World History Second Semester Final Exam

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Martin Luther
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German monk and professor of theology; 95 theses; Lutheranism
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Salvation by faith alone
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Believing in Jesus Christ by praising and faith, but not works
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Indulgences
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fees for services such as marriage and baptism
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John Calvin
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found Calvinism, he wrote \”Institutes of a Christian Religion\”, believed people were predestined for heaven or hell
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Predestination
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Long ago, God determind who would gain salvation
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Theocracy in Geneva
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government run by the church
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Henry VIII
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King of England \”Defender of Faith\”; Parliament made him head of church; wrote to church to condemn Luther’s teachings
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Counter Reformation
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movement to counter the spread of the Reformation; initiated by the Catholic Church at the Council of Trent
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Elizabeth I
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Henry VIII & Anne’s daughter; reestablished Protestantism as the state religion of England and she led the defeat of the Spanish Armada
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Shakespeare
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english poet and dramatist considered one of the greatest English writers
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Philip II
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king of Spain and Portugal and husband of Mary I; he supported the Counter Reformation and sent the Spanish Armada to invade England
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Spanish Armanda
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a fleet of ships sent by Philip ll, to invade England and restore Roman Catholicism
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Advances of the Scientific Revolution
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telescope-look into space scientific method-process to collect data human body structure ointment-protect infection
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Heliocentrism
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sun centered
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Copernicus
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published \”The Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres\” ; first person to believe that the planets revolved around the sun
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Galileo
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created the telescope; heliocentric theory along with Copernicus
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Newton
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English mathematician and physicist; developed law of gravitation and his three laws of motion
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Absolute Monarch
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A king or queen with complete authority over the government and people in a kingdom
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Divine Right
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belief that a rulers authority comes directly from God
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Louis XIV
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the Sun King, he was the greatest,longest absolute monarch in French history
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Sun King
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nickname for Louis XIV that captures the magnificence of his court and of the Palace of Versailles, which he built
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Versailles
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amazing monument to the power of the French Monarchy, built by Louis XIV over a long period of time, meant to impress and scare nobility, foreigners, and commoners alike, this palace was where Louis XIV moved his court in order to keep them under his control and away from the uncontrollable social scene in Paris
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Peter the Great
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czar of Russia who introduced ideas from western Europe to reform the government
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Constitutional Monarchy
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a king or queen is the official head of state but power is limited by a constitution
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English Civil War
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civil war in England between the Parliamentarians and the Royalists under Charles I
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Lord Protector Cromwell
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english general and statesman who led the parliamentary army in the English Civil War
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Cromwell’s Protectorate Government
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a country whose affairs are partially controlled by a stronger power
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Glorious Revolution Cause
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english overthrow of James II
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Glorious Revolution Result
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King James offends his subjects by displaying his Catholicism & his wife gives birth to a son, British citizens become nervous that a line of Catholic kings will rule England, so the citizens force King James II to abdicate his throne; His daughter Mary and her husband William are invited by parliament to rule England. They agree to recognize Parliament as their partner and the absolute monarchy is replaced with a constitutional monarchy. They also agree to rule with parliament and a bill of rights.
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William and Mary
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king and queen of England after Glorious Revoluton and with them, King James’ Catholic reign ended
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English Bill of Rights
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king William and queen Mary accepted this document that declared that elections for Parliament would happen frequently. By accepting this document, they supported a limited monarchy, a system in which they shared their power with Parliament and the people.
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Philosophes
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thinkers of the Enlightenment; wanted to educate the socially elite; weren’t allowed to openly criticize church or state..discussed in salons
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Salons
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informal social gatherings at which writers, artists, and phisophes exchanged ideas
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Voltaire
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French, greatest Enlightenment thinker; wrote Candide;believed enlightened despot best form of government.
