World Architecture–A Cross Cultural History

Flashcard maker : Kevin Stewart
1: sanctuary
the area around the principle altar in the Christian church
1: doorjambs
vertical portion of frame onto which door is secured
1: shear stresses
a force occurring parallel to a plan, pulling it in all directions
1: wigwams
Nomadic hut built by the Nat. Amer. in central states region.
1: oculus
a round window usually at the apex of a dome
1: yurts
Nomadic hut built by Native Americans in the central states region, branches built like dome, covered in hides/ cloth.
1: eaves
the overhang of a sloping roof projecting beyond a wall
1: battered walls
A wall that slopes inward as it rises.
1: vaults
an arched ceiling or roof
1: cob
method of adobe construction
1: banco
A wet mud construction process for which balls of mud are stacked in spirals.
1: elevations
an exterior or interior vertical plane of a building
1: pise, rammed earth
rammed earth/ clay used as building material
1: Adobe
a Spanish word, refers specifically to earthy substances shaped into unbaked bricks.
1: compression
pushes down with its weight to stabilize the mass of a building
1: tension
pulls in opposite directions
1: cantilever
an overhang beyond the supporting wall or column, which typically extends a third of the length of the member. Can be used to stack stones or logs into corbelled arches or vaults, the components of which progressively step in toward the center as they rise until they reach a capstone that seals the system.
1: true arch
is developed from corbelled arches and is among the strongest of spanning methods. They are made of tapered masonry blocks called VOUSSOIRS.
1: voussoirs
tapered masonry blocks that make up the true arch. They are arranged radically, each piece pushing against the next in total compression.
1: catenary arch
the paraboloid shape that a chain assumes when hung from two verticals and is then inverted for an upright arch or vault; Gaudi explored
1: long houses
long rectangular structure raised on poles and usually covered with thatch
1: wattle and daub
construction system using woven branches and twigs plastered with mud as filling
1: bays
A regularly repeated spatial unit of a building or wall.
1: braces
a system of limber frame construction
1: mortise-and-tenon
a wood joining method in which tenon is fitted into mortise-slot
1: cruck frame
a wooden framing system made of matched pairs of large curved timbers (crucks) that are like slices of trees, forming a pointed arch where they meet at the top.
1: sack walls
a wal made of rows of stones inside and inside and in between filled with rubble
1: capstone
any single stone in a protective capping, or coping, on top of a wall or post
1: dolmen
a chamber made of two monolithic side stones capped by a monolithic roof stone and then covered with earth. The conventional tomb solution for important persons.
1: monolithic
made from a single stone
1: Megaliths
large stones dragged across the land and erected as markers
1: Menhirs
a pre-historic monument in the form of a large, upright stone
1: trilithon
two upright monoliths supporting a lintel stone (like dolman)
1: trabeation
the horizontal span between 2 upright planes or columns
1: orthostats
monolithic stone panels used to protect the interior walls of monolithic monuments
1: tumulus
an earth or stone mound over a grave
1: cairns
prehistoric mound containing passages lined with monoliths
1: revetment
a cladding or veneer of stone or other material
1: chevrons
a succession of v-shaped decorative motifs
1: transom
a horizontal ledge across a window
1: poche
French expression describing the filling of a wall
1: henges
a circle of upright stones or posts
1: lintels
a horizontal spanning element between 2 uprights or posts
2: axis mundi
building marking center of world for Neolithics.
2: temenos
sacred enclosure built to separate the temple from rest of city
2: ziggurat
Mesopotamian temple-tower in the form of staged pyramid.
2: buttresses:
helps to support wall
2: spur walls
a short wall that projects at a right angle from a main wall
2: parallelepiped
a rectangular box, articulated with a uniform alteration of protruding buttresses and deep niches
2: altar
table in temple for sacrifices
2: polychromatic
architectural decoration using many colors
2: cladding
a prote. layer of material added to exterior wall
2: vestibule
an anteroom to a larger hall
2: impluvium
a courtyard with the roofs slanted toward the center so runoff spills into small basin
2: mortar
a builidng substance such a cemement or lime
2: terrace
a level embankment top adjoining often paved or landscaped for leisure use.
