WORLD HISTORY- Chapter 17 Review

Flashcard maker : Carmen Dawson
Renaissance
rebirth
Italy
Birthplace of the Renaissance
humanism
the doctrine emphasizing a person’s capacity for self-realization through reason.
Medicis
an important family of bankers in Florence, Italy who controlled Florence and used their wealth to support artists and scientists.
Secular
worldly; not pertaining to church matters or religion; temporal
Patrons
a person who supports artists, especially financially.
Baldassare Castiglione
The Book of The Courtier. Described the ideal of a Renaissance man who was well versed in the Greek and Roman classics, and accomplished warrior, could play music, dance, and had a modest but confident personal demeanor. It outlined the qualities of a true gentleman.
Isabella d’Este
She used her wealth, intelligence, and power to support artists and scholars in Florence, Italy. Her palace was one of the most brilliant of the Renaissance.
Perspective
3-d
Michelangelo
Florentine sculptor and painter and architect.
Donatello
Florentine sculptor famous for his lifelike sculptures (1386-1466).
Leonardo da Vinci
Italian painter and sculptor and engineer and scientist and architect.
Raphael Sanzio
He was famous for use of Perspective. Filled walls of Pope Julius 2 with paintings. He painted the School of Athens. Also painted famouse Rennisance figure including himself.
Anguissola
Italian painter who was the first successful female painter of the Renaissance.
Artemisia Gentileschi
painted strong heroic women in her paintings. trained under her father.
vernacular
the native language
Francesco Petrarch
Known as the father of Renaissance Humanism. He lived from 1304-1374 as a cleric and committed his life to humanistic pursuits and careful study of the classics. He resisted writing in the Italian vernacular except for his sonnets, which were composed to his \”lady love\” who spoke no Latin.
Giovanni Boccaccio
Petrach’s student and friend who pioneered in Humanism. He’s famous for his Decameron and for being an avid collector of manuscripts, assembling an encyclopedia of Greek and Roman Mythology.
Niccolo Machiavelli
wrote the prince
Vittoria Colonna
born noble; married Marquis of Pescara; exchanged sonnets with Michelangelo; helped Castiglione publish The Courtier; reflect personal emotions.
Fountainbleau
a town south of Paris
Albrecht Durer
a leading German painter and engraver of the Renaissance (1471-1528).
Hans Holbein
German painter of religious works (1465-1524).
Jan van Eyck
Flemish painter who was a founder of the Flemish school of painting and who pioneered modern techniques of oil painting (1390-1441).
Pieter Bruegel the Elder
realistic details, individual people, large numbers of people; rich colors, vivid details, balanced use of space; wedings, dances, harvests; peasants.
William Shakespeare
English poet and dramatist considered one of the greatest English writers (1564-1616).
Johann Gutenburg
German printer; in 1448 he invented a printing press that used movable type.
Bi Sheng
chinese inventor, helped with the invention of the printing press
John Wycliffe
English theologian whose objections to Roman Catholic doctrine anticipated the Protestant Reformation (1328-1384) questioned the power of the pope.
Jan Hus
The leader of the Czech religious reforms, and the spiritual founder of the Protestant reformation in the 1500’s. He was convicted by the Council of Constance for heresy.
Martin Luther
a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.
indulgence
a pardon. released a sinner from the priest that imposed him for sins.
\”pardon-merchants\”
a seller of indulgences that worked to convince people that they could buy their way into heaven.
Reformation
a movement for religious reform
Pope Leo X
began to sell indulgences to raise money to rebuild St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome; tried to get Luther to recant his criticisms of the church; condemned him an outlaw and a heretic when he would not do so; banned his ideas and excommunicated him from the church.
Charles V
This was the Holy Roman Emperor that called for the Diet of Worms. He was a supporter of Catholicism and tried to crush the Reformation by use of the Counter-Reformation.
Lutherans
The religious community who followed Luther’s teachings.
Protestant
Reformation, against catholic church.
