World History Chapter 5 Section Assessment

Flashcard maker : Anthony Richie
Direct Democracy
Who – Created by Pericles
What – Instead of the people being ruled by representatives they would do it directly themselves.
When – Under the rule of Pericles (461 B.C. – 429 B.C.)
Where – Athens
Why – In this version of democracy everyone was able to contribute no matter what class creating a more equal environment.
Classical Art
Who – Influenced by Pericles made by Phidias and other sculptures.
What – The idea that the sculptures would portray peace and grace rather than happiness or anger.
When – During the Golden Age
Where – Athens
Why – Art was a important part of Athenian culture and exemplifies the values of the Athenians.
Tragedy
Who – Produced by wealthier citizens. The three most famous writers were Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides.
What – A serious and dramatic play that portrayed love and hate. When – Under the reign of Pericles
Where – Athens
Why – Art was a large part of Athenian culture and continues to influence us today.
Comedy
Who – Aristophanes
What – A type of play that was humorous, usually at the expense of others.
When – Under the reign of Pericles
Where – Athens
Why – Art was a large part of Athenian culture and continues to influence us today.
Peloponnesian War
Who – The war was between Athens and Sparta
What – A war for many years ending in Spartan victory leaving the Athenians crushed.
When – Started in 431 B.C. Ended in 404 B.C.
Where – Mostly in Athens
Why – It completely destroyed Athens and changed their values.
Philosopher
Who – Socrates, Plato and Aristotle
What – Greek thinkers who believed the world have unchanging laws
When – After the Peloponnesian War ended and crushed Athens. Where – Athens
Why – After the war Athens was completely crushed and searched for a new way of life, which turned to philosophers.
Socrates
Who – A philosopher who believed absolute standards existed and asked people to take a better look at their beliefs and ideas. What – Used a question and answer approach and wanted people to really think about their beliefs.
When – 470 B.C. to 399 B.C.
Where – Athens
Why – His question and answer method greatly influences us today. For example: Socratic seminars.
Plato
Who – Socrates student who is most famous for The Republic in which, he describes his perfect government.
What – In his ideal government there would be 3 groups: farmers, artisans and warriors. A philosopher-king would be picked from the highest ranked group. They would pick a ruler based on the highest intellect.
When – 427 B.C. to 347 B.C.
Where – Athens
Why – His writings took over the philosophical thought in Europe for about 1,500 years.
Aristotle
Who – The pupil of Plato who questioned human thought and the world.
What – He invented a method of arguing based on logic.
When – 384 B.C. to 322 B.C.
Where – Athens
Why – His work influences us today. For example: Scientific method.
Which of Pericles’ goals do you think had the greatest impact on the modern world? Explain.
♥ To strengthen Athen’s democracy
♥He introduced direct democracy which allowed more
people to be involved
♥ We look at Athenian democracy to help improve and make
our own.
What steps did Pericles take to strengthen democracy in Athens?
♥ Increased the amount of people paid for being public officials
♥ Because of that anyone could contribute
♥ Direct democracy
What were the battle strategies for Athens and Sparta in the Peloponnesian War?
♥ Athens – Try to avoid land battle and wait for a chance to fight at sea. When the Spartans attacked them on land the Athenians used their surrounding walls as protection.
♥ Spartans – To fight on land and limit supplies.
Why do you think some Athenians found the ideas of Socrates so disturbing?
♥ Questioned and put in to perspective their entire lives
How does this concept of hubris from Greek tragedy apply to the Peloponnesian War?
♥ Athens was very hubristic and may have overlooked how powerful Sparta was.
Was the rule of Pericles a \”Golden Age\” for Athens? Explain.
♥ For the most part is was because of the improved democracy and arts
♥ However, the war was not and ended up destroying them
Do you agree with Socrates that there are absolute standards for truth and justice? Why or why not?
Why or why not? I do not think that there is just one way. I think that there are many ways because nothing is exactly the same.
