WHAP Chapters 1 and 2 Practice Exercise

Which describes a religious or spiritual aspect of Paleolithic culture?
A. An outlook that sharply distinguished between the material and spiritual worlds
B. A single belief system based on monotheism and animism
C. A cyclical view of time that emphasized regeneration and disintegration
D. The worship of masculinity, as reflected in universally male images and statues

What was a feature of society during the Paleolithic era?
A. High population density
B. Relative egalitarianism
C. Class conflict
D. Widespread slavery

In contrast to the people who migrated to the Americas, the Austronesian migrants to the Pacific islands
A. brought domesticated plants and animals with them.
B. crossed the Bering Strait.
C. returned to their places of origin every year.
D. left their new environments mostly unchanged.

Which of the following describes a feature of chiefdoms?
A. The use of force to ensure obedience from subjects
B. The absence of centralized authority
C. The collection of tribute from commoners
D. The separation of religious and secular power

What did migrants to Australia and the Pacific Islands use to get to their destinations?
A. Clovis points
B. Mammoths
C. Land bridges
D. Boats

What role did women play in agricultural village societies?
A. Women led important rituals and ceremonies.
B. Women rode horses and fought in battles.
C. Women participated in farming and textile work.
D. Women organized irrigation systems and controlled trade.

Which of the following describes both pastoral and agricultural village societies?
A. Both were made up of mobile populations that moved frequently.
B. Both were made up of bands of twenty-five to fifty people.
C. Both possessed relatively egalitarian social structures with few social distinctions.
D. Both possessed permanent settlements near the sea.

Which of the following represents a way that Paleolithic humans shaped their environment?
A. They deliberately set fires to encourage the growth of particular plants.
B. They regulated their hunting to avoid the extinction of various large animals.
C. They drove wild animals into new regions to increase their numbers.
D. They regulated the human population so as not to overtax the environment.

How did the last Ice Age affect Paleolithic people?
A. Ice served as an important preservative for food, making it possible for them to settle in the same place for extended periods.
B. The cold weather killed off most large mammals that had preyed on early human beings.
C. As the glaciers advanced, humans could easily move into new regions since humankind had originated in cold climates.
D. The lower sea levels associated with the Ice Age created land bridges, allowing human beings to travel to many regions of the earth.

Which of the following is true of both the Paleolithic era and Age of Agriculture?
A. The prevalence of female imagery
B. The power of priests
C. The modification of the genetic composition of plants
D. The spread of permanent settlements

Crops spread more slowly in the Americas as compared to Eurasia in part because
A. farmers in the Americas developed no grain crop that could sustain large populations.
B. the successful domestication of large mammals by people in the Americas made crop domestication less important.
C. of the north/south orientation of the American environments.
D. farming practices were entering roughly similar environments.

The spread of agriculture through diffusion and migration
A. resulted in the spread of language groups.
B. always benefited the gathering and hunting peoples with whom migrants came into contact.
C. resulted in the widespread dissemination of crops from New Guinea.
D. led to the decline and ultimate disappearance of pastoral societies.

Which of the following explains why some regions did not make the transition to an agricultural way of life?
A. There were not enough people to do all the work involve with farming.
B. Farming was considered socially demeaning.
C. Knowledge about farming did not spread beyond the core areas where the Agricultural Revolution had taken place.
D. Environmental conditions were not suitable for farming.

Which of the following was a result of the Agricultural Revolution?
A. The initial human settlement of the earth
B. The invention of the plow
C. Higher risk of disease and famine
D. The decline of trade

Which of the following explains why there was frequently conflict between pastoral societies and agricultural societies?
A. Pastoral societies wanted the food crops and manufactured goods produced by agricultural societies.
B. Agricultural societies domesticated animals, but pastoral societies domesticated plants.
C. Agricultural societies sought access to the richer grazing lands controlled by pastoral societies.
D. The animals herded by pastoral societies could only be found in land controlled by agricultural societies.

Which of the following describes a feature of pastoral societies?
A. Village-based horticulture
B. Animal husbandry
C. Intensification of land use
D. Oppression of women

What common feature did pastoral and agricultural societies share?
A. Organization of society based on kinship
B. Systems of labor based on slavery
C. Preference for male children
D. Inherited position of power and privilege

Which form of society during the Age of Agriculture is considered to have a distinct element of inequality?
A. Paleolithic societies
B. Pastoral societies
C. Gathering and hunting societies
D. Chiefdoms

What is another name for the Agricultural Revolution?
A. Fertile Crescent
B. Neolithic Revolution
C. “Secondary products revolution”
D. Mesoamerica

Which of the following is the earliest evidence that gathering and hunting peoples were starting to make the transition to agriculture?
A. Maize
B. Sickles
C. Canoes
D. Milk

What made the Pacific voyages of Austronesian speaking peoples different from all other initial human migrations?
A. The Pacific voyages utilized ice bridges in order to reach New Zealand and other Pacific Islands.
B. The Pacific voyages were undertaken by agricultural people who carried domesticated plants and animals with them.
C. The Pacific voyages did not result in the extinction of local animal species in the places that Austronesian speaking peoples settled.
D. The Pacific voyages happened at a much slower pace than all previous human migrations.

Which of the following have scholars advanced as a possible explanation for the emergence of patriarchy in the First Civilizations?
A. Participation of women in animal-drawn, plow-based agriculture
B. Increased role of women outside the home
C. Decline in birthrates that accompanied civilization
D. Emergence of large-scale warfare with professionally led armies.

Which of the following is usually considered a feature of “civilization”?
A. Absence of class and gender hierarchies
B. States that use force to compel obedience from subjects
C. The use of deliberately set fires for human purposes
D. The domestication of plants and animals

Which of the following First Civilizations is sometimes referred to as the “mother civilization” of Mesoamerica?
A. Mesopotamia
B. Olmec
C. Norte Chico
D. Aztec

Kingship in the First Civilization often
A. depended on the belief that the position of king was divinely ordained.
B. relied exclusively on physical force and coercion.
C. depended in part on the authority of a written constitution.
D. emerged with women as rulers.

Which of the following provided the primary economic foundation for civilization?
A. slavery
B. agriculture
C. warfare
D. writing

Which of the following was a reason for instability in ancient Mesopotamia?
A. The failure of Mesopotamia to develop written law codes
B. Rivalries between independent city-states
C. The collapse of fisheries in the Persian Gulf on which the population relied
D. The failure of a patriarchal system to emerge in Mesopotamia

Which of the following human accomplishments emerged with the First Civilizations?
A. agriculture
B. village life
C. writing
D. art

Which of the following First Civilizations experienced the greatest cultural continuity from its earliest formation to modern times?
A. Indus Valley
B. Norte Chico
C. China
D. Egypt

Which of the following has been advanced as a possible explanation for the origins of the First Civilizations?
A. The absence of limits on the amount of land that could be cultivated
B. The end of the practice of slavery in a region
C. The emergence of regions where no military elite took shape
D. The need to organize large-scale irrigation projects

Which of the following was a feature of Egyptian rather than Mesopotamian civilizations?
A. Salinization of the soil leading to a collapse in