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03 Clinical

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________ studies are based on clinical trials while ________ studies are correlational or quasi-experimental in nature.
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Efficacy; Effectiveness
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This is the theory that the “whole” can be understood only in terms of the organization and interactions of its components; it is the theoretical framework underlying family therapy.
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General Systems Theory
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In general systems theory, ________ interact with the environment by receiving input and discharging output, whereas ________ have no exchange with the environment and can lead a family to disorder and disorganization. Families in therapy are usually the former.
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Open systems; closed systems
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In general systems theory, this refers to the concept that every part of a system is interrelated, thus all parts are affected by a change in the system.
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Wholeness
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This property of a family system, according to general systems theory, suggests the whole is greater than the sum of its parts; hence, therapists view the family as a single unit rather than a collection of individuals.
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Non-summativity
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In general systems theory, this refers to the idea that the same end-result occurs for the whole family, regardless of where one enters the system.
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Equifinality
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A young girl who is molested by her father ends up becoming very sexually inhibited later in life. This is an example of ________ according to general systems theory.
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Equipotentiality
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From a general systems theory perspective, this refers to the tendency for a system to revert back to old ways amidst a change or disruption in the system. The system’s management of negative and positive feedback determines the degree to which it exists.
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Homeostasis
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In general systems theory, ________ refers to the maintenance of a family’s homeostasis by attempting to correct deviations in the status quo (e.g., dad yells at loud son and son quiets down), while ________ refers to the disruption of a family’s homeostasis by encouraging or creating deviations to the status quo (e.g., wife gets job and roles change for husband/children).
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Negative feedback; positive feedback
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Interpersonal Therapy was initially developed as a treatment for depression, though it has since been applied to other conditions. While it acknowledges early experience, biology, and personality, it focuses on 1 of what 4 areas of interpersonal functioning?
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Grief, interpersonal role disputes, role transitions, and interpersonal deficits
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This phenomenon occurs in clinical supervision when the therapist (supervisee) behaves toward the supervisor in ways similar to how the client is behaving toward the therapist.
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Parallel process
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What approach to family therapy focuses on the role of communication and distinguishes between symmetrical and complimentary communication?
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Communication/Interaction Family Therapy
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From the perspective of Communication/Interaction Family Therapy, ________ involves conflicting negative injunctions, with one injunction often being expressed verbally and the other non-verbally (e.g., father says “I love you” while spanking child). This usually results in a frustrating conflict in the person receiving the message.
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Double-bind communication
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According to Communication/Interaction Family Therapy, ________ communication occurs between equals but may escalate into a competition for control, whereas ________ communication occurs between participants who are unequal and emphasizes their differences (e.g., parent-child or employee-boss).
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Symmetrical; Complimentary
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What concept of Communication/Interaction Therapy suggests information is communication implicitly via nonverbal messages, which is also referred to as command-level communication?
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Metacommunication (report-level communication refers to the intended verbal message)
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Who is the British psychologist known for research suggesting that any apparent benefit of therapy is actually due to spontaneous recovery?
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Eysenck performed outcome studies showing that 72% of untreated neurotics improved without therapy, while 66% of clients in eclectic therapy and 44% in psychoanalysis showed a substantial decrease in symptoms
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Eysenck concluded, based on his research, that what single form of therapy is superior to placebo or no treatment at all?
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Behavior therapy
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While the impact of duration of therapy (number of sessions) on client outcome is positive at first, it typically lessens over time, though never becomes negative. Thus, it can be said that the relationship between duration of therapy and treatment outcome is what?
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Negatively accelerated
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An approach to the alleviation of mental disorders that is associated with both community mental health and public health is referred to as what?
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Prevention
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________ preventions make an intervention available to all members of a target group or population in order to keep them from developing a disorder.
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Primary
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________ preventions identify at-risk individuals and offer them appropriate treatment.
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Secondary
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________ preventions are designed to reduce the duration and consequences of an illness that has already occurred.
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Tertiary
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Based on the research, who are the most frequent callers and, consequently, receive the most benefit from suicide hotlines?
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Young white females
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Freudian psychoanalysis involves analyzing ________, ________, ________, and ________ and consists of a combination of ________, ________, ________, and ________.
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Free associations; dreams; resistances; transferences; confrontation; clarification; interpretation; working through
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Freud posited that when the ego is unable to ward off danger (anxiety) through rational, realistic means, it resorts to one of its ________.
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Defense mechanisms
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What 2 characteristics do all defense mechanisms share, according to Freud?
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They (1) operate on an unconscious level and (2) serve to distort reality
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Name the following defense mechanisms: ________ involves refusing to accept external reality because it’s too threatening; the gross reshaping of external reality to meet internal needs is called ________; _______ occurs when one attributes to others one’s own unacceptable thoughts/emotions.
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Denial; distortion; projection
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Name the following defense mechanisms: ________ refers to indirectly expressing aggression toward others; ________ is the direct expression of an unconscious impulse without conscious awareness; ________ is subconsciously viewing another person as more positive than they are.
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Passive aggression; acting out; idealization
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Name the following defense mechanisms: ________ involves shifting sexual or aggressive impulses to a more acceptable target; ________ is an extreme separation of emotion from ideas in order to distance oneself from anxiety; and ________ refers to converting unconscious inappropriate impulses into their opposites.
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Displacement; intellectualization; reaction formation
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Name the following defense mechanisms: ________ is the overt expression of ideas or feelings in such a way to give others pleasure; ________ occurs when one identifies so deeply with some idea that it becomes a part of that persons character; ________ refers to transferring/expressing negative emotions or instincts in positive, more acceptable ways.
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Humor; introjection; sublimation
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Name the following defense mechanisms: ________ is the rejection of painful or shameful experiences from consciousness and prevents unacceptable impulses/desires from reaching consciousness; ________ is the process of giving a socially acceptable reason to explain unacceptable thoughts or actions; ________ occurs when a person becomes stuck in a successfully completed developmental stage and returns to this stage in response to difficult life problems.
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Repression; rationalization; fixation
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The id, a completely unorganized reservoir of energy that includes all instincts and reflexes that are inherited at birth, operates according to what?
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The pleasure principle
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The ________ is that part of the id that has been modified by its interaction with the external world, functions to suspend the pleasure principle, and represents the ________.
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Ego; reality principle
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What part of the ego acts as the conscience and is constructed largely from internalization of parental restrictions, prohibitions, and customs?
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Superego
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What unconscious mental process is characterized by limited logic, substitution of one idea with another, and by immediate discharge of energy?
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Primary process
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What conscious mental process, per psychoanalysis, is more logical and sequential in nature?
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Secondary process
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This is the term a psychoanalytic psychologist might use to describe a weakening of one’s defenses and the consequent breaking through of an impulse.
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Signal anxiety
