World History Unit 4 Review

Flashcard maker : Misty Porter
What were indulgences? Why did Martin Luther oppose them?
An indulgence was a pardon from sin IF you paid for it (with money). Luther objected to the RCC doing this; forgiveness of sin should be free if there is true repentance. Luther believed Faith only, not good works, would grant salvation
What was the Protestant Reformation? Who were the three main Reformers and what churches did they begin?
Protestant Reformation was a movement for religious reform that led to splitting from the RCC. Martin Luther = Lutheran; opposed certain RCC practices, like selling indulgences; King Henry VIII = Anglican (Church of England),wanted a divorce so he could try for a male heir; John Calvin = Calvinists/Huguenots, predestination; The Protestant Reformation led to a disunity in Western Europe that still exists today.
What does the term \”Renaissance Man\” refer to?
someone who is good at a variety of things…think Leo da Vinci
Why did feudalism fail in Medieval Europe and what caused the rise of the Renaissance?
Feudalism failed due to a combo of the Crusades, The Bubonic Plague, and inflation; the LOCATION of Italy as a major step in the trade routes from Asia leads it to \”collect\” ideas (Cultural Diffusion)
What were some academic effects of the Renaissance? What are some characteristics of Renaissance architecture?
People stopped looking at The Church as the answer to everything and started questioning things on their own. HUMANISM!!!(look it up if you don’t know what it is). Emphasis on the individual instead of the whole. Domes (LARGE DOMES), Cathedrals, architechture that emphasized the art (sculptures/paintings/etc)
How did technology lead to change during the middle ages?
the influx of new luxury goods from Asia because of the Crusades increased demand for such goods. This led to people moving to cities to sell/buy the goods, which led to larger populations in one place. The emphasis went from being on the community to being on the individual. New technologies, such as the sailing \”stuff\” and the printing press, will lead to a HUGE shift in \”who’s the boss\” (feudalism crumbles and absolute monarchs rise).
Why was the Mughal ruler Akbar so great?
United the North and South, established more efficient methods of administration, expanded the empire (almost all of India), religious toleration
Why did both the Ottoman and Safavid empires end up with weak leaders?
they killed off their smartest and most capable successors out of fear of being dethroned.
What impact did LOCATION have on the Ottoman Empire?
it was in that \”sweet spot\” where continents collided (Europe, Africa, Asia)…CULTURAL DIFFUSION!!! They were able to dominate trade from the Middle East/Asia to Europe.
What was the Ottoman Empire’s policy on non-Muslims? Where was the Ottoman Empire and what was an effect of it being there?
It was tolerant of other religions (Judaism, Christianity) but it made them pay a non-Muslim tax. Modern day Turkey and the surrounding areas. Islam spreads to parts of Eastern Europe.
What is absolutism and who were 3 rulers that used this form of governing?
Absolutism is the belief that the ruler rules with ABSOLUTE authority (they answer to no one). Suleiman, Akbar, Louis XIV, Maria Theresa, Philip II of Spain, etc
Who were the Spanish conquistadors and how did they conquer the native peoples? What was the Spanish impact on the natives (other than they were wiped out)?
Conquistadors were Spanish soldiers/explorers/fortune hunters. They conquered through use of superior technology (guns) and germs (small pox), along with terrorizing the peopleJ. The Spanish intermarried with the natives and created a new group of peoples. Those new peoples adopted a blending of European and Native cultures, languages, and religion (specifically Catholic).
What is the encomienda system?
Large cash crop farms in Latin America, which required a large supply of workers
What are 3 contributions of Prince Henry the Navigator of Portugal?
School of Navigation, led to explorations around the tip of Africa, and led to Portuguese success in exploration
Who was the main explorer for China? What did he do? How did his explorations affect China’s trade?
Zheng He led 7 explorations of 100+ ships that were 400+ ft long and went further than any European explorer would for 100 years. He collected tribute and expanded trade for the Chinese. The Ming Dynasty (the one who sent Zheng He) was super involved in global trade, but did NOT try to conquer the places it found. Ming China enjoyed the trade connections and made a huge profit by selling sliks, porcelain, etc.
Why were Africans \”chosen\” as slaves? Why were they needed? How were the Africans treated? What was the effect on Africa?
Natural immunities to European diseases, \”playing hide-and-seek at someone else’s house\”. Native population was dying off and Africans were strong. They were needed as laborers on the American plantations (cotton, sugar, tobacco, etc). Africa was left with a shortage of people (specifically young, physically fit workers) and as a consequence, West Africa wil fall behind developmentally and be a 3rd world country for much longer.
What were 3 advances in \”exploration\” technology that the Europeans \”borrowed\” from the Islamic Empire? Why were the advances important? What other advances did Europe snag?
Lateen sail, astrolabe, magnetic compass, rudder, mapmaking skills (Latitude and Longitude), Caravel (let ships sail INTO the wind); All helped with European Exploration; Ismalic scholars saved Greek and Roman texts, zero, medical advances, numbers/algebra
Why did Europeans explore? What did they want and what was the effect of their exploration?
God = spread Christianity, especially RCC; Gold = wanted a trade route to Asia to bypass the Italian/Muslim merchants; Glory = bragging rights; FIERCE competition between European countries to find an ocean sea route to Asia.
What was the Columbian Exchange (what went where)? What effects did it have on the world?
Where plants, animals, and diseases were \”exchanged\” from Eurasia to America and visa versa. Anything from Old MacDonald’s farm (animals) and Panda Express came FROM Eurasia TO America; Traditional Thanksgiving dinner FROM America TO Eurasia. TONS of effects: potatoes to Ireland so they can have a famine laterJ, a new need for labor so importing Africans, introduced new raw materials and food \”stuffs\” to Europe
What is the \”African Diaspora\”
The forced removal and \”dispersion\” of Africans to European colonies
What is mercantilism? What effect did it have on the colony? The Motherland?
Mercantilism is when a COUNTRY attempts to gain power through wealth, specifically through using colonies/raw materials, etc. The motherland took what they wanted (raw materials) from the colonies. The motherland wanted to exploit the raw materials and space it was finding through exploration.
Who were the main Absolute Monarchs and what was their belief on ruling?
Phillip II of Spain, Maria Theresa of Austria, Frederick of Prussia, Louis XIV of France, Peter the Great of Russia; God appointed them and they rules with ALL authority…don’t question them…they are the centralized governmental authority!
What 3 events/documents limited the English monarchy?
Magna Carta (1215), English Bill of Rights, Civil War, Glorious Revolution (\”Glorious\” because it was bloodless)
What was the Palace of Versailles and how did it show Louis XIV’s power
Louis XIV’s palace in France. It was intended to show off his wealth and power to the other monarchs of Europe and his nobles. Basically he was the best

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