2: volumes
amount of space occu. by 3 dimmensional object
2: pyramids
a massive temple or memorial rising from square or rectangular base to center, elevated altar, point
2: planar
a flat surface
2: obelisks
a tall, square shaft, usually of one piece of stone
2: mastaba
An Arabic word for table
2: stelae
upright stone slab marking grave
2: serdab
closed chamber for statue of the defunct in ancient Egyptian tombs
2: stucco
plaster building finish
2: portcullis
a massive, movable defensive grating in a fortefied grating
2: bastions
round, rect. defensive wall
2: rampart
a fortified wall
2: ashlar masonry
smooth blocks of rendered stone; regularly placed, smooth faced stones.
2: clerestory
the elevated range of windows in a wall that rises above adjacent roofs
2: poers
2: lotus capitals
an egyptian motif in which a column is capped with a closed lotus flower
2: mass
weight of matter in space
2: causeway
a raised road or path
2: hypostyle hall
a room with roof supported by many columns
2: program
a buildin’s uses or activities
2: apotropaic
sculptured guardian figures; shedus, lamasus
2: citadel
an elevated fort or stronghold
3: cyclopean masonry
3: fresco
3: loggia
3: chapel
3: colonnaded
3: megaron
3: Casemates
3: porch
3: veneer
3: orthostats
3: tholos
3: dromos
3: pylons
3: cross vaults
3: glacis
3: apotropaic
Sculpted guardian figures at portals and thresholds.
3: pavilion
3: frieze
3: mullions
3: fastigium
3: parapet
4: crowfoot parapets
4: apotropaic
4: classicism
4: polis
4: stoa
4: Acropolis
4: agora
4: podium
4: tholos
4: Bouleuterion
4: gabled
4: prytaneion
4: oikos
4: andron
4: pastas
4: peristyle
4: peripteral
4: entablature
4: pediments
4: order
4: intercolumnation
4: per strigas
4: Doric order
4: capitals
4: volutes
4: stylobate
4: shafts
4: module
4: architrave
4: frieze
4: triglyphs
4: metopes
4: Ionic order
4: base
4: Corinthian
4: rendering
4: stucco
4: entasis
4: refinements
4: Propylaia
4: relief
4: cella
4: caryatids
4: Hellenism
4: Mausoleum
4: Colossus
4: barracks
4: stupas
4: toranas
5: barrel vaults
5: axis
5: cardo
5: castrum
5: aqueduct
5: forum
5: basilica
5: cavea
5: scenae frons
5: circus
5: amphitheater
5: travertine
5: attic
5: thermae
5: palaestra
5: tepidarium
5: caladarium
5: frigidarium
5: oculus
5: dome
5: hypocaust
5: terracotta
5: domus
5: atrium
5: impluvium
5: tablinum
5: tricilinium
5: half-timber
5: tabernae
5: villas
5: insula
5: triumphal arch
5: tufa
5: exedra
5: historiated
5: annular-vaulted
5: palisade
5: keystone
5: porphyry
5: dougong
5: eaves
5: feng shui
\”wind and water\”
5: siheyuan
5: tablero
5: barrios
5: patio
6: church (architecture)
6: fastigium
6: propylon
6: semidome
6: coffered
6: hippodrome
6: spolia
recycled fragments from other monuments
6: cathedral
6: aisle
6: basilica
6: apse
6: nave
6: baptistery
6: ambulatory
6: narthex
6: crossing
6: transept
6: crypt
6: Mithraeums
Secret sanctuaries where, in Persian religion, revered, redeemer figure Mithra was worshiped.
6: catacombs
6: central plan
6: palatine
6: Greek-cross plan
6: quincunx
6: synagogues
6: martyrium
6: mosaic
(like the mosaic-clad rotunda of the church of Santa Costanza)
6: pendetives
6: spandrels
6: thrust
6: genius loci
6: imposts
6: cupola
6: chaitya
6: struts
6: pedestal
6: garbha griha
During the Gupta period the first free-standing Hindu-temples sheltered these, meaning \”womb chamber.\”
6: parkara
6: aedicules
6: lingam
6: gopura
7: mosque
7: qibla
\”the direction of prayers,\” facing a certain direction such as toward Jerusalem.
7: caravansry
7: hypostyle
7: maydan
7: kufic script
7: ablaq
7: mihrab
7: sahn
7: maksura
7: minbar
7: iwan
7: minaret
7: herat
7: dougong
Intricate brackets made of interlocking wooden joinery, found with Buddhist temple construction.
7: segmental arch
7: pagoda
7: necropolis
7: roofcombs
7: atlantids

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