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World Literature 2 Test 1 Flashcard Essay

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Age of Enlightenment
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1660-1770
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prevailing worldview of our own image
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Postmodernism
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The 18th century was also known as…
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The Age of Reason or the Neo-Classical Period
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Many thinkers used these people as their models
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Romans
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This man defined “Enlightenment” as freedom to use one’s own intelligence
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Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)
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This era saw the development of the [#1] and the [#2]
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#1: Microscope #2: Telescope
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what institution was created for people to gather and debate?
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The coffee house
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“I think, therefore I am”
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Rene Descartes
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Came up with principal for gravity
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Sir Issac Newton
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[blank] was the most wide-spread religious belief among 18th century intellectuals
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Deism
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Both of these men believed that human reason was a gift form God
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Samuel Johnson and Alexander Pope
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This century witnessed two major religious revivals
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1) The Methodist movement 2) The Great Awakening
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The idea of this was discarded
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Divine right of kings
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What type of artwork declined and what type of artwork became more popular?
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Religious artwork declined and landscape painting became more popular (emphasis on capturing nature in all of its beauty and power)
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Natural history became an obsession and the study of organisms became increasingly popular among scientists- this was called the important era of…
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classification
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What was the widespread sense that helped preserve society’s important standards in the 18th century?
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manner and decorum
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[blank] is demonstrated to be a rational system of economic life
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capitalism
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18th century writers assumed that the [#1] was more important than the [#2], however, these feelings will be reversed beginning at the Age of Romantics
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#1: social group #2: individual
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Moliere
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Tartuffe
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Alexander Pope
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1) The Rape of the Lock 2) An Essay on Man
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Voltaire
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Candide
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Juana Ines De La Cruz
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The Poet’s reply
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Mary Wollstonecraft
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A Vindication of the Rights of Women
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Which stories are in prose?
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1) The Poet’s reply 2) A Vindication of the Rights of Women 3) Candide
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Which stories are in heroic couplets?
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1) The Rape of the Lock 2) An Essay on Man 3) Tartuffe
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Juana Ines De La Cruz background
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– 17th century nun – wrote first play at ten – learned latin in less than 20 lesson – entered convent at 21 – had a library of over 4,000 books – got rebuked by a bishop posing as a female – she wants to be less ignorant – she described a thirst for knowledge like “catching fire” – she tried to strike a balance between humbly accepting the rebuke of the bishop and aggressively defending herself at the same time – she tricked someone into teaching her – she cut her hair as punishment – she quit eating cheese – pictured on the 200 pesos bill – died two years after writing to the bishop (which was her last letter btw) – the church ordered her to a life of silence and penance
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Candide
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– dark/black comedy – french author Voltaire has his share of hardship (spent time in Bastille, got kicked out of Paris, clashed often with the church) – built a chapel in his home – candide is meant to mock what Essay on Man was saying – He and Pope tried to reconcile the problem of evil with belief in a benevolent God – this story alludes to the earthquake in Lisbon of 1755 (over 30,000 dead) – about a naïve/ignorant hero – Themes include: folly of optimism, uselessness of abstract philosophical speculation, cruelty of humans and horrors of war, hypocrisy and oppression in religion – Pangloss is a flat character – Cunegonde is vain and spoiled – Cacambo is a stock character – The people in Eldorado don’t leave but claim they can and they are all deists – ironic theme of resurrection – Pope’s idea’s work better in the abstract than the concrete