Zoology Final Exam Study Guide

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3 Part Body Plan
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head, thorax and abdomen
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Abdomen
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the region of the body of a vertebrate between the thorax and the pelvis
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Abiotic Factor
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Non-living factors including temperature, water, sunlight, wind, rocks and soil
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Adductor Muscles
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Strong muscles in bivalves that pull shells together
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Aggregation
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A large group or collection of people, animals, or things.
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Agnathas
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jawless fish, lampreys, no covering of gills, cartilaginous skeleton
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Amoeba
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A type of protist characterized by great flexibility and the presence of pseudopodia.
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Amoebocyte
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Cells that move using pseudopods and perform different functions in different animals
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Ampulla
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Bulb connected to tube feet that are extended by water squeezed from muscles in the feet; has a sucker for attachment
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Animalia
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A kingdom made up of complex, multicellular organisms that lack cell walls, can usually move around, and quickly respond to their environment.
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Annelids
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(segmented worms) tube shaped bodies divided into sections; has a coelom, a body cavity with organs inside;simplest animals with a circulatory system; have specialized organs for digestion; earthworms the farmers friend help aerate soil and breakdown organic matter
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Anura
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Frogs and toads
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Apoda
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caecilians
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Arachnida
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A member of a major arthropod group that includes spiders, scorpions, ticks, and mites. All members have eight pairs of walking legs., a large class of arthropods including spiders and ticks and scorpions and daddy longlegs
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Arthropod Examples
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lobster, crab, horseshoe crab
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Arthropods
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A group of organisms that have jointed appendages, an exoskeleton, bilateral symmetry, and reproduce sexually; insects, arachnids, millipedes and cenitpedes, and crustaceans
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Bilateral Symmetry
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Body plan in which only a single, imaginary line can divide the body into two equal halves.
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Binomial nomenclature
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Classification system in which each species is assigned a two-part scientific name
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Biodiversity
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The diversity of plant and animal life in a particular habitat
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biomass
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the total mass of living matter in a given unit area
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Biome
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A group of ecosystems that share similar climates and typical organisms
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Biotic Factor
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A living part of an ecosystem
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Bird Bones
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unusual construction, hollow, very light
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Caecilians
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Worm-like, legless amphibians found in the tropics, Apoda
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Cehalization
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concentration of sense organs and nerve cells at the front of an animal’s body
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Cell
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Basic unit of life
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Cell Membrane
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A cell structure that controls which substances can enter or leave the cell.
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Central Vacuole
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A membranous sac in a mature plant cell with diverse roles in reproduction, growth, and development.
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Centromere
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Area where the chromatids of a chromosome are attached
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Chelicerata
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Horseshoe crabs, spiders, scorpions, mites etc.
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Chelonia
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turtles and tortoises
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Choanocyte
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specialized cell in sponges that uses a flagellum to move a steady current of water through the sponge
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Chordata
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Animals with notochord, a dorsal nerve cord, a postanal tail, and pharyngeal gill slits at some time in their lives. Most are vertebrates, though some are not. [E.g. of invertebrates: tunicates, amphioxus, and acorn worms]. Includes fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals.
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Cilia
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Hairlike projections that extend from the plasma membrane and are used for locomotion
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Circulatory system
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(aka cardiovascular system) This system works as the transportation highway for the body. It consists of the heart, blood, and blood vessels. It transports substances such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nutrients in the body.
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Class
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fitting between phylum and order.
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Cnidaria
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Animalia, phylum that includes animals with specialized stinging cells used to capture food. Jellyfish and coral
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Coelom
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A body cavity within organisms containing specialized tissue
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Coevolution
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Process by which two species evolve in response to changes in each other
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Colony
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A population of cells arising from a single cell or spore or from a group of attached cells
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Commensalism
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A relationship between two organisms of different species where one benefits and the other is neither harmed nor benefited
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Community
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A group of interdependent organisms inhabiting the same region and interacting with each other
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Competition
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A common demand by two or more organisms upon a limited supply of a resource; for example, food, water, light, space, mates, nesting sites. It may be intraspecific or interspecific.
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Condrichthyes
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class; developed jaws, have cartilage endoskeleton, are oviparous or ovoviviparous Sharks skates rays
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Copepods
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Tiny, shrimp-like crustaceans that are often the most free floating animals in waters
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Crocadilia
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one of the two reptile orders includes : crocodile, and aligators
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Crop
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A pouch in many birds and some lower animals that resembles a stomach for storage and preliminary maceration of food
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Crustacean
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Any of various predominantly aquatic arthropods of the class Crustacea, including lobsters, crabs, shrimps, and barnacles, characteristically having a segmented body, a chitinous exoskeleton, and paired, jointed limbs.
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Cud
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Regurgitated food
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Decapods
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Lobster, Crayfish, crabs, and shrimp
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Diaphragm
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Large, flat muscle at the bottom of the chest cavity that helps with breathing
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Digestive system
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body system the breaks down food and absorbs nutrients
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Ecology
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Scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment
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Ecosystem
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A biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment.
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Ectothermic
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Absorbing external heat as the main source of body heat.
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Endoplasmic reticulum
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A cell structure that forms a maze of passageways in which proteins and other materials are carried from one part of the cell to another.
