World History Unit 3 Exam Study Guide

Flashcard maker : Marguerite Castillo
What was the effect of the enclosure movement in the 1700’s?
The process was used to end some traditional rights, such as mowing meadows for hay, or grazing livestock on land which is owned by another person, or a group of people. This caused long term inflation as well as the eviction of villagers from homes.
What was the purpose of crop rotation and how and why it is developed in Britain.
by increasing nutrients to the soil
What happened as a result of the agricultural revolution?
before the Agricultural Revolution communities were moving place to place to find more food and animals after the Agricultural Revolution the communities found that they can domesticate their animals and crops. Then the communities started to build permanent settlements
Which industry was the first to undergo major industrialization?
Great Britain underwent industrialization that began at the beginning of the 1700’s with the invention of machine that produced textiles, which had formerly been produced using manual labor. In the United States, industrialization is usually thought to have started in the latter half of the 19th century
Which conditions improved and worsened as a result of the Industrial Revolution?
Working conditions increased and living conditions decreased.
What is the definition of the Industrial Revolution?
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. This transition included going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, improved efficiency of water power, the increasing use of steam power and the development of machine tools.
Which three factors of production were needed in order to industrialize?
Land, Labor, Capital
What is the definition of Laissez-Faire?
an economic environment in which transactions between private parties are free from government restrictions, tariffs, and subsidies, with only enough regulations to protect property rights.
What did workers form in order to seek labor reform- better hours, condition, and pay?
They wanted better pay and better working conditions.
They wanted fair pay and benefits for their labor.
What caused urbanization in the late 1800’s in Britain and western Europe?
The Industrialization
What was the reform bill of 1832 and what portion of the British population had voting rights prior to the bill?
The Reform Act extended the vote to a larger segment of the population. Only Aristocrats had the right to vote.
What did the Chartists movement call for?
The Chartist Movement, or Chartism, was an attempt in Britain to build an independent political party devoted to the interests of working people.
Who was Queen Victoria? Did she increase of decrease the power of the monarchy?
Queen Victoria was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India. She decreased the power of the monarchy
Who was Alfred Dreyfus and what was he accused of?
he was a Jewish army captain accused of spying. He was convicted and sentenced to life on Devils Island.
Which country was the first to allow women the right to vote before 1900?
Australia
Who are the Maori people are where did they come from?
An ethnic group in New Zealand
Where did Britain set up their first penal colony and why?
They set up their first penal colony in Australia because it would help expand the British Empire and provide a physical presence in the south Pacific. This held both strategic and economic/trade advantages for England. Also, the presence of a colony would enable England to lay claim to Australia during a time when France was rapidly expanding its empire as well.
Where did the Great Famine occur and what happened as a result?
Ireland. It divided the British and Irish
What does the term \”Manifest Destiny\” mean and when does it apply?
Manifest destiny was a theory in the United States in the 19th century. According to the theory, white Christian Americans gave themselves the right to take whatever they wished because god had chosen them. It was meant to make the native Americans inferior to the white Christians and extend their territory.
What caused the outbreak of the Civil War in the United States?
election of Abraham Lincoln and succession of Southern State.
What part of the United States belonged to Mexico before the Mexican- American War?
New Mexico
What was the trail of tears? Who was involved, when did it happen, and what happened as a result?
The Trail of Tears is a name given to the ethnic cleansing and forced relocation of Native American nations from southeastern parts of the United States following the Indian Removal Act of 1830. Second Seminole War
Know these people and what they did:
1. Thomas Edison
2. Guglielmo Marconi
3. Alexander Graham Bell
4. Henry Ford
5. Ivan Pavlov
6. Marie Curie
7. Charles Darwin
8. Louis Pasteur
9. Wilbur Wright
10. Sigmund Freud
1. Thomas Edison invented the light bulb
2. Guglielmo Marconi invented the first radio
3. Alexander Graham Bell harnessed electricity
4. Henry Ford created the first assembly line
5. Ivan Pavlov experimented on animal reflexes
6. Marie Curie discovered radium and polonium
7. Charles Darwin advanced the theory of evolution
8. Louis Pasteur developed pasteurization using heat to kill bacteria.
9. Wilbur and Orville wright invented the first flying machine.
10. Sigmund Freud had something to do with psychology
Review maps regarding British Imperialism in the 1900’s.
Why was India called the \”Jewel in the Crown\” ?
it was the most populous and valuable colony
How did Menelik II keep imperial countries out of Ethiopia?
Who were the Boers and where were the from? And why did they move to North in the Great Trek?
Who was involved in the Crimean War? When did it take place? Where did it take place? What was the cause of the war?
The Crimean War started in October 1853 and ended in the year 1856 in the month of February. This war was a conflict between the Russian Empire and an alliance of the Kingdom of Sardinia, the British Empire, the French Empire and the Ottoman Empire.
What happened as a result of the Berlin Conference of 1884- 1885?
The Berlin Conference of 1884-1885 was organized to agree that the Congo River. Niger River mouths and basins would be considered neutral and open to trade. However, the result of the Berlin Conference saw the European colonial powers scrambled to gain control over the interior of the African continent. By 1914, the conference participants had fully divided Africa among themselves into fifty countries.
Why did the Vietnamese resist French imperialism and who led the resistance?
Because the French were colonial occupiers and pretty nasty ones at that. Vietnamese nationalism was also on the rise at that time, which was similar to what happened in many colonized country’s like Algreia at the time. The Japanese defeat of the French during WWII and related events of that war also encouraged resistance. Read A street without Joy by Bernard Fall.