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During ________, a client is asked to attend to all thoughts and report them without suppressing or censuring them. Freud described ________ as a reluctance or inability to recall the traumatic memories that caused one’s symptoms.
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Free association; resistance
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What is the term used to describe a client’s projection of his own feelings, thoughts, wishes and attitudes about others in his past onto the therapist?
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Transference
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Freud used the term ________ to describe a transference reaction that became very intense during analysis.
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Transference neurosis
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Of the 2 transference reactions, a client’s feelings of love that are displaced from original objects (parents) onto the therapist are considered ________ transference and facilitates treatment; ________ transference involves displacement of aggressive drives from the original objects onto the therapist.
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Positive; negative
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What term is used to describe a relationship that allows the client to identify with the therapist as a person, one who can eventually help replace id with ego?
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Therapeutic (working) alliance
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This occurs when the therapist projects their emotions, thoughts, and wishes from the past onto the client’s personality, or some other material the client is presenting, thus expressing unresolved conflicts and/or gratifying their own personal needs.
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Countertransference
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In psychoanalytic terms, a client experiences ________ when the recall of unconscious material leads to emotional release, while ________ occurs when connections are made between current behaviors and unconscious material.
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Catharsis; insight
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What psychoanalytic technique serves the purpose of gradually increasing a client’s insight into the reasons underlying current feelings and behavior?
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Interpretation
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From a psychoanalytic perspective, a client who reports they have been thinking about problems outside of therapy indicates what?
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A good working alliance has been established
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This personality theory and approach to therapy stresses the unity of the individual and the belief that behavior is purposeful and goal-directed. Therapy focuses on exploring lifestyle determinants, including family atmosphere, distorted beliefs and attitudes, and birth order.
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Adler’s Individual Psychology
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Adler posited that what types of childhood feelings motivated growth, domination, and striving for superiority?
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Feelings of inferiority (also called “inferiority complexes”)
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What is another term Adler used instead of inferiority complex?
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Masculine protest
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According to Adler, if an inferiority complex develops a connection with a specific part of the body, it is called what?
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Organ inferiority
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Adler believed children developed “compensatory behavior patterns” to defend against their feelings of inferiority. What did he refer to this to as?
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Style of life
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What is the most significant difference between Freudian and neo-Freudian therapists?
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Neo-Freudians more heavily emphasize socio-cultural determinants of personality
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Horney defined ________ as feelings of helplessness and isolation in a hostile world, and believed it was caused by certain parental behaviors (e.g., indifference, overprotection, rejection).
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Basic anxiety
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According to Horney, what are the 3 modes of relating to others that children use to defend against basic anxiety?
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Movement toward others, movement against others, and movement away from others
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Sullivan posited 3 modes of cognitive experience he believed played a role in personality development. The ________ mode involves discreet, unconnected momentary states and refers to experiences before language symbols are used; in the ________ mode, people see causal connections between events that are not actually related using private (autistic) symbols; and the ________ mode involves logical, sequential, and consistent thinking, and underlies language acquisition.
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Prototaxic; parataxic; syntaxic
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According to Sullivan, neurotic behavior is caused by ________, which is characterized by a person dealing with others as if they were significant people from their past (similar to transference).
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Parataxic distortion
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Fromm, who was interested in the role society plays in preventing people from realizing their true nature, identified what 5 character styles adopted by a person in response to societal demands?
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The receptive, the exploitative, the hoarding, the marketing, and the productive (the only one that permits a person to realize their true nature)
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What is the main difference between Freudian psychoanalysis and Ego-Analysis?
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Ego-analysis places greater emphasis on the role of the ego, as opposed to the id, in personality development
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From the perspective of the ego-analysts, pathology occurs when the ________ loses its autonomy from the ________.
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Ego; id
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Psychologists who primarily emphasize the impact of early relationships on personality development and view maladaptive behavior as the result of abnormalities in early relationships use what approach to psychotherapy?
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Object-Relations Theory
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Margaret Mahler, an Object-Relations theorist and therapist, is most noted for her study of what process?
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Separation-individuation, which is the process by which internal representations of the self and others are formed
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In Object Relations Theory, this is the mental representation of a person that, when inappropriately developed, leads to pathology.
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Object introject
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What is the Object-Relations term used to describe a person’s tendency to separate object-representations into good and bad, usually leading to aggressive feelings, irrational thinking, and poorly regulated behaviors?
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Splitting
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What therapeutic approach refers to normal narcissism as a child’s natural self-love and views pathology as stemming from consistent un-empathic parental responses during childhood?
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Self-Psychology (Kohut)
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According to Self-Psychology, a child develops a protective ________ when their narcissism is inevitably undermined by parental failure to satisfy all needs.
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Grandiose self
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This therapeutic approach believes the whole is greater than the sum of its parts, adopts a here-and-now approach, views awareness as the primary goal of treatment, and defines neurosis as a “growth disorder” reflecting certain boundary disturbances and involving an abandonment of the self for the self-image.
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Gestalt Therapy
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Identify the following boundary disturbances as defined by Gestalt Therapy: ________ refers to “swallowing” information without ever understanding or assimilating it; ________ involves displacing one’s own wishes onto another; in ________, a person does to herself what she wants to do to others (e.g., isolation, masturbation); ________ refers to avoidance of contact by being vague, indirect, or overly polite; ________ occurs when the self-environment boundary is too thin and self is not experienced as distinct, but merged into attitudes, beliefs, and feelings of others; and ________ is when the self-environment boundary becomes nonexistent.
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Introjection; projection, retroflection, deflection, confluence; isolation
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How does a Gestalt therapist view transference in the client-therapist relationship?
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As a fantasy that hinders true self-awareness
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What form of therapy views behavior as being determined by both conscious and unconscious factors, including collective unconscious, and is based on the theory that personality continues to develop throughout the lifespan?
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Jung’s Analytical Psychotherapy
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Jung contended that the ________ unconscious arises from repression, whereas ________ unconscious comes from universally inherited neural patterns and is described as the “reservoir of the experiences of our species.”
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Personal (individual); collective
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From Jung’s Analytic perspective, ________ are innate, universal prototypes for ideas that may be used to interpret observations. A group of memories and interpretations associated with one is termed a ________.
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Archetypes; complex
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________ is the disposition to find pleasure in external things; ________ reflects a turning inward of the libido.
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Extraversion; introversion
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Jung believed that at approximately 40 years old, people shift from the ________ of their youth to the ________ of adulthood, a time period referred to as ________.
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Extroversion; introversion; mid-life crisis (transition)
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Practitioners of what form of therapy hold the belief that people possess an inherent ability for growth and self-actualization and that maladaptive behavior occurs when incongruence between self and experience disrupts this natural tendency?
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Person-Centered Therapy
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In Person-Centered Therapy, what are the 3 facilitative conditions the therapist applies to enable clients to return to their natural tendency for self-actualization?
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Empathic understanding (empathy), congruence (genuineness/authenticity), and unconditional positive regard