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Endothermic
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An organism that is internally warmed by a heat-generating metabolic process
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Eukaryotes
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All multicellular and unicellular nonbacteria organisms. Is bounded by a cell membrane and contains cytoplasm. cytoplasm contains organellessuspended in a semifluid mediumcalled cytosol. The genetic material consists of linear strands of DNA organized into chromosomes located in the nucleus.
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Fangs
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long, sharp, pointed teeth
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Flagella
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A long, whip-like filament that helps in cell motility. Many bacteria are flagellated, and sperm are flagellated.
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Gastrovascular cavity
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Digestive chamber with a single opening, in which cnidarians, flatworms, and echinoderms digest food
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Gemmules
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an asexual reproductive structure produced by some freshwater sponges
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Genus
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A group of similar species
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Gestation Period
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the length of time between fertilization and birth of a mammal
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Gills
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(give the plural form of the word) These respiratory organs are in aquatic animals and help the animal breathe in dissolved oxygen from the water. They are filamentous structures of vascular membranes.
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Golgi Apparatus
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A system of membranes that modifies and packages proteins for export by the cell
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Habitat
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Place where an organism lives
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Head
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Contains brain
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Jacobsen’s organ
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taste chemicals in the air
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Keratin
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A fiber protein that is the principal component of hair, skin, and nails is:
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Kingdom
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First and largest category used to classify organisms
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Lobe-finned
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fish that are lobe liked, fleshy fins, probably anscestors of first land vertebrate , Sarcopterygii
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Lungs
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pair of spongy organs of respiration in which blood is aerated
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Lyme disease
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A zoonotic disease vectored by ticks. Small mammals are the main reservoir species.
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Malpighian Tubules
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An excretory organ that is unique to insects, empties into digestive tract and removes nitrogenous wastes from the hemolymph, also plays a role in osmoregulation.
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Marsupials
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Mammals whose immature offspring complete their development in an external pouch.
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Mitochondria
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An organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur.
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Mollusca Example
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octopi, bivalves, snails, slugs
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Molluscks
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Squid, Octopus, Clams and Snails are a part of this group.
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Monera
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An organism is a single-celled consumer made of prokaryotic cells. To what kingdom does it belong?
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Monotremes
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Egg laying mammals
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Mutualism
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A relationship between two species in which both species benefit
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6 Kingdoms
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Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia
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Nematocyst
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In cnidarians, a stinging cell that is used to inject a toxin into prey
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Nematoda
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Roundworms
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Nervous System
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A system of sensitive cells that respond to stimuli such as sound, touch, and taste
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Niche
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the status of an organism within its environment and community
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Notochord
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A rod of tough, flexible material that runs the length of a creature’s body, providing the majority of its support
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Nuclear envelope
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A double membrane that surrounds the nucleus in the cell
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Nucleus
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Control center of the cell
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Operculum
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A protective flap that covers the gills of fishes
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Order
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taxonomic group containing one or more families
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Order of Cell Cycle
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Interphase (g1, s, g2) prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telaphase, Cytokinesis
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Organ
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A structure that is composed of different kinds of tissue.
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Organ System
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Group of organs that work together to perform a specific function
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Osculum
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A large opening on a sponge through which filtered water is expelled
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Osteichthyes
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Bony Fishes
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Ostia
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The intake pores on a sponge
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Oviparous
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Eggs hatch outside the mother’s body
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Ovoviviparous
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producing living young from eggs that hatch within the body
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Parasitism
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A relationship in which one organism lives on or in a host and harms it.
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Pedipalps
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pair of mouthparts in chelicerates that are usually modified to grab prey
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Phylum
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3rd Taxonomy rank
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Pit Organ
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sensory depression or pit on the side of the head of some snakes that allow to \”see\” heat
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Placenta
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A structure that allows an embryo to be nourished with the mother’s blood supply
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Placentals
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Mammal type that fully develops in uterus with umbilical cord
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Platyhelminthes
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Flatworms
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Prokaryotes
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Cells that do not contain nuclei
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Protista
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Kingdom composed of eukaryotes that are not classified as plants, animals, or fungi
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Pseudcoelum
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Body cavity
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Pseudopodia
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A cellular extension of amoeboid cells used in moving and feeding.
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Quinine
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a drug used for fighting malaria and other fevers
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Radial Symmetry
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Body plan in which body parts repeat around the center of the body.
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Ray-finned
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Class Actinopterygii
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Rumen
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Largest of the 4 stomachs
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Skeletal System
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Protects and supports body organs and provides a framework the muscles use to support movement. Made up of bones and joints
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Species
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taxonomic group whose members can interbreed
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Spicules
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small, spike shaped particles of calcium carbonate or silicon dioxide that make up the skeleton of some sponges
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Squamata
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Lizards and snake
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Taxonomy
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study of the general principles of scientific classification
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Spinnerets
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organs that contain silk glands
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Swim Bladder
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An internal gas-filled organ that helps a bony fish stabilize its body at different water depths.
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Thorax
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Chest
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Tuatara
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only extant member of the order Rhynchocephalia of large spiny lizard-like diapsid reptiles of coastal islands off New Zealand
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Tympanic membrane
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Eardrum
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Urodela
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Salamanders
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Water vascular system
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a system of fluid-filled tubes in an echinoderm’s body
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Weaning
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The act of substituting other food for the mother’s milk in the diet of a child or young mammal

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