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Montesquieu
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wrote On the Spirit of Laws; french political philosopher who advocated the separation of executive and legislative and judicial powers
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Checks and Balances
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system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
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Rousseau
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wrote the Social Contract; he identified the human nature was originally happy but was corrupted by society; all people equal and abolish the nobility
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Social Contract
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an agreement by which they gave up their freedom for an organized society
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John Locke
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believed people were born with a blank slate; life, liberty, and property
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Thomas Jefferson
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3rd President of the United States; author of Declaration of Independence from Virgina; Life, Liberty, & the Pursuit of Happiness
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Enlightened Despotism
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system of government in which absolute monarchs ruled according to the principles of the Enlightenment
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Catherine the Great
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empress of Russia who greatly increased the territory of the empire
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Frederick the Great
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\”1st servant of the state\”; exerted extremely tight control over his subjects during his reign in Prussia
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1st Estate
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consisted of clergy ;they owned about 10% of the land; they were exempt from taxes; provided social services
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2nd Estate
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2-4% nobility; crushed military power, but gained top jobs in the government, army, court, & church nobles felt they weren’t gettting paid enough and had to maintain that status; hated absolutism & royal bureaucracy; exempted from taxes
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3rd Estate
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the commoners of French society prior to the revolution; the class that was divided into the bourgeoisie, laborers, san-culottes, artisans, and peasants
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French Revolution
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an uprising of the people that led to the end of the French monarchy and the beheading of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette
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Political Causes of the French Revolution
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Louis called the Estates General to mess up the estates even more
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Intellectual Causes of the French Revolution
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ideas & writings of Enlightenment thinkers like Montesquieu, Voltaire, and Rousseau became widespread; the French people were inspired to go against Louis
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Economic causes of the French Revolution
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Louis XIV had spent too much; his successors did not cut down expenses;Louis XVI also failed to improve the financial situation, he dismissed ministers who tried to introduce financial reforms; by 1789, the government was bankrupt
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Social Causes of the French Revolution
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The Third estate had to pay heavy taxes, work hard, and get no say in the government while the other estates had the Estates General and no taxes
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Results of French Revolution
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Taxes lowered, social reform; nationalism spread
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Bourgeoisie
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educated, middle class of France; provided force behind the Revolution
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Louis XVI & Marie Antoinette
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king and queen of France were spending much of frances money on themselves not on helping the citizens >citizens uprising> death of king and queen by guilotene
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Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen
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This was the new constitution that the National Assembly wrote that gave all citizens free expression of thoughts and opinions and guaranteed equality before the law
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Storming of the Bastille
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July 14, 1789, destruction of the prison because of Paris citizens defening the National Assembly & wanted the gun powder; seen as the true start of the French Revolution
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Reign of Terror
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the period when Robespierre ruled France nearly as a dictator and thousands of political figures and ordinary citizens were executed
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Napoleonic Wars
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French wars against England, Prussia, Russia, and Austria led by Napoleon
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Napoleonic Code
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civil code put out by Napoleon that granted equality of all male citizens before the law and granted absolute security of wealth and private property
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Congress of Vienna
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meeting of representatives of European monarchs, called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon
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Reasons for Great Britain’s leadership of Industrial Revolution
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strong ecomonic advance; slavery; & scientific/technological developments
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Urbanization
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movement of people from rural areas to cities
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Laissez-faire Capitalism
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This was the style of capitalism in which the government had no interference with the economy
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Utilitarianism
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idea that the goal of society should be to bring about the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people
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Socialism
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an economic system in which the factors of production are owned by the public and operate for the welfare of all
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Marxist Communism
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-work according to ability -receive according to need -classless society -no need for government
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Modern Communism
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a political system in which the government owns all property and dominates all aspects of life in a country
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Bourgeoisie & Proletariat in terms of Karl Marx
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one does factory work while the other does manual work such as mining, farming
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Nationalism
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a strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one’s country
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Militarism
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glorification of war and military
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Romanticism
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artistic and intellectual movement originating in Europe in the late 18th Century and characterized by a heightened interest in nature, emphasis on the individual’s expression of emotion and imagination
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Realpolitik
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politics based on practical, rather than moral or ideological considerations
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Imperialism
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policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically
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Causes of Imperialism
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Industrialism, nationalist feelings, desire to spread religion, social darwinism
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Impacts from Imperialism
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Justification for racism & belief that Europe was superior
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Otto Von Bismarck
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chancellor of Prussia & Germany; conservative nationalist, he led Prussia to victory against Austria and France; was responsible for the unification of the German Empire; blood & iron.
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Berlin Conference
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meeting to divide Africa by European powers; no African representatives
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White Man’s Burden
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talks about problems and rewards of imperialism; racist & elite
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The Raj
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title of British control in India; reign of Queen Victoria… created in order to trade
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Commodore Perry
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leader who came to Japan and forced them to open up to Western trade and influence
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Open Door Policy
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policy proposed by the US which all nations would have equal opportunities to trade with/in China
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Causes of World War 1
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Competition, militarism, nationalism, and Pan slavism
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\”spark\” to start WWI
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(powder keg) – Balkan Peninsula attacked Turkey and that lead to further issues
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Alliance System
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an agreement to support another country in case of war; two huge alliances emerged from this
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Triple Alliance
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Germany Austria-Hungary Italy
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Triple Entente
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Britain Russia France
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New weapons introduced in WWI
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Tanks, poisen gas, machine guns, U-boats, and airplanes
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Lusitania
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a British passenger ship that was sunk by a German U-Boat; 128 Americans died; sinking greatly turned American opinion against the Germans, helping the move towards entering the war
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Reason why U.S. entered WWI
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Zimmerman Note, Lusitania, money issues, advancing their politics, submarine warfare by Germany
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Effect of the U.S. joining WWI
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defeat of Axis powers faster by ecomically and military
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Treaty of Versailles
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treaty imposed on Germany by Allied Powers after World War I demanding that Germany dismantle its military and give up some lands to Poland
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League of Nations
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an international association formed after World War I with the goal of keeping peace among nations
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War Guilt Clause
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a provision in the treaty of Versailles by which Germany acknowledged that it alone was responsible for WWI
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War Reparations
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payments demanded by the victors from the losers & Germany had to admit responsibility for WWI and pay for costs of the war.
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Russian Revolution Causes
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WWI loss of ecomincs & military, Tsar’s mistakes, and riots
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Bolsheviks
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led by Lenin, it was the Russian communist party that took over the Russian goverment during WWI
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Lenin
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Russian founder of the Bolsheviks and leader of the Russian Revolution and first head of the USSR
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Stalin
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russian leader who took Lenin’s spot as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition
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Causes of WWII
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Dictators, Imperialism, consequences of WWI, appeasement, nationalism, Treaty of Versailles, facism
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Totalitarianism
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a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator, not restricted by law or constitution
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Hitler
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german Nazi dictator during World War II, Nazi leader and founder; had over 6 million Jews assassinated during the Holocaust
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Nazism
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a form of socialism featuring racism and expansionism, Adolf Hitler used this type of government based on totalitarian ideas and was used to unite Germany
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Mein Kampf
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book writen by Hitler where he outlines his beliefs: Germans are a superior race, The Treaty of Versailles treated Germany unfairly and that a crowed Germany needed the lands of Eastern Europe and Russia
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Appeasements
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giving in to the demands of an aggressor to keep the peace; Hitler, Stalin
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Manchuria
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a region in northeastern China invaded by Japan
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Hiroshima & Nagasaki
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nuclear attacks during World War II against the Empire of Japan by the United States of America at the order of U.S. President Harry S. Truman
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Holocaust
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plan made by Hitler to ensure German supremacy; It called for the elimination of Jews, non-conformists, homosexuals, non-Aryans, mentally and physically disabled
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Emperor Hirohito
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emperor who forced the Japanese government to surrender, which ended World War II
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Cold War
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conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union, the nations never directly confronted each other on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years
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Iron Curtain
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term to describe the division between Communist and non-Communist life in Europe made by Churchill
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NATO
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organization made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries
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Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
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many nations agreed to signed this to help prevent the spread of nuclear weapons to other nations
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Global Interdependence
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means that people and nations worldwide depend on one another for many goods and services
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Out-sourcing
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producing inexpensive products by building factories and hiring workers in other countries; ex: U.S. grounds in China
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European Union
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international organization made of Western European countries to promote free trade among members
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Ghandi
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fought for indian independence with non-violence to expose Great Britain
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Ghandi’s Civil Disobedience Movement
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hunger strikes and peaceful protests
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Causes of Vietnam War
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prevent the spread of communism into neighboring countries the US helped the South Vietnam fight the Soviet and Chinese aided North Vietnamese form; Pearl Harbor; Fort Sumter capture; battles on Concord and Lexington
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Vietnam War Results
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South Vietnam and U.S. lost soldiers and money
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Viet Cong
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communist-led army and guerrilla force in South Vietnam that fought its government and was supported by North Vietnam
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Chairman Mao
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Communist leader of China, started Cultural Revolution
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Great Leap Forward
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a five-year economic plan that collectivized farms in China and put them into communes
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Cultural Revolution
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campaign in China ordered by Mao Zedong to purge the Communist Party of his opponents and instill revolutionary values in the younger generation
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Tiananmen Square/ Causes
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Death of Hu Yaobang -many deaths, corruption of Chinese government
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Korean War
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conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea, United Nations/United States helped South Korea
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Apartheid
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the former policy of racial segregation and oppression in the Republic of South Africa
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Nelson Mandela
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President of South Africa, spent 27 years in prison after conviction of charges while he helped spearhead the stuggle against apartheid, received the Nobel Peace Prize
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F.W. de Klerk
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elected as the last white South African president, he legalized the ANC and also released Nelson Mandela from prison, this started a new era in South Africa and ended apartheid
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AIDS
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disease of the immune system transmitted through blood products especially by sexual contact or contaminated needles
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Castro
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Cuban socialist leader who overthrew a dictator in 1959 and established a Marxist socialist state in Cuba
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Fundamentalism
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the interpretation of every word in the sacred texts as literal truth
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Arab Isreali Conflict
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conflict that began in 1948 over the land once know as Palastine, now known as Isreal
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Intifada
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\”The Uprising\” against Israel by some Palestinians Arabs
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Ayatollah Khomeini
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Iranian religious leader of the Shiites; when Shah Pahlavi’s regime fell Khomeini established a new constitution giving himself supreme powers
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Iran Iraq War
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the war began when Iraq invaded Iran in 1980 following a long history of border disputes and fears of influence on Iran’s Islamic revolution
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Taliban
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fundamentalist Muslim group, gained power, restored order, but imposed an extreme form of Islam on Afghanistan, supported al-Qaeda
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War on Terror
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Initiated by President George W. Bush after the attacks of September 11, 2001, the broadly defined war on terror aimed to weed out terrorist operatives and their supporters throughout the world
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9-11
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terrorist attacks in NYC, Washington DC, and Pennsylvania made by the \”al Qaeda\”

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