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Therapists from this modality view the client as expert while the therapist acts as a consultant/collaborator who poses questions designed to assist clients in recognizing and using their strengths and resources to achieve goals.
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Solution-Focused Therapy
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True or False: Solution-Focused therapists believe that understanding the etiology or attribute of a maladaptive behavior is irrelevant?
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True- they prefer rather to focus on solutions to problems
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What form of therapy that is focused on empowerment and social change, based on the premise that “the personal is political,” and attempts to demystify the client-therapist relationship?
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Feminist Therapy
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In Feminist Object Relations Therapy, what are the 2 contributors to gendered behaviors?
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1. Sexual division of labor and 2. Mother-child relationship (positing that many gender differences can be traced to differences in mother-daughter and mother-son relationships)
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In contrast to Feminist Therapy, ________ therapy focuses more on personal causes of behavior and personal change.
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Nonsexist
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According to this theory, one’s sense of self is largely dependent on how they connect with others, thus psychopathology is viewed as resulting from disconnection with others.
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Self-In-Relation Theory
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What is a good technique to use with clients who are ambivalent about changing their behaviors and combines the transtheoretical model with client-centered therapy and self-efficacy?
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Motivational Interviewing
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The goals of increasing a couple’s recognition and initiation of pleasurable interactions, decreasing a couple’s aversive interactions (negative exchanges), teaching a couple effective problem-solving and communication skills, and teaching a couple to use a contingency contract to resolve persisting problems characterize what therapeutic approach?
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Behavioral Family Therapy
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This school of family therapy extends General Systems Theory beyond the nuclear family and views dysfunction as part of an intergenerational process. Thus, therapy often starts with the construction of a genogram.
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Extended Family Systems Therapy (Bowen; Bowenian)
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The primary goal of Extended Family Systems Therapy is to encourage ________, which is one’s ability to separate their intellectual and emotional functioning.
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Differentiation of self
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According to Extended Family Systems Therapy, this occurs when two family members in conflict involve a third person, which usually immobilizes the third person.
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Triangulation
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A practitioner of Extended Family Systems Therapy often joins a dyad, creating a ________, in an attempt to reduce the original level of fusion and achieve higher self-differentiation.
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Therapeutic triangle
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What are the 3 formative stages therapy groups usually pass through, as proposed by Yalom?
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(1) Hesitancy, search for meaning, and dependency; (2) conflict, dominance, and rebellion; and (3) cohesiveness
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What characteristic of a therapy group does Yalom believe is most important and is most similar to the therapist-client relationship in individual therapy?
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Cohesiveness
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Yalom believes that ________ is inevitable in a group and must be resolved in a way that benefits the group.
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Transference
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Is it ever appropriate for co-therapists to openly disagree during a group session?
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Yes, but not until the group has developed some cohesiveness (6+ sessions)
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Yalom ranks ________, ________, and ________ the most important factors of group therapy. However, higher-functioning group members rate ________ and ________, while lower-functioning members believe ________ is most important.
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Interpersonal learning, catharsis, cohesiveness; universality, interpersonal learning; instillation of hope
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Since concurrent individual and group therapy allows for both extensive intrapersonal exploration and external support, it can be helpful for people presenting with what disorders?
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Borderline and narcissistic personality disorder
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One problem with concurrent group and individual therapy is that a client may be more expressive and inclined to self-disclose in ________ therapy, thus limiting material that could be used for ________ therapy.
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Individual; group
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True or False: Regarding group therapy, Yalom contends that prescreening of potential group members and post-selection preparation is unnecessary?
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False- Yalom states that prescreening and post-selection preparation can reduce premature termination from group therapy and enhance therapy outcomes
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Of the many factors found to influence the behavior of a therapeutic group, which one do most experts believe is the most important for the therapist to consider?
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Intelligence, arguing that clients should have similar intelligence levels to encourage greater group interaction
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What is the ideal size of a therapy group?
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7 to 10 members; 5 or less limits learning and creates too much client-therapist interaction, while more than 10 leads to alienation and lack of cohesiveness
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Research by Guy, Poelstra, and Stark (1989) found that (1) therapists find ________ to be the most stressful client behavior; (2) therapists consider ________ to be the single most stressful aspect of their work; and (3) issues related to ________ constitute the most frequently encountered ethical/legal dilemma.
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Suicidal statements; a lack of therapeutic success; confidentiality
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What approach to family therapy focuses on transactional patterns and views symptoms as interpersonal events that serve to control relationships, views therapy as a power struggle between the client/family and the therapist, and was influenced by structural family therapy, communication/interaction therapy, and Milton Erickson?
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Strategic Family Therapy (Haley)
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A strategic family therapist might instruct a client to engage in the symptomatic behavior in an attempt to harness the energy of resistance in the service of change, which is called what?
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Paradoxical directive
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According to Strategic Family Therapy, this involves relabeling a behavior to make it more amenable to change and giving a new or altered meaning to a situation.
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Reframing
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What Strategic Family Therapy “strategy” involves asking each family member to describe relationships within the family system and note the differences, the goal being to help family members view problems in a new light and make them more amenable to change?
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Circular questioning
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What approach to family therapy encourages couples to focus more on positive aspects of each other and use reciprocal reinforcement (quid pro quo)?
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Operant Interpersonal Therapy
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In a consultative relationship, ________ evaluations are periodically conducted to assess the consultation process, while ________ evaluations are conducted to assess the consultation product.
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Formative; summative
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It is the primary goal of what model of therapy to help clients identify responsible and effective ways of satisfying their needs and thereby develop a “success identity?”
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Reality Therapy
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Reality therapy (1) rejects the ________ and the concept of _______; (2) focuses on ________ behaviors and beliefs; (3) views transference as ________ to the therapy process; (4) stresses ________ processes; (5) emphasizes ________, especially the client’s ability to judge what is right/wrong in daily life; and (6) teaches specific behaviors that will enable clients to ________.
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Medical model; mental illness; current; detrimental; conscious; value judgments; fulfill their needs
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According to Glasser’s Reality Therapy, a person who meets their needs in an irresponsible manner adopts what?
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A “failure identity”
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In what therapeutic approach do therapists analyze a client’s child, parent, and adult ego states?
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Transactional Analysis (Berne)
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Therapists of Transactional Analysis believe transactions occur between ego states at 2 levels (social and covert) by way of ________, or recognition from others. They can be either positive or negative.
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Strokes
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Developed early in life through interactions with parents and others, practitioners of Transactional Analysis believe ________, or a person’s life plan, reflect a characteristic pattern of giving and receiving strokes; an unhealthy one leads to maladaptive behavior.
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Scripts
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What are the 4 life positions according to Transactional Analysis?
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I’m OK – you’re OK; I’m OK – you’re not okay; I’m not OK – you’re OK; I’m not OK – you’re not OK
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According to Transactional Analysis, a ________ transaction is when the original communication is responded to appropriately; a ________ transaction occurs when the original communication is met with a response from an inappropriate ego state; and a ________ transaction occurs when confusion ensues due to the communicator giving a dual message.
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Complimentary; crossed; ulterior
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An orderly series of ulterior transactions that is repeated over time and results in bad feelings for both people involved are called what in Transactional Analysis?
