World History – Chapter 10 vocab words

Flashcard maker : Brad Bledsoe
Bedouins
groups of nomadic people in Arabia
Muhammad
the Arab prophet who founded Islam (570-632)
Mecca
the holiest city of Islam; Muhammad’s birthplace
Yathrib
Original name of the city of Medina
Hijra
the flight of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina to escape persecution a.d. 622: regarded as the beginning of the Muslim Era (first year of the Muslim calendar).
Medina
City to which the Prophet Muhammad and his followers escaped to in 622 to escape persecution in Mecca. (p. 231)
Kaaba
a black stone building in Mecca that is shaped like a cube and is the most sacred Muslim shrine. It is where Muslims go for their pilgrimage.
Quran
the sacred writings of Islam revealed by God to the prophet Muhammad during his life at Mecca and Medina
mosque
(Islam) a Muslim place of worship;
hajj
the fifth pillar of Islam. A pilgrimage to Mecca to participate in ceremonies commemorating actions of Muhammad and Abraham.
jihad
a holy struggle in God’s service. Can be personal, or as a holy war.
Sharia
the code of law derived from the Koran and from the teachings and examples of Mohammed
Abu Bakr
1st Muslim leader, Caliph, after Muhammad. An early convert to Islam and father in law to Muhammed.
caliph
the political leader of the religious community. Successor of Muhammed.
Sunni
one of the two main branches of Islam. The majority of Muslims are Sunnis. They believe that not only the relative of Muhammad but true follower of Quran should be the leader.
Shiite
a member of the branch of Islam that regards Ali as the legitimate successor to Mohammed and rejects the first three caliphs. Only the relative of the Muhammad should be the king
Sufis
a mystical Muslim group that believed they could draw closer to God through mystics, such as prayer, fasting, and rituals.
Umayyads
A dynasty that ruled and expanded the Muslim Empire from 661 to 750 and later established by Sunni Caliphs
Abbasids
A dynasty that ruled much of the Muslim Empire from 750 to about 1258 sunni
Baghdad
capital and largest city of Iraq. Abbasid capital (moved it from Damascus, Syria)
minaret
slender towers of the mosques, loomed overhead
sultan
the ruler of a Muslim country
social mobility
The ability of individuals to move from one social class to another through religious, scholarly, or military achievements.
Firdawsi
Persian poet who wrote the Shah Namah, or Book of Kings, that told the history of Persia using Arabic script.
Omar Khayyam
Famous poet, scholar and astonomer. Wrote The Ruabaiyat (four line stanzas).
calligraphy
the art of beautiful handwriting. a skill perfected by Muslims. decorates mosques and buildings
Ibn Rushd
Muslim philosopher who put all knowledge (except Koran) to the test of reason. His work on Aristotle was translated in Latin and influenced Christian scholars.
Ibn Khaldun
An Arab scholar. Set standards for scientific study of history.
al Khawarizimi
greatest Muslim mathematician. Pioneerd the study of algebra (al Jabr). Wrote math textbook that bcame standard in Europe.
Mohammad Al Razi
medical thinker. wrote many books on medicine including study of measles and smallpox. challenged medical practices. Treat the mind as well as the body.
Ibn Sina
famous persian fhysician. Wrote Canon on Medicine a huge encyclopedia about diagnosing and treating diseases.
sultan
\”Holder of power\”, in muslim ruler
Delhi
Capital of the Mugal empire in Northern India
rajah
; local Hindu ruler in India
Sikhism
the unity of god, the brotherhood of man, the rejection of cast and futility of idol worship, founded by indian holy man, nanak
Babur
founder of Mughal dynasty in India; descended from Turkic warriors; first led invasion of India in 1526; died in 1530.
Mughal
Muslim state (1526-1857) exercising dominion over most of India in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. (Mughal=Mongol)
Akbar
Greatest sultan of the Mughal Empire in India (r. 1556-1605). He expanded the empire and pursued a policy of conciliation with Hindus. Grandson of Babur, he created a strong central government earning the title of Akbar the Great
Nur Jahan
The wife of Jahangir who did most of the ruling, most powerful ruler in Indian History
Shah Jahan
Akbar’s Grandson and king. ruled 1628-1658, built the Taj Majhal
Taj Mahal
A beautiful tomb built by the Mughal ruler Shah Jahan to honor his wife.
Ottomans
Turkish speaking nomadic people who came from Central Asia and spread into NW Asia Minor and Eastern Europe.
Istanbul
Formerly Constantinople. Became the new capital of the Ottoman Empire.
Suleyman
Ruled from 1520-1566. Ruler of the Ottoman Empire during its golden age.
janizary
the elite forces of the Ottoman military.
Safavid
Dynasty united an empire in Persia (Iran). Located in between Mughal India and Ottoman Empire. They were Shitte Muslims.
shah
Safavid king
Shah Abbas
Revived the glory of ancient Persia. Ruled from 1588-1629.
Isfahan
Capital of the Safavid empire.
Qajars
Dynasty that emerged in the late 1700s which won control of Iran.
Tehran
Capital of Qajars dynasty.

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member