Peace of Augsburg
1555 agreement declaring that the religion of each German state would be decided by its ruler.
annul
to declare a marriage invalid; to do away with
Reformation Parliament
Used by Henry VIII to end pope’s power in England, make him head of church and to grant him a divorce from Catherine of Aragon.
Anglican Church
Form of Protestantism set up in England after 1534; established by Henry VIII with himself as head, at least in part to obtain a divorce from his first wife; became increasingly Protestant following Henry’s death.
Huldrych Zwingli
(1484-1531) a Swiss Catholic priest who rejected more of the Catholic teachings than Luther. Zwingli believed that the Eucharist was only a symbol to remind us of the last Supper. Zwingli’s ideas are followed in the Reformed (protestant) Churches.
Institutes of Christian Religion
Written by John Calvin, it contained four books which codified Protestant theology. Among these beliefs were the ultimate authority of the word of God, the depravity of man, and his belief that the Bible is the only source of Revelation.
predestination
Calvin’s religious theory that God has already planned out a person’s life.
Calvinism
the theological system of John Calvin and his followers emphasizing omnipotence of God and salvation by grace alone.
theocracy
the belief in government by divine guidance.
Geneva
Became home to protestant exiles from England, Scotland, and France, who later returned to their countries with Calvinist ideas. Calvin established a theocracy in Geneva by 1540.
John Knox
This was the man who dominated the reform movement in Scotland. He established the Presbyterian Church of Scotland so that ministers ran the church, not bishops.
Presbyterians
Members of a Protestant church governed by Presbyters, elders, and founded on the teachings of John Knox.
Huguenots
Calvin’s followers
the Catholic Feast of St. Bartholomew’s Day
in Paris in 1572…Catholic mobs began hunting for protestants and murdering them.
Anabaptists’
A Protestant sect that believed only adults could make a free choice regarding religion; they also advocated pacifism, separation of church and state, and democratic church organization.
Quakers
English dissenters who broke from Church of England, preache a doctrine of pacificism, inner divinity, and social equity, under William Penn they founded Pennsylvania.
Amish
Of German origin, these people were originally Anabaptist and would settle in Western Pennsylvania and Eastern Ohio. Many today live the same way their ancestors did 200-300 years ago.
Baptist
a member of a Christian denomination that baptizes believers by immersion and that is usually Calvinistic in doctrine.
Marguerite of Navarre
protected John Calvin from being executed for his beliefs while living in France.
Noblewomen
protected reformers.
Katherina Zell
married to prominent reformer Matthew Zell, once yelled at ministers for speaking harshly of another.
Katherina von Bora
Luther’s wife; nun; had 6 children, managed finances, fed all, supported husband’s work; argued with him about woman’s role in marriage.
Catholic reformation
Religious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church, begun in response to the Protestant Reformation. It clarified Catholic theology and reformed clerical training and discipline.
Ignatius Loyola
founded new religious orders and Popes Paul III and Paul IV. Wrote the book Spiritual Exercises
Spiritual Exercises
Written by Ignatius Loyola that laid out a day-by-day plan of meditation, prayer, and study.
Jesuits
Members of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic order founded by Ignatius Loyola in 1534. They played an important part in the Catholic Reformation and helped create conduits of trade and knowledge between Asia and Europe.
Paul III
1534-49 Roman aristocrat, humanist and astrologer. First of reforming popes (called C of T). Appointed several reform-minded cardinals. Believed in Papal primacy but took office v. seriously – moral & religious force. Authorised Ursuline order of nuns – girls education, & Jesuits.
Council of Trent
an ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church convened in Trento in three sessions between 1545 and 1563 in response to the Reformation.
Paul IV
He drew a list of books called the Index of Forbidden Books that he considered dangerous to the Catholic Church, and burned them.
The Index of Forbidden Books
Paul IV had a list of officials draw up banned books that were considered dangerous to the Catholic faith. (including Protestant Bibles)…then had them burned.

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