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Games
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Prochaska and DiClemente’s Transtheoretical Model of behavior change proposes that the change process involves what 5 stages of change?
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Pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance
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In this stage of change, the person does not exhibit the specified behavior and has not considered adopting the behavior.
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Pre-contemplation
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A person who is considering adopting a new behavior but has not dedicated any effort towards enacting or preparing to enact it is in what stage of change?
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Contemplation
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A person starting to gather information on a new behavior, with a view toward enacting the behavior, characterizes the ________ stage of change.
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Preparation
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In this stage of change, a person begins enacting a new behavior regularly, but has not continued doing so over a long period of time.
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Action
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A person moves into the ________ stage of change once a new behavior has been regularly enacted for more than 6 months, thus indicating they likely adopted the behavior; people must continually exert effort to maintain the behavior.
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Maintenance
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By nature of novelty, a 6th stage of change has been added to the Transtheoretical Model that is relatively unknown. It is the ________ stage of change and refers to when a new behavior becomes a part of a person’s normal behavior.
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Transformation (or termination); there is some disagreement as to the possibility of ever making it to this stage
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This therapeutic approach emphasizes the human conditions of depersonalization, loneliness, and isolation and assumes people are not static but, rather, in a perpetual state of becoming.
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Existential Therapy
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Of the 2 types of anxiety distinguished by existential therapists, ________ anxiety is proportionate to its cause, does not require repression, and can be used as a catalyst to identify and confront the dilemma from which it arose; ________ anxiety results from evasion of the latter and manifests itself as a loss of a subjective sense of free will and an inability to take responsibility for one’s own life.
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Existential (normal); neurotic
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What is one of the main goals of existential therapy, due to its ability to facilitate client change?
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To develop an intimate, authentic, egalitarian relationship with the client, which is referred to during therapy
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This model proposes that health behaviors are influenced by (1) the person’s readiness to take a particular action, which is related to their perceived susceptibility to the illness and perceived severity of its consequences; (2) the person’s evaluation of the benefits and costs of making a particular response; and (3) the internal and external “cues to action” that trigger the response.
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Health Belief Model
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The concept of the feedback loop through which a system receives information is attributable to ________.
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Cybernetics
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What was derived from the medical-psychiatric model and general systems theory and aims to improve the socio-emotional functioning of a consultee’s clients?
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Mental Health Consultation
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A ________ feedback loop reduces deviation and helps a system maintain its status quo, while a ________ feedback loop amplifies deviation or change and thereby disrupts the system.
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Negative; positive
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This form of family therapy views maladaptive behavior as overly fixed or rigid patterns of action and reaction. The process of therapy involves hypothesizing, circularity, and neutrality and includes the use of circular questions and paradoxical techniques to foster understanding.
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Systemic Family Therapy (Milan)
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This approach to family therapy emphasizes altering a family’s structure (rigid triangles, power hierarchies) in order to change the behavior patterns of family members. The therapist joins the family system, evaluates the structure, then restructures the family using techniques such as enactment and reframing. The goal is behavior change, not insight.
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Structural Family Therapy (Minuchin)
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In Structural Family Therapy, these are the rules that determine the amount and type of contact allowed between family members that lead to enmeshment or disengagement.
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Boundaries
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From the perspective of Structural Family Therapy, ________ occurs when boundaries are overly unclear and promote dependence, whereas ________ results from overly rigid boundaries that promote isolation.
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Enmeshment; disengagement
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Structural Family Therapy posits that boundary problems could take the form of _______, where each parent expects the child to side with them during conflict, and ________, where parents reinforce bad behavior in their child and shift the focus off problems they are having with each other. When the child consistently sides with one parent, it is termed a ________.
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Triangulation; detouring; (stable) coalition
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The Structural Family Therapy technique of “joining” involves the therapist blending into the family by using ________ (adopting their style and language) and ________ (identifying with the family’s values and history).
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Mimesis; tracking
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Practitioners of Structural Family Therapy create this based on observations of family transactional patterns.
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A family map
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What are the 3 restructuring techniques used by Structural Family Therapists?
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Enactment (role play family relationships and interactions), reframing (family behavior relabeled more positively), and blocking (stop family from engaging in normal way of functioning)
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This term refers to the rule that governs the limits of behavior in a family and is associated with the concept of homeostasis- when homeostasis is upset in a family, negative feedback recalibrates the system and restores a comfortable balance.
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Calibration
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What term refers to the tendency of heath professionals to attribute all behavioral, social, and emotional problems to mental retardation in people with such a diagnosis?
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Diagnostic overshadowing
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True or False: One’s theoretical orientation, expertise, or experience is not related to diagnostic overshadowing?
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True- Research has also shown that diagnostic overshadowing applies to other diagnoses and situations as well
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Can utilizing memories retrieved through hypnosis, regardless of their accuracy, be therapeutically beneficial?
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Yes, according to research
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What approach to family therapy focuses both on intrapsychic and interpersonal causes of maladaptive behavior, involves interpreting transferences, resistances, and other factors in order to foster insight, and is not based on the systems model?
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Object-Relations Family Therapy
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The term ________ has been used by Herek to define an ideological system that denies, denigrates, and stigmatizes among non-heterosexual forms of behavior, identity, relationships, or community.
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Heterosexism
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This therapy is a collaborative process of empirical investigation, reality testing, and problem solving between therapist and client where the client’s maladaptive interpretations and conclusions are treated as testable hypotheses.
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Cognitive Therapy (Beck)
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What are the 3 levels of cognition Beck believed influenced the cause and maintenance of pathology?
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Automatic thoughts, schemas, and cognitive distortions
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A cognitive therapist might ask a client to keep a journal of ________, which are thoughts that arise spontaneously in response to certain situations and are more a reflection of a client’s appraisal of a situation rather than the actual situation itself.
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Automatic thoughts
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These are internal models of the self and the world that develop over the course of experiences beginning early in life and can serve an adaptive function by allowing new information to be linked with old information, making for more efficient information processing.
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Schemas (core beliefs; underlying assumptions)
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Beck identified systematic errors in reasoning that form the link between dysfunctional schemas and automatic thoughts, which he called ________. It refers to the process of a person biasing or adapting newly processed information to fit a relevant schema.
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Cognitive distortions
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A client in therapy reports to his therapist that he is a bad employee and is likely to get fired; however, the therapist soon recognizes the client’s negative conclusion cannot be supported by real evidence and, in fact, seems to go against the therapist’s experience of the client as punctual, engaged, and hardworking. What cognitive distortion is this client most likely making?
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Arbitrary inference, which occurs when specific conclusions are drawn with no evidence
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In cognitive marital therapy, a wife reports her frustration with her husband for not taking out the trash, which she says is causing a lot of problems in their marriage. Her husband, however, complains that she fails to recognize other things he does to help. What cognitive distortion is most likely leading to the wife’s frustration?
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Selective abstraction, as she is focusing on a single detail that is taken out of context, at the expense of other information
question