When and why did the U.S. business leaders wanted Hawaii to be annexed to the U.S.?
US business leaders wanted Hawaii to be annexed to the United States because Hawaii was a good place for sugar. The ex slave owners them went to Hawaii and basically made a fortune again . Selling this sugar was also beneficial to United States.The U.S. used their military might to put the natives on check. The U.S. then sent a naval fleet to good old Pearl Harbor.
What caused Inadequate food supplies in Africa during European colonization? ***
Some European farmers would have tried to adopt European crops (unsuccessfully) to African soil and climate. Also, many Africans would have been pushed off their land to build large plantations, for export crops. Plenty of food would be grown, but most of it was not for locals. (this may be wrong) ***
Which leaders used Modernization to keep out foreign countries?
Ram Mohun Roy and Muhammad Ali B. Emilio Aguinaldo and Queen Liliuokalani C. Muhammad Ali and King Mongkut D. Menelik II and sHaka
What does Paternalism mean and how did Europeans use this to control their colonies?
The french and other european powers perfered more direct control of their colonies. They veiwed africans as unable to handle the complex buisness of running a country. and based on this attitude eurpoeans developed a policy called paternalism which governed people in a parental way by providing for their needs but not giving them rights
Know these people and terms:
1. Antonio Lopez de Santa Ana
2. Benito Juarez
3. Boxer rebellion
4. \”Pancho\” Villa
5. Jose Marti
6. Open Door Policy
7. Russo- Japanese War
8. Sphere of Influence
9. Spanish American War
10. Treaty of Kanagawa
Who benefited the most from granting of extraterritorial rights in 19th century China?
Britain
Why did Britain sell opium to China?
The Chinese wanted to sell things to other countries, but refused to let other countries sell things to China. The British, through the East India company (which had the stong backing of the British navy, so it is hardly independent) had to find a product they could sell in China. Opium became the perfect product. Grown cheaply in India they could distribute it through connections in China. With the trade in opium illegal, their customers didn’t care what the emperor thought.
What resulted when a rebel government took over in southeastern China?
The Taiping Rebellion was a massive civil war in southern China from 1850 to 1864, against the ruling Manchu-led Qing Dynasty. It was a millenarian movement led by Hong Xiuquan, who announced that he had received visions in which he learned that he was the younger brother of Jesus. At least 20 million people died, mainly civilians, in one of the deadliest military conflicts in history.
What did the Sino- Japanese war and the Russo Japanese War have in common?
They were both a part of the Japanese attempt at expansion and the securing of colonies for raw materials.
Japan saw its future in industialization and expansion but Japan being an island did have the resources to support this. So the Japanese sought to secure resources by invading. This brought them into conflict with first the Russians then the Chinese. The russo-Japanese war secured Korea and sino-Japanese war secured manchuria and various coastal provinces of china.
What American system did the Japanese adopt during the Meiji Era?
Gold standard
What was the purpose of the Monroe Doctrine?
The Monroe Doctrine is a United States policy introduced on December 2, 1823, which said that further efforts by European governments to colonize land or interfere with states in the Americas would be viewed by the United States as acts of aggression requiring U.S. intervention. Its primary objective was to free the newly independent colonies of Latin America from European intervention and control. The doctrine advocated that the New World and the Old World were to remain distinctly separate spheres of influence, for they were comprised of entirely separate and independent nations.
How did Latin American countries spend most of their income they received from imports during the 19th century?
customes,clothes,food,books,and toys
what were the results of the Spanish- American War?
The Spanish-American war marked the end of Spain’s colonial empire and the end of its rule in the Americas. In addition, the American victory speeded up the construction of the Panama Canal since the U.S. had secured the Caribbean. The war also helped to ease out the civil war scars since black and white people fought as one against a common enemy
When and why was the Mexican Revolution fought?
The Mexican Revolution (Spanish: Revolución mexicana) or Mexican Civil War was a major armed struggle that started in 1910, with an uprising led by Francisco I. Madero against longtime autocrat Porfirio Díaz, and lasted for the better part of a decade until around 1920.
What is Benito Juarez most known for?
Born on March 21, 1806, in San Pablo Guelatao, Oaxaca, Mexico, Benito Juárez was president of Mexico (1861-’72) and for three years (1864-’67) fought against foreign occupation under Archduke Maximilian of Austria, who was finally captured by Mexican forces and executed him. Impeccably honest, Juárez also sought constitutional reforms to create a democratic federal republic.
Look at the maps of the Panama Canal and the Suez Canal. ( understand the Who, What, Why, When and where of each canal).
Answer 48-50 with three supporting details:
Why did the Industrial Revolution occur in Britain before it occurred anywhere else in Europe?
The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain because there were many new invention’s. There were improvements in agriculture, new forms of technology made, there was a good labour supply, transportation was majorly improved, Britain was getting a good supply of raw material, there was a pro business government, and their were capitals with money to invest in new factories.
What were three significant changes that occurred in the late 1800’s because of inventions and discoveries made at that time?
exchange in ideas
culture of a nation
new sciences
What were the causes of European imperialism in Africa?
Three causes to a wide spread European effort to imperial domination, specifically in Africa, was: 1) the finding of other area’s of land where raw materials were present, 2) show case power to the other European countries, because it was the ‘theme’ of many developing nations and 3) because of the the overwhelming rivalries in Europe between countries
What were the differences between Benito Juarez and Parfirio Diaz? Contrast both their ideas and their actions.
Benito Juarez began reforms, fought against French rule, left a legacy of peace progress and reform. Parfirio had a harsh rule and exploited peasants.

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