World History II Sol Review

Jesus
1. Christianity
2. The son of god
3. Teachings and life are found in New testament

Torah
1. Sacred text of the Jews

Muhammad
1. Prophet of Islam

Five Pillars
1. Profession of Faith
2. Fast during Ramadan
3. Go on a Hajj to Mecca
4. Alms to the poor
5. Pray 5 times a day

Monotheism
Belief in one god

Koran (Qu’aran)
Holy book of Islam

Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha)
Founder of Buddhism

Four Noble Truths
Main belief of Buddhism
Life is suffering

Eightfold Path
Follow to reach Nirvana

Caste System
Strict division of classes in Hinduism

Reincarnation
Belief that your soul will be reborn based on your Karma (in Buddhism and Hinduism)

Renaissance
Means re-birth
Start of modern Era
Spread from Italy to Northern Europe

Michelangelo
Painted the Sistine Chapel Ceiling and sculpted David

Leonardo da Vinci
Ultimate Renaissance Man
Painted Last Supper and Mona Lisa

Shakespeare
Wrote plays and sonnets during the Renaissance

Humanism
Revival of ancient Greek and Roman culture
Erasmus = father of ______
Celebrate humans potential

Erasmus
A humanist, wrote In Praise of Folly

Reformation
Attempts to reform the Catholic Church.

Martin Luther
Founder of Protestants, Salvation by Faith alone, Importance of the bible (in the vernacular)

95 Theses
Martin Luther’s main ideas
Starts the Reformation

John Calvin
Faith reveled by living a righteous life, expansion of protestant movement, followers were Calvinists

Huguenots
French Protestants

Predestination
John Calvin’s main idea
God has pre-determined everything

Henry VIII
English King, became head of Anglican church, wanted a divorce, made church property his

Queen Elizabeth I
Tolerance for dissenters, head of Anglican Church.
Religiously tolerant
Victory of Spanish Armada
Expansion and colonialism

Reformation in Germany
a.Princes in Northern Germany converted to Protestantism, ending authority of Pope
b.Hapsburg Family remained loyal to Catholic Church
c.Conflict led to 30 years war

Reformation in France
a.Catholic kings gave Protestants freedom to worship – Edict of Nantes
b.Cardinal Richelieu changes focus of 30 yrs war from religious to political

Thirty Years War
Devestating war between Protestants and Catholics.

Anglican Church
Protestant Church in England
Led by Eliz I started by Henry VIII

Edict of Nantes
Allowed Huguenots to practice their religion. A sense of Freedom of religion, later revoked

Counter Reformation
a.An attempt of the Catholic Church to reform
b.Use of the Inquisition
c.Council of Trent – reaffirms practices and doctrine

Society of Jesus (Jesuits)
a.Founded during the Catholic Counter Reformation
b.Used to spread Catholicism around the world.

Gutenberg Printing Press
a.Used to spread ideas of the Reformation and the Renaissance
b.First documented printed was the Bible
c.Led to the growth of literacy (people knowing how to read)

Factors leading to exploration
a.Demand for goods/spices/natural resources
b.Spread of Christianity, political/economic competition in Europe
c.Innovations in navigation (Europe and Muslim), Prince Henry the Navigator

Vasco da Gama
Portuguese, Rounded Cape of Good Hope in Africa

Christopher Columbus
Spain, “found” the new world

Hernando Cortez
Spain, conquered the Aztecs in Mexico. Conquestador

Ferdinand Magellan
Spain, First to circumnavigate the globe

Fransisco Pizzarro
Spain, Conquered the Inca in South America

Francis Drake
English, First man to survive circum-navigating the globe

Jacques Cartier
French, explored Canada

Prince Henry the Navigator
Founded a school to teach navigation

Spread/diffusion of Christianity
Migration of colonists/influence of colonists who brought faith, language, culture to new lands. Conversion of native people