What term refers to therapeutic techniques that attempt to alter maladaptive thought patterns that are believed to be responsible for maladaptive behavior and emotional disorders?
answer

Cognitive restructuring
question

An elderly man who was mugged by a group of teenage boys develops a hatred for all adolescents, exemplifying this cognitive distortion.
answer

Overgeneralization
question

Regarding cognitive distortions, a person who describes a recent trauma as “no big deal” is likely ________, while a person who becomes overly emotional after getting a small scratch in their car represents ________.
answer

Minimizing; magnification
question

This cognitive distortion is characterized by inappropriately attributing external events to oneself when no causal connection really exists (e.g., a therapist takes responsibility for her client being fired from work).
answer

Personalization
question

The cognitive distortion of separating experiences into 2 extremes, such as all good and all bad, is called what?
answer

Dichotomous thinking
question

In Cognitive Therapy, negative thoughts about the self, the future, and the world are referred to as what?
answer

The cognitive triad
question

A person who presents with cognitions of hopelessness, low self-esteem, and failure is most likely experiencing symptoms of ________, while ________ is associated with thoughts of anticipated harm or danger.
answer

Depression; anxiety
question

Identify the following Cognitive Therapy techniques: ________ involves questioning a client’s thoughts that occur in upsetting situations; ________ involves helping clients develop strategies for dealing with feared consequences; ________ involves considering alternative causes of events; and ________ involves restating a problem in terms that emphasize the client’s control of it.
answer

Eliciting automatic thoughts; decatastrophizing; reattribution; redefining
question

Identify the following behavioral techniques used in Cognitive Therapy: ________ involves the therapist assigning tasks to help the client between sessions; ________ involves planning a client’s daily activities; ________ involves experimental tests of predictions that derive from the client’s automatic thoughts; and ________, which are used to reduce strong emotions and negative thinking (e.g., exercise, work).
answer

Homework; activity scheduling; hypothesis testing; diversion techniques
question

Between Cognitive Therapy and Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy, which one more heavily relies on behavioral techniques?
answer

Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy
question

What are the ABCs in Ellis’ Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy?
answer

A = undesirable Activating event –> B = rational or irrational Beliefs about event –> C = emotional and behavioral Consequences based on beliefs
question

According to Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy, absolute thinking, “must-erbation,” and “I-can’t-stand-it-itus” influence the development of ________, which lead to maladaptive behavior.
answer

Irrational beliefs
question

A client’s active participation in administering treatment to him or herself, such as self-monitoring stimulus control, self-reinforcement, and self-punishment, is called what?
answer

Self-control techniques
question

A client who practices ________ might keep a journal of a target behavior each time it occurs to assist with behavioral change.
answer

Self-monitoring
question

In order to increase or decrease a behavior, a therapist might recommend ________ to modify an existing stimulus-response relationship, or create a new one. For example, a drug addict might be instructed to make new, non-addict friends.
answer

Stimulus control
question

This type of stimulus control involves restricting the target behavior to a limited set of stimuli (e.g., a smoker is told to smoke only when they are with a certain friend).
answer

Narrowing
question

To increase a behavior, this type of stimulus control, which involves linking a behavior to a specific cue or set of cues, might be recommended (e.g., a student with poor grades is told to study in the same location so that later, that location triggers study behavior).
answer