Phillip 2
Who – King of Macedonia
What – King of Macedonia who conquered Greece using strong military
When – Became Macedonian king in 359 B.C.
Where – Southeastern Europe
Why – Dominated Greece
Macedonia
Who – Ruled by Phillip 2 from 359-3336 B.C.
What – An ancient kingdom in southeastern Europe
When – Ruled by Phillip 2 from 359-3336 B.C.
Where – North of Greece
Why – It was the first place Alexander the Great ruled
Alexander the Great
Who – Son and successor of Phillip 2
What – A military leader who conquered many empires
When – 356-323 BC
Where – Greece, Persia, Egypt
Why – Conquered many places after he died monarchy was brought back
Darius 3
Who – Persian king
What – A king a Persia defeated by Alexander The Great
When – 380-330 B.C.
Where – Persia
Why – If he had worked harder Alexander may have never conquered Persia
Which of Alexander’s conquests do you think was the most significant? Why?
I think his conquest of Persia was the most important because it inspired him to continue on conquering
How was Phillip 2 able to conquer Greece?
• Greece had jus ended Peloponnesian War and the city-states became weak
• Greek city-states decreased in economical and military control
• Had well-trained army (Phalanx)
Why did Alexander continue his campaign of conquest if after this goal had been achieved?
• After that he crazed more victories and wanted to conquer everything to the end off the continent
What happened to Alexander’s empire after his death?
• Three of his generals split it up between themselves and ruled their own empire
Do you think that Alexander was worthy of the title \”Great\”? Explain.
• Yes because he was a powerful military leader who conquered many places
If Alexander had lived, do you think he would have been as successful in ruling his empire as he was in building it? Explain.
• No because he never had much governing experience as much as he had conquering
• He focused only on conquering
Why do you think Alexander adopted Persian customs and included Persians in his army?
• To make the Persians feel less threatened and part of the empire.
Hellenistic
Who – Culture of people living in Alexandria
What – A Greek culture that mixed with Egyptian, Persian and Indian
When – 323 BC
Where – Alexandria
Why – It was the culture that was formed by Alexander the Great’s many conquers.
Alexandria
Who – Conquered and named by Alexander the Great.
What – Conquered by Alexander the Great inhabited by people with a Hellenistic culture
When – Founded in 332 BC
Where – Egypt
Why – Home to many important people and had a Hellenistic culture.
Euclid
Who – Mathematician in Alexandria
What – Made nooks about ideas and proofs on geometry
When – Alive 330 – 260 BC
Where – Alexandria
Why – His math ideas and proofs still apply to us today.
Archimedes
Who – A Scientist and Mathematician who invented many things
What – He found the value of pi and invented the Archimedes screw
When – 287 – 212 BC
Where – Alexandria
Why – Discovered things in math and science that we still use.
Colossus of Rhodes
Who – Created by Hellenistic sculpture
What – Largest Hellenistic statue standing over 100 feet
When – Created in 292 BC. Ruined by earthquake in 225 BC
Where – Alexandria
Why – It is one of the 7 Ancient Winders of the World
Which Hellenistic achievement had the greatest impact?
• Geometry because it helped in astronomy, architecture and still applies to us today.
How did trade contribute to the cultural diversity in the Hellenistic city of Alexandria?
• The trade was from all the countries and was very diverse. (expand)
How did Euclid influence some of the developments in astronomy during the Hellenistic period?
• The geometry that he wrote about helped Eratosthenes and Aristarchus calculate the earth’s size.
What did Stoicism and Epicureanism have in common?
• They both have the belief that people should live in peace
Describe how the growth of Alexander’s empire spread Greek culture.
It created a Hellenistic culture, which was a mix of Greek, Persian, Egyptian and Indian, culture.
What do you think was the greatest scientific advance of the Hellenistic period?
The ideas from Archimedes because they were used to make many tools.
How was the purpose served by architecture and sculpture in the Hellenistic period similar to the purpose served by these arts in the Golden Age of Athens?
the purpose of temples is always to honor the gods, but these states also made art to serve the interests of the state

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