbit?
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its total energy
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Escape speed from the surface of Earth is about
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11.2 km/s
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The curvature of Earth is such that for every 8000m tangent to the surface, the surface drops about
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5 m
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Minimal orbital speed about Earth is approximately 8 km/s. Minimal orbital speed about the moon would
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less than 8 km/s
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When in orbit, a satellite such as the space shuttle is
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simply a projectile
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If you could throw a baseball horizontally at a speed of 8 km/s and if there were no air drag and nothing to stop it,
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it would orbit Earth
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As a satellite is moving in orbit around the Earth, the sum of the kinetic energy and potential energy everywhere is
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constant
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Newton hypothesized that the moon
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all of the above
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If the mass of Earth increased, with no change in radius, your weight would
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increase also
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If the radius of Earth decreased, with no change in mass, your weight would
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increase
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If Earth’s mass decreased to one half its original mass, with no change in radius, then your weight would
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decrease to one half your original weight
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The gravitational force between two massive spheres
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all of the above
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A very massive object A and a less massive object B move toward each other under the influence of mutual gravitation. Which force, if either, is greater?
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both forces are the same
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Two objects move toward each other because of gravitational attraction. As the objects get closer and closer the force between them
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increases
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Suppose the gravitational force between two massive spheres is 100 N. If the distance between the sphere doubled, what is the force between the masses?
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25 N
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By noticing that Uranus’s orbit is perturbed and by using the law of gravitation, two astronomers independently discovered
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Neptune
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The force of gravity on you is greatest when you are standing
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on Earth’s surface
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The reason the moon does not fall into Earth is that
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the moon has a sufficiently large orbital speed
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A lunar month is about 28 days. If the moon were closer to Earth than it is now, the lunar month would be
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less than 28 days
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Each of us weighs a tiny bit less on the ground floor of a skyscraper than we do on the top floor. One reason for this is that
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the mass of the building attracts you upward slightly
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A planet has half the mass of the Earth and half the radius. Compared to its weight on Earth, an apple on this planet would weigh
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twice as much
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Consider the gravitational force between Earth and a meteor in outer space. If the meteor moves so its distance from the Earths center doubles, the gravitational force on the meteor will be
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one quarter
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Which is greater, the gravitational force between Earth and the moon, or the force between Earth and the sun?
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Earth-sun
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Jupiter has more than 300 times the mass of Earth. Yet on Jupiter’s surface an object only about 3 times as much as it would on Earth. The explanation to this involves Jupiter’s
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large radius
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If you stood atop a ladder on Earth that was as tall as Earth’s radius (so you were twice as far from Earth’s center) your weight atop the ladder would be
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one-quarter its normal value
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Since Earth is attracted to the sun, why doesn’t it fall into the sun?
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Because it has sufficient tangential velocity.
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A 560-N woman stands on top of a very tall ladder so she is one Earth radius above Earth’s surface. How much does she weigh?
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140 N
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Suppose the gravitational force between two masses is 70 N. If the magnitude of one of the masses halves, what is the force between the masses?
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35 N
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Suppose the gravitational force between two spheres is 70 N. If the distance between the spheres is halved, what is the force between the masses?
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280 N
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Suppose the gravitational force between two spheres is 30 N. If the magnitude of each mass doubles, what is the force between the masses?
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120 N
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Compared to the gravitational field on the surface of the Earth, the gravitational field well below the Earths surface is
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smaller
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The gravitational field strength at the center of the Earth is
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zero
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If you drop a stone into a hole drilled all the way to the other side of Earth, the stone will
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speed up until it gets the center of Earth
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If you were to weigh yourself in an elevator that is accelerating upward, compared to your ordinary weight you would weigh
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more
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If you were to weigh yourself in an elevator that is in free fall, compared to your ordinary weight, you would weigh
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zero
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There are two main processes going on in the sun that keep the sun in existence. These processes are gravitation and
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nuclear fusion
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If the sun were to collapse to form a black hole (quite unlikely), Earth would
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orbit the black hole just as it orbits the sun now
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When a star collapses to form a black hole, its mass
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remains the same
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If a weight scale shows that you weigh 200 kg on the surface of Earth, and then you skydive with both of your feet attached to the scale, you will read a weight of
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0 kg
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If you stand on a weight scale in an elevator that is accelerating upwards, why do you observe an increase in your weight?
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Because you are accelerating upwards, there is more compression of the springs of the scale. The weight reading on the scale reflects the amount of compression of the springs.
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One way that astronauts detect planets around distant stars is by observing to see if there is a _________ in the light that reaches us from a particular star. The reason that the star moves away or toward us is a __________ due to gravitational effects of the planet.
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Doppler shift, perturbation
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The distance to the center of the Earth is
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4000 miles