Impact of discovery of Americas
a.End of Aztecs and Incas
b.European emigration/rigid class structure and dictatorial rule in Lat. Am.
c.Colonies imitate culture/social patterns of parent countries
d.Forced migration of enslaved Africans

Impact of discovery on Africa
European trading posts on coasts
Slaves, gold, resources

Impact of discovery on Asia
Colonization by small group of merchants, Influence of trading compaines

Trading Companies
Founded by British, Dutch, French
Were in Indies and in China

Columbian Exchange
a.An exchange of products and resources between the eastern and western hemispheres
b.Corn(maize), Potatoes, and Tobacco were introduced to Europe
c.European horses and Cattle were introduced to the Americas
d.ALSO- diseases!!

Impact of Columbian Exchange
a.Shortage of labor led to use of slaves (based on race)
b.European plantation system in Caribbean/Americas destroyed native economies/environment

Triangle Trade
a.Linked Europe, Africa, and America
b.Slaves, sugar and rum
c.Gold and silver exported to Europe and Asia
d.Spain’s economy collapses after importing so much gold/silver

China
Creation of spheres of influence by foreign powers for trade/resources
Increase in demands for goods (tea, porcelin)

Shogun
Japan, Military leader who controlled a powerless emporer

Isolationism
policy of a country trying to limit foreign influences. (Japan)

Ottoman Empire
a.In Central Asia, expands to Asia, Balkans, North Africa
b.Capital- Istanbul (Constantinople)
c.Islamic religion, accepted others
d.Coffee and ceramic

Mughal Empire
North India, Islam, Taj Mahal, Establishment of trading posts by Europeans, textiles important to GB.
Traded silk/spices/gems

Mercantilism
An economic practice adopted by European colonial powers
Colonies exist to benefit the mother country

Commercial Revolution
Overseas trade, new banking and money systems, use of mercantilism

Nicolas Copernicus
Heliocentric theory

Johannes Kepler
Discovered planets move in eliptical orbits
The laws of planetary motion

Galileo
Telescope used to prove Heliocentric Theory

Isaac Newton
Discovered laws of gravity

William Harvey
Discovered the circulation of blood

Scientific Revolution
Expanded scientific knowledge, development of the scientific method, empahsis on reason and systematic observation of the future

Divine Right
Absolute monarchs believed god chose them

Louis XIV
France, Palace of Versailles-symbol of royal power

Frederick the Great
Prussia, Military Power, helped support education

Peter the Great
Russia, Westernizing of Rusisia, St. Petersburg

Charles I
English King who was beheaded
Led to the English Civil War

Oliver Cromwell
Led England as Lord-not King.

Charles II
Restored to the British throne

Glorious Revolution
William and Mary take the throne
No bloodshed
Sign the English Bill of Rights 1689

English Bill of Rights
Reduced the power of the monarch
Increased the power of the Parliament

Enlightenment
Applied reason to the human world
Stimulated religious tolerance
Fueled the American and French Revolution

Thomas Hobbes
The Leviathan
State must have central authority-Absolutism

John Locke
Two Treatises on Government
Life, Liberty, and Property
Government gets its power fromthe consent of the people

Montesquieu
The Spirit of the Laws
Seperation of Powers

Voltaire
Religious toleration, Seperation of Church and State

Jefferson
Declaration of Independence author, used Enlightenment ideas

US constitution and Bill of Rights
Untied States used enlightenment ideas for these two important documents (not including declaration)

Louis XVI
Monarch that was overthrown in the French Revolution

Events of the French Rev.
Storming of the Bastille-started rev.
Reign of Terror

Toussaint L’Ouverture
Former slave who led independence movements in Haiti.
Defeated armies of Spain, France, and Britain

Simon Bolivar
He led an independence movement in South America

Mexican Independence
Started by Father Hildago

Colonial systems in Latin America
Governments mirrored home govs.
Catholic, mining econ, Cities outposts for trade (Havana, Mexico City, Lima)

Class Structure of Latin America
Viceroys/colonial officials
Creoles and Mestizos

Monroe Doctrine
US President Monroe 1823 issues this, Latin America independent, US would consider European interference a threat to US of A.