Cue strengthening
question

This stimulus control technique involves either identifying or eliminating responses that block desirable behaviors, or encouraging responses that block undesirable behaviors (e.g., a client who is not finishing their work is asked to give responses that interfere with work, such as socializing; this would then be targeted for elimination).
answer

Competing responses
question

When is stimulus control most effective?
answer

When deployed at the beginning of a response chain
question

Stress Inoculation Training (Meichenbaum) involves a 3-step process. In the ________ stage the client is educated as to how their faulty cognitions prevent adaptive coping; the ________ stage involves learning and rehearsing new skills and new ways of perceiving and thinking about stressful situations; the ________ stage entails applying what the client has learned.
answer

Cognitive preparation (education); skills acquisition; practice
question

This is defined as a state of relaxed wakefulness with a relative suspension of peripheral awareness.
answer

Hypnosis
question

What are the 3 factors involved in Hypnosis?
answer

Absorption, dissociation, and suggestibility
question

A form of psychotherapy used to help clients retrieve feelings and memories that have not been accessible by other methods is called what?
answer

Hypnotherapy
question

People presenting to therapy with ________ tend to be more hypnotizable than the general public.
answer

Phobias
question

In what types of situations is the use of hypnosis contraindicated?
answer

When treating clients with psychosis, paranoia, or obsessive-compulsive personality traits
question

This approach has been used to treat psychophysiological disorders (e.g., migraines, hypertension) and evidence has shown that it is the preferred treatment for fecal incontinence and Reynaud’s disease.
answer

Biofeedback
question

What are 2 of the most commonly used types of biofeedback?
answer

Electromyography (EMG) and skin temperature
question

A therapist who instructs a client to do, or wish for, the very things they fear (“prescribing the symptom”) is utilizing the CBT technique of ________.
answer

Paradoxical intention
question

Paradoxical intention serves the function of circumventing ________, which is viewed as the main cause of the problem.
answer

Anticipatory anxiety
question

What malady is paradoxical intention most commonly used to treat?
answer

Insomnia
question

This is a technique that utilizes visualization for the purpose of identifying automatic thoughts, increasing self-control, assisting with distraction, and visualizing desired life outcomes.
answer

Guided imagery
question

What are the 4 primary goals of crisis intervention?
answer

Immediate symptom reduction, strengthening of coping mechanisms, restoration to the previous level of functioning, and prevention of further problems
question

The following are assumptions when working in a/an ________ setting: (1) People are basically strong and resilient; (2) problems reflect need for support, not underlying pathology; (3) present and future are more important than past; (4) therapist promotes coping, not permanent cure; (5) assessment is an on-going process, not symptom-oriented mental status exam; (6) small interventions lead to big systemic changes; (7) goal is quick elimination of symptoms and distress
answer

Crisis intervention
question

The 3 stages of crisis intervention are: ________, which involves identifying the crisis and the client’s reactions to it; ________, which involves assessing the client’s life prior to the crisis, setting specific short-term goals, and using techniques to achieve these goals; and ________, at which point progress is assessed and post-intervention options are discussed.
answer

Formulation; implementation; termination
question

What are the 3 primary goals of brief psychotherapy?
answer

Quick reduction of the client’s most severe symptoms, restoration of the client to prior emotional equilibrium, and development of understanding and skills to facilitate better future coping
question

Who is better suited for brief psychotherapy, a man who has experienced chronic depression most of his life or a woman who is experiencing depression following a recent divorce?
answer

The divorced woman, as brief therapy is best suited for clients with acute symptoms, who were previously well-adjusted, are highly motivated, and who relate well with others
question

Central to this brief approach to therapy is the belief that clients should choose the problems and goals to be worked on in therapy and that clients possess the necessary resources to achieve their goals.
answer

Solution-Focused Therapy
question

Solution-focused techniques include ________, which is when the therapist asks about a time when the problem did not exist, which can lead to self-fulfilling prophecy; ________, or prescribing change; ________, where a client is asked to visualize that their problem is solved, then asked how they would know and what would be different; ________, which are suggestions for unlocking solutions while avoiding the presenting problem, and ________, which are conversations between therapist and client that have a beginning, middle, and end, and an overall plot.
answer

Exception question; formula tasks; miracle question; skeleton keys; narratives and language games
question

In test development, ________ refers to a process of retaining items that best differentiate between large numbers of people in difference populations. For example, the MMPI-2 distinguished between psychiatric and non-psychiatric groups.
answer

Empirical criterion keying
question

On the MMPI-2, a T-score of ________ or over is considered significant and clinically interpretable.
answer

65 (1.5 standard deviations above the mean, 50)
question

MMPI-2 Clinical Scale Descriptions: (1) ________ measures abnormal preoccupation with somatic functioning; (2) ________ one’s experience of hopelessness, helplessness, and worthlessness; (3) ________ physical symptoms with a functional origin (e.g., conversion reaction); (4) ________ measures social ineptness (e.g., antisocial); (5) ________ measures opposite sex interests.
answer

Hypochondriasis; Depression; Hysteria; Psychopathic Deviate; Masculinity/Femininity
question

MMPI-2 Clinical Scale Descriptions: (6) ________ measures vigilance and suspiciousness; (7) ________ measures non-hysteria neurotic manifestations (e.g., phobias); (8) ________ picks up thought disorder or bizarre actions; (9) ________ measures mania and concentration problems; and (10) ________ measures introversion/extraversion.
answer

Paranoia; Psychasthenia; Schizophrenia; Hypomania; Social Introversion
question

MMPI-2 Validity Scale Descriptions: ________ is the total number of unanswered questions; elevations on the ________ scale suggest a portrayal of oneself in the most favorable light (faking good); the ________ scale indicates deviance and attempt to “look bad,” either intentionally or characteristically; ________ indicates defensiveness and guardedness; and ________, ________, and ________ measure response consistency.
answer

?; L (Lie); F (Infrequency); K (Correction); TRIN (True response consistency), VRIN (Variable response consistency), FB (Back side consistency)
question

A psychologists administers the MMPI-2 to a client and, rather than interpreting elevated scales in isolation, compares scores on several scales, which is referred to as?
answer

Pattern analysis
question

What personality test has 21 scales that correspond to DSM diagnostic categories and, as such, is best suited for clinical populations?
answer

Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III)
question

This self-report inventory assesses anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsiveness, and hostility, and is usually used as a dependent measure in outcome research.
answer

Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90)
question

After administering the Rorschach inkblot test, what “system” is one most likely to use to score it?
answer

Exner’s Comprehensive System
question

What projective test relies on stories provided by the client in response to a given set of pictures?
answer

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
question

Regarding projective tests, what is the “projective hypothesis?”
answer

Responses to vague or ambiguous stimuli reveal underlying cognitive and personality processes
question

What test measures a person’s personal interests, which are then compared to norms derived from others who have experienced satisfaction and success in various occupations?
answer

Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory (SCII)
question

While interests tests such as the Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory can validly predict factors relating to job interest, choice, and motivation, what factor are they not good at predicting?
answer

Job performance/success
question

This test yields an indication of interest in 10 broad areas, and differs from the Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory in that it is based on content validity rather than empirical criterion keying.
answer

Kuder Vocational Preference Record (KVP-R)
question

Some neuropsychological test batteries include the ________ (consists of separate measures of lateral dominance, psychomotor functions, sensory-perceptual functions, speech/language, visual-spatial skills, abstract reasoning, mental flexibility, and attention/concentration) and the ________ (consists of 269 items organized into 11 different scales designed to measure specific functions).
answer

Halstead-Reitan; Luria-Nebraska Battery
question

What test, consisting of 9 designs that a client is asked to reproduce on blank paper, might be used to screen for brain damage and to indicate the possibility of psychiatric disorders?
answer

Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test
question

What is usually used to screen for dementia in elderly individuals?
answer

Mini Mental Status Exam (MMSE)
question

This test is for children 2 to 10 y/o and assesses channels (auditory-vocal, visual-motor), processes (understanding, organizing, expressing), and levels (representational, automatic).
answer

Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA)
question

During this test, which is helpful in screening for frontal lobe damage, a person is presented with a list of words of colors (blue, green, red) that are printed in ink of a different color (e.g., “red” is printed in blue ink), then asked to name the ink color as quickly as possible.
answer

Stroop Color-Word Test
question

Howard et al. suggested a Phase Model of Psychotherapy Effectiveness that states the effects of psychotherapy occur in stages related to the number of sessions attended. What are these stages?
answer

Remoralization (first few sessions), remediation (requires about 16 sessions), and rehabilitation (beyond 16 sessions)
question

According to research, what is the difference between patients who show a measurable improvement at 26 sessions and those who have attended 52 sessions?
answer

Howard et al. found that 75% improved by 26 sessions and only 85% by 52 sessions, so the answer is 10%. This is referred to as a “dose dependent effect.”
question

Researchers Smith, Glass, and Miller produced research that contradicted previous findings by Eysenck. What were the results of their meta-analysis?
answer

They found a .85 effect size, indicating the typical client is better off than 80% of controls and 66% of treated individuals, compared to 34% of controls, show improvement from psychotherapy
question

Numerous studies on outcome of psychotherapy, including Smith et al.’s research, have concluded that what type of therapy produces the strongest effects?
answer

No therapy is better than another, which contradicts Eysenck’s earlier findings that behavior therapy was superior
question

When compared to people receiving no treatment, placebo control groups show ________ improvement; however, when compared to groups that are receiving treatments, placebo control groups show ________ improvement.
answer

More; less
question

Of client traits and therapist traits, which ones are believed to be better predictors of therapy outcome?
answer

Client traits
question

What has been found regarding therapy outcome and client level of motivation?
answer

Development of motivation during therapy is more important that motivation to change at beginning of therapy
question

Some studies have suggest that ________ is the single most important characteristic of a therapist.
answer

Competence
question

What has been found to account for most of the variance in treatment outcome and to be more important than the specific treatment intervention?
answer

Therapeutic (working) alliance
question

In a meta-analysis regarding treatment of children and adolescents, what sex did Weisz et al. find responded better, particularly during adolescence?
answer

Females
question

The ________ approach to understanding and describing cultures involves viewing the culture from the perspective of its members, while the ________ approach is culture-general and assumes that universal principles can be applied to all cultures.
answer

Emic; etic
question

According to Berry, a person’s level of acculturation can be described by one of what four terms?
answer

Integration, assimilation, separation, or marginalization
question

Berry referred to this term to describe the retention of one’s identity with their home culture while simultaneously maintaining characteristics of the new culture.
answer

Integration
question

When a person retains very little of their original cultural identity while highly maintaining aspects of the new culture, Berry says they are ________.
answer

Assimilated
question

This term, according to Berry, describes a person’s desire to retain their original culture while rejecting the dominant culture.
answer

Separation
question

Berry states that people who retain very little of the old and new culture, wanting nothing to do with either, experience ________.
answer

Marginalization
question

Research on therapist-client matching in terms of race, ethnicity, or culture has shown what?
answer

While it increases the duration of treatment, it does not have consistent effects on other therapy outcomes
question

The ________ distinguishes between 5 stages that people experience as they attempt to understand themselves in terms of their own culture, the dominant culture, and the oppressive relationship between the two cultures.
answer

Minority Identity Development Model
question

In the ________ stage of minority development, a person prefers the dominant cultural values; the ________ stage is marked by confusion and conflict, and the person begins to challenge the values of the previous stage; in the ________ stage, a person rejects the dominant culture and wholly endorses minority held views; the ________ stage is characterized by conflict between autonomy and constraints of the last stage; and in the ________ stage, the person experiences self-fulfillment and individual autonomy.
answer

Conformity; dissonance; resistance and immersion; introspection; synergistic articulation and awareness
question

What are the 4 stages of Troiden’s Homosexual Identity Development Model?
answer

Sensitization, identity confusion, identity assumption, and identity commitment
question

According to the Homosexual Identity Development Model, this stage is characterized by feelings of marginalization, a concern with gender identification over sexuality, and the internalization of a negative self-concept.
answer

Sensitization
question

The ________ stage of homosexual identity development, Troiden contends, is marked by the youthful experience of conflict between the identity one developed as a child and that which is demanded as an adolescent. During this stage, stress can be dealt with via denial, avoidance, repair, or acceptance.
answer

Identity confusion
question

When a homosexual person experiences a reduction in social isolation and an increase in contact with other homosexuals, Troiden would say they are in the ________ stage of homosexual identity development, during which capitualization, minstralization, passing, and group alignment are used as coping techniques.
answer

