. WRITING EFFECTIVE SENTENCES

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clause
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a group of words CONTAINING a subject and a predicate and used as part of a sentence
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phrase
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a group of words NOT having a subject and predicate, used as a single part of speech
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subordinate clause
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must depend on the main clause to complete the thought
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compound sentence
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Two main clauses joined together
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Main clauses
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are the basis of all types of sentences, whether simple, compound, complex, or compound-complex
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simple sentence
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A main clause used alone or with any number of phrases
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subject complement
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a noun or adjective follows a linking verb and means the same as the subject or describes the subject
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Noun clause as subject
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A subordinate clause functioning as a noun can be used in a variety of ways. A noun clause can serve as the subject of a sentence.
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Noun clause as object
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Noun clauses can also function as objects of either verbs or prepositions.
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Noun clause as complement.
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Besides serving as a subject or an object of a verb or preposition, a noun clause can be used as a subject complement (predicate noun). A subject complement renames the subject and completes the meaning of the verb.
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Adjective Clauses
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is a subordinate clause which modifies a noun or pronoun. Adjective clauses are frequently introduced by relative pronouns (who, whose, whom, which, that) or relative adverbs (when, where).
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elliptical clause
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a clause whose meaning is understood even though one or more words have been omitted
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adverb clause
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Is a subordinate clause which is used to modify a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. It modifies a verb when it tells how, when, where, why, to what extent or under what condition
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antecedent
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a word, phrase, or clause to which a pronoun, especially a relative pronoun, refers
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relative pronoun
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a pronoun that relates to an antecedent and introduces a qualifying clause
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subordinate clauses often begin with the pronouns
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who, whose, whom, which, that, and what, or their compound forms whoever, whomever, whichever, and whatever
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Who, which, that, whoever, whichever, and whatever are the
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nominative case forms of the relative pronouns
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pronouns
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take the place of nouns and function as subjects of sentences or clauses.
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An example of a sentence with a relative pronoun as its subject
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-Whichever you prefer is the one we’ll buy. (Whichever is the subject of the noun clause; the entire subordinate clause is the subject of the sentence.)
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objective
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forms of the relative pronouns are whom, which, that, whomever, whichever, and whatever. -used when the relative pronoun is the object of a verb or a preposition.
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relative pronouns have the same form in both
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the nominative and objective cases
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possessive case.
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who and which
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condition
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a circumstance which is dependent or contingent upon some other
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subordinating conjunction
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a conjunction that joins clauses of minor rank to the main clause
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Adverb clauses are introduced by subordinating conjunctions
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after because than whenever although before though where as if unless wherever as if since until while so that as . . . as* when in order that
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Place:
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Did you leave your keys where you could find them easily? I can’t remember where I’ve met you.*
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Time:
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I will write a letter to you when I receive one from you.
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Reason:
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We cancelled the picnic because the storm arrived.
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Condition:
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If you wish to go with us, please be ready on time.
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Purpose or result:
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We set the alarm in order that we might be ready on time
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Comparison
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John took more food in his backpack than his sister did.
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complement
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a word or phrase used after a verb to complete the predicate
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gerund
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a word ending in -ing which has characteristics of both a verb and a noun
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infinitive
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to plus a verb; usually used as a noun but occasionally used as an adjective or an adverb
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participle
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a word that has characteristics of both a verb and an adjective
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appositive
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a noun, pronoun, or phrase following another noun or pronoun to explain or identify it
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relative clause
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A clause introduced by a relative pronoun, such as WHO, WHICH, THAT, or by a relative adverb, such as WHERE, WHEN, WHY.
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antecedents
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preceding events that influence what comes later; ancestors or early background
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gerund phrase
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Begins with noun form of verb ending in -ing, plus any modifiers or complements
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Infinitive phrase
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phrase that includes the infinitive, it’s objects, and the objects modifiers
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Participial phrase
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an -ing or -ed verb form that functions as an adjective plus its modifiers
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appositive phase
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Gives more information about a noun or pronoun. It has No verbs and is set off by commas

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