Bach
Baroque music composer

Mozart
Classical music composer

Eugene Delacroix
Painter, Liberty Leading the People

Miguel Cervantes
Wrote the first novel Don Quixote

Technology changes 16th-18th centuries
All-weathered roads for better travel, New farm tools increase productivity, improvements in ship design lowre costs of transportation

Napoleon
Leader of France, Built up the French Empire, Created the Napoleonic Code, Strong Nationalism

Congress of Vienna
“Balance of Power”, Restoration of monarchs, New political map of Europe, new political philosophies (liberalism, conservatism)

GB reform in 1800s
Avoided revolution by expanding political rights, Made slavery illegal by the British empire

Count Cavour
Unified northern Italy through diplomatic treaties

Giuseppe Garibaldi
Unified Southern Italy with his red shirts through war

Otto von Bismarck
Unified Germany (Franco-Prussian war) Was a Realpolitik

Realpolitik
Someone who justifies all means to achieve adn hold power

Industrial Revolution
1. Began in England (resources) and invention of steam engine
2. Spread to US and Europe
3. Cotton, textile, iron, steel
4. Rise of factory system, end of cottage industry
5. Need for control of materials/markets worldwide

James Hargreaves
Spinning Jenny

James Watt
Steam engine

Eli Whitney
Cotton Gin

Henry Bessemer
Process for making strong steel

Edward Jenner
Small-Pox vaccine

Louis Pasteur
Discovered bacteria

Impacts of Industrial Rev.
a.Population increase, growth of middle class, standard of living increases for many
b.Improved transportation, education
c.Urbanization, pollution
d.Dissatisfaction of working class with working conditions

Adam Smith
Wrote Wealth of Nations
Capitalism

Capitalism
Market controlled economy
Can lead to dissatisfaction with poor working conditions and unequal distribution of wealth

Karl Marx
Wrote Communist Manifesto and Das Capital (with Friedrich Engels)

Socialism/Communism
Response to injustices of capitalism. Importance of redistribution of wealth

Factory System
Replaced cottage system
Men competed for jobs against women/children
Child Labor

Impact of Inustrial Rev.
Increased demand for slave labor-cotton gin
Britain and US outlaw slave trade then slavery
Women and children work for cheap
Reforms to end child labor, expand education, increased demand for women’s suffrage

Labor Unions
a.Encouraged strikes to demand wages & better working conditions
b.Lobby for laws to protect the worker
c.More rights for workers

Imperialsim
a.When a European nation took over a nation in Africa, Asia, or South America for Europe’s benefit
b.Could be colonies, protectorates, or spheres of influence

Imperialism in Africa/Asia
European domination, conflicts, missionary efforts
Suez canal, spheres of influence (China), East India Company, US opening Japan to trade

Response of Colonized Peoples
Armed conflicts (Boxer rebellion), rise of nationalism (Indian National Congress)

Causes of WWI
Alliances, Nationalism, diplomatic failures, imperialism, miltarism, competiton over colonies

ARchduke Franz Ferdinand
Assassinated to begin WWI

Woodrow Wilson
US President
14 Points for Peace (Leauge of Nations)

Kaiser Wilhelm II
German ruler in WWI

Germany, Austro-Hungary, and Ottoman Empire
Central Powers in WWI

Russia, US, Britain, and France
Allied Powers in WWI

Treaty of Versailles
Harsh Treaty that ended WWI
Made Germany accept guilt for the war and pay huge reparations

Causes of Russian Rev.
Defeat in Russo-Japanese War 1905, landless peasants, military defeats/casualties in WWI
Incompetence of Nicholas II, all led to..