Identity assumption
question

This final stage of homosexual identity development involves the integration of homosexuality to the extent that it becomes a state or way of being, rather than a description of sexual behavior. People in this stage usually accomplish same-sex love commitment and are comfortable identifying oneself as gay, lesbian, or bisexual to non-homosexual individuals.
answer

Commitment
question

McLaughlin has distinguished between what 8 stages of homosexuality identity formation?
answer

Isolation, alienation, rejection of self, passing as straight, consolidating self identity, acculturation, integrating self and public identity, and pride and synthesis
question

Herek argues that ________ is a more precise term than homophobia and describes it as “all negative attitudes toward an individual based on sexual orientation,” regardless of sexuality.
answer

Sexual prejudice
question

True or false: Hispanic clients prefer a more attentive and personal approach to therapy?
answer

True
question

Ruiz and Padilla suggest therapy with Hispanic clients should be ________ and ________, and should consider the importance of family in therapy.
answer

Active; goal oriented
question

Regarding treatment of Latino/a and Hispanic people, Cuento therapy includes what in the treatment process?
answer

Reading “cuentos,” or Spanish folk-tales, and discussing them
question

When working with Native-American clients, therapists should take a non-directive, history oriented, accepting, and cooperative approach, as well as consider utilizing what else?
answer

Elder tribe members, medicine people, legends, and other culturally significant aspects
question

As a result of this ethnic group’s tendency to be reserved and inhibited, it is best to use an approach that is direct, structured, and short-term.
answer

Asian American
question

It has been suggested that treatment for this group should include guiding the person through identity stages and encouraging satisfying relationships and activities.
answer

Elderly clients
question

In what approach to therapy would an elderly client be encouraged to accept past successes and shortcomings, resolve past conflicts, and develop future goals to enhance life meaning via a process of reviewing one’s life?
answer

Reminiscence Therapy
question

A therapist who interprets everyone’s reality through their own cultural assumptions and stereotypes, minimizes cultural variations among clients, is unaware of their own cultural biases, and defines counseling in terms of dogmatically-accepted techniques and strategies is said to be what?
answer

Culturally encapsulated
question

This term refers to the process of change that occurs when one culture assimilates with another culture.
answer

Acculturation
question

African-, Asian-, Hispanic-, and Native-Americans exhibit ________ communication, which relies on shared cultural understanding and nonverbal cues. In contrast, Anglos are more likely to exhibit ________ communication, which relies primarily on verbal messages.
answer

High-context; low-context
question

What occurs when a therapist assumes that all of a client’s problems are directly related to the client’s culture as opposed to other factors?
answer

Cultural overgeneralization (Hall)
question

This model was developed by Helms to provide a conceptual framework for understanding and resolving interracial tensions in cross-cultural psychotherapy.
answer

Racial Interaction Model
question

What are the 6 statuses (stages) that emerge in sequence and reflect abandonment of racism, according to the White Racial Identity Development Model (Helms)?
answer

Contact, disintegration, pseudo-independence, immersion-emersion, autonomy, and reintegration
question

According to the White Racial Identity Development Model, people at this status of identity development usually have limited contact with people of color, are oblivious to their own whiteness, and are unaware of the implications of racial differences.
answer

Contact
question

In the ________ status of the White Racial Identity Development Model, Whites experience increasing awareness of their whiteness and of racial inequalities due to increased cross-racial interactions, leading to emotional, psychological, and moral confusion.
answer

Disintegration
question

Whites resolving their conflicts by adopting the position that their race is superior and minorities inferior, all in an attempt to justify existing inequalities, characterize the ________ status of the White Racial Identity Development Model.
answer

Reintegration
question

According to the White Racial Identity Development Model, what status is marked by dissatisfaction with reintegration, leading Whites to re-examine their beliefs about race and racial inequalities?
answer

Pseudo-Independence
question

Whites at the ________ status of the White Racial Identity Development Model embrace their whiteness without rejecting minority group members, and they explore feeling proud about their own race without being racist.
answer

Immersion-Emersion
question

This status of the White Racial Identity Development Model is marked by the internalization of a non-racist White identity based on an accurate understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of White culture, as well as valuing and seeking cross-racial relationships.
answer

Autonomy
question

What model assumes that African-American identity development becomes more authentic as they go through the following 5 stages: pre-encounter, encounter, immersion/emersion, internalization, and internalization/commitment?
answer

The Model of Psychological Nigrescence (Cross)- nigrescence means “the process of becoming black”
question

During this stage of the Model of Psychological Nigrescence, a person is most likely to believe integration and assimilation will solve racial problems and tend to blame African-Americans themselves for their own problems.
answer

Pre-encounter
question

The ________ stage of the Model of Psychological Nigrescence is marked by a personal or social event that temporarily dislodges the person from their worldview, making them more receptive to a new interpretation of their identity.
answer

Encounter
question

When a person denigrates White people and culture while simultaneously deifying African-America people and culture, they are most likely in what stage, according to the Model of Psychological Nigrescence?
answer

Immersion-Emersion
question

This stage of the Model of Psychological Nigrescence is characterized by ideological flexibility, psychological openness, and self-confidence, and involves a resolution of conflicts between old and new worldviews.
answer

Internalization
question

According to the Model of Psychological Nigrescence, a person who translates their newly internalized identity into activities that are meaningful to the group, such as social and political activism, is in what stage?
answer

Internalization-Commitment
question

This term is used to describe appropriate mistrust and suspiciousness of African-Americans and other minorities toward whites resulting from racism and oppression. In therapy, it may be a cause of nondisclosure.
answer

Healthy cultural paranoia
question

If a white therapist suspects their African-American client’s unwillingness to disclose is due to “healthy cultural paranoia,” what should the therapist do, according to Ridely?
answer

Help the client become consciously aware of their feelings about whites and identify when it is safe to self-disclose
question

According to Boyd-Franklin, ________ respond best to a multisystems approach that addresses multiple systems (e.g., extended family, non-blood kin, church, community resources), intervenes at multiple levels, and empowers the family by directly incorporating its strengths into the intervention.
answer

African-American families
question

Research has shown that the most successful therapy for African-Americans is ________ and ________, and that they tend to be more non-verbal, emotional, and concrete.
answer

Problem-oriented; time-limited