The Heritage Of The Great War

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the three -isms
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militarism imperialism industrialism nationalism
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militarism
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having a large, standing army to show military dominance in comparison to other nations; significant because nations competed to have the “better” military
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industrialism
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imperialism
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nationalism
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The Triple Alliance
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Austria-Hungary, Germany, Italy
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In what year was the Triple Alliance created and by whom?
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Otto van Bismarck of Germany, 1879
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Why was the Triple Alliance made?
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so Germany could isolate France by forming this alliance to steal possible allies form the French
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Triple Entente
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Great Britain, France, and Russia
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Why was the Triple Entente created?
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to ensure that Britain wouldn’t have to fight against France and Russia
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When and by whom was the Triple Entente created?
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1907, Great Britain
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Kaiser Wilhelm II
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forced Bismarck out of power in 1890 to assert his leadership and love for the military; removed treaty with Russia, causing an alliance between Russia and France without Germany (which Bismarck feared because of the two fronted war) stepped down on Nov 9, 1918 with the armistice, Germany became a republic
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What single event started WWI?
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The heir of Austria-Hungary, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, was assassinated by a Serbian nationalist and Black Hand Society member, Gavrillo Princip, which provoked the wrath of Austro-Hungarian leaders. When Serbia failed to meet all of Austria-Hungary’s requested, AH declared war.
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Was the description of the Balkans as the “powder keg” of Europe justified?
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Yes. “Powder keg” refers to a barrel of gunpowder. This name is accurate because the Balkan Peninsula was the battlefield for much of the war as well as its own ethnic conflicts and clashes before the war. It was also the home to a Slavic power struggle between Serbia and Austria-Hungary.
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Central Powers
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Germany and Austria-Hungary; named Central Powers because they were are the heart of Europe; Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria also joined to reclaim lost territories
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Allies/Allied Powers
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Great Britain, Russia, France, Japan; Italy later joined after accusing Germany and Austria-Hungary of starting a war without proper cause
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Western Front
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a deadlocked battlefield region in Northern France
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Schlieffen Plan
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created by Alfred Graf von Schlieffen; called for defeating France in the west and rushing to fight Russia in the east; by Germany; failed and left Germany with no victory; troops were pulled from Paris and brought to fight Russia; Russia had invaded Germany
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Eastern front
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battlefield on German-Russian border; Russians and Serbs fought Germans and Austro-Hungarians; very cold (“Frozen Front”); supply shipments to Russia limited because of German control of the seas; Russia had not industrialized
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Serbian nationalist group
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Black Hand Society
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Who shot Franz Ferdinand?
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Gavrilo Princip
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Annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
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annexed by Austria in 1908 Bosnia and Herzegovina. two Balkan areas with large Slavic populations Serbian leaders wanted to rule vowed to take Bosnia and Herzegovina away from Austria
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Slavic Nationalism
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Serbia > wanted to “absorb” all Slavs in the Balkan region Russia > supported Serbia; many Slavic population
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Who fought on Eastern Front?
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Russia vs. Germany/Austria-Hungary
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Who fought on Western Front?
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France/G.Brit vs. Germany/Austria-Hungary
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new military tech introduced in WWI
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poison gas machine guns grenades tanks submarines / torpedos
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“The Lost Generation”
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since there were so many casualties and only able-bodied men could fight, Europe lost almost its entire young male population
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Big 4 US rep
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Woodrow Wilson
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Big 4 France rep
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Georges Clemenceau
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Big 4 G.Brit rep
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David Lloyd George
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Big 4 Italy rep
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Vittorio Orlando
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self-determination
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the right that a population may select its own government
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Fourteen Points
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Woodrow Wilson’s plan to achieve peace and eradicate war
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Fourteen Points #1-4
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end to secret treaties, freedom of the seas, free trade, and reduced national armies and navies (end to militarism)
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Fourteen Points #5
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adjustment of colonial claims with fairness toward colonial peoples
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Fourteen Points #6-13
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specific suggestions for changing borders and creating new nations; self-determination
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Fourteen Points #14
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League of Nations
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total war
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when a nation devotes all resource to military before other people
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unrestricted submarine warfare
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when a nation launches submarine torpedoes at other ships without warning
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Lusitania
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British passenger ship carrying American citizens; sunk by Germany, who used unrestricted submarine warfare
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Why did the Schlieffen Plan fail?
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the Allies attacked Germany on the Western Front, and Germany could not respond as quickly and move to fight on the Eastern Front (aka. First Battle of the Marne)
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First Battle of the Marne
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Allies attacked Germany northeast of Paris and caused the collapse of the Schlieffen Plan first major clash on the Western Front
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Second Battle of the Marne
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May 1918 — Germany came back to Marne River and almost reached Paris, but weakened from the fight to get there Allies retaliated (with new US troops) July 1918 — official battle, and Allies advanced towards Germany and Central Powers collapsed
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Battle of the Somme
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July 1916 — G. Brit attacked Germany in the Somme River Valley by the end of the battle in November, each side had over a half million casualties
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Battle of Verdun
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Germany attacked France near Verdun in February 1916 each side lost more than 300,000 men
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armistice
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stop-fighting treaty signed by German rep and France Commander Marshal Foch in a railway car in Paris on Nov 9, 1918
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Gallipoli Campaign
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Feb 1915 — Allies wanted to take Dardanelles Strait to capture Ottoman capital Constantinople and send supplies to Russia British, Australian, New Zealand, and French troops fight in Gallipoli Penninsula Turkish/German troops fight back stalemate//trench warfare Allies evacuated in December, with 250,000 casualties
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Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
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March 1918 — treaty ended war between Germany and Russia; signed by Lenin of Russia and someone from G
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Zimmerman Note
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Feb 1917 — named after Germany’s foreign secretary stated that Germany would help Mexico regain its land lost to the US if Mexico would ally with Germany
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rationing
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people could only buy small amounts of things that were also needed for war
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propaganda
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one-sided information designed to persuade, to keep up morale and support for the war
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airplanes
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Gallipoli Campaign
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