Bolshevik Revolution
When Vladimir Lenin and the Communists take over Russia

New Economic Policy (NEP)
Lenin’s idea to better Russia’s economy

Joseph Stalin
Brutal Totalitarian Dictator (Great Purge), 5-year plans, Collectivization of Farms

League of Nations
Wilson’s idea to help prevent future wars, US not a member, Did not have power to enforce decisions

Mandate System
Britain adn France would control areas in Middle East, Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Division of Ottoman Empire sets stage for future conflicts in the Middle East

World Wide Depression
Causes: German reparations, excessive credit, stock market crash of 1929
Impacts: high unemployment, bank failures, and collapse of credit/trade, rise of Nazis

Nazi Party
In Germany, Led by Hitler, Blamed the Jewish people for all problems

Adolf Hitler
Leader of Germany, Nazi, Wanted tol expand Germany

Benito Mussolini
Fascism, Restore the glory of ancient Rome, Invaded Ethiopia

Hirohito adn Hideki Tojo
Militaristic in Japan, Expanded Japan into Manchuria, China, and Korea for materials

Causes of WWII
Aggression (Italy, Germany, Japan), and Appeasement
Nationalism, Failure of Treaty of Versailles, weakeness of Leauge of Nations

Pearl Harbor
Japanese attack, Makes USA enter the war

D-Day
Allied invasion of France

Franklin D. Roosevelt
US President for most of WWII

Harry Truman
US president after FDR, decided to drop the bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki

Dwight D. Eisenhower
Allied commander in Europe, planned D-Day.

Douglas MacArthur
US general in the Pacific, monitored the rebuilding of Japan

George Marshall
US General, created plan for rebuilding Europe (Marshall plan)

Winston Churchill
British Prime Minister

Genocide
Systematic destruction of a political, religious, racial, or culture group. Armenians, Great Purge, Tutsi by Hutu, Pol Pot

Holocaust
History of anti-Semitism in Europe, totalitarianism combined with nationalism, WWI and depression blamed on German Jews, Hitler’s Master Race, Final Solution: concentration/death camps

Marshall Plan
Economic Recovery Package for Europe

NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization

Major events of WWII
Germany invades Poland, Soviet Union
Fall of France, Battle of Briatin, D-Day
Pearl Harbor, dropped atomic bombs

Warsaw Pact
Communism and Totalitarianism

Division of Germany
Germany divided between the Allies and the Soviets
East (Soviet controlled) adn West (democratic) Germany

Reconstruction of Japan
Occupied by US (MacArthur), reduction of military
Democracy, emergnece as a dominant economy

Containment
Policy for preventing the expansion of communism

Chiang Kai-Shek
Leader of Nationalist China
Fled to the Island of Taiwan

Mao Zedong
Leader of Communist China

Korean War
Divided at 37th parallel
N. Korea (communist) invaded S. Korea
UN under Marshall intervenes. China helps N. Korea

Ho Chi Minh
Leader of communists in Vietnam

Vietnam
Vietnam divided
N. Vietnam communist under Ho Chi Minh
US involvement (ultimately failed)
Vietnam a reunited communist country today

End of Cold War
Tearing down of Berlin Wall in 1989
Soviet economic collapse, breakup of Soviet Union
Nationalism in Warsaw Pact countries, expansion of NATO

Mohandas Gandhi
Leader of Indian independence movement
Civil Disobedience and Passive resistance

Indira Gandhi
Closer relationship between India and USSR during the Cold War
Developed nuclear program

Indian Independence
Formeryly ruled by Britain
Indian National Congress, Mohandes Gandhi (Civil disobedience)
Political divisions along Hindu-Muslim lines (Pakistan/India)

Republic of India
World’s largest democracy, federal system of government
Jawaharlal Nehru-western style industrialization, new econ. development

Kenyatta
Leader of Kenyan nationalist group
Became the leader of Kenya

Nelson Mandela
Led struggle against apartheid, became first black prez. of South Africa

Golda Meir
Prime minister of Israel
Sought support of US
Led Israel to victory in Yom Kippur War

Gamal Abdul Nasser
President of Egypt
Nationalized Suez Canal, relationship with USSR
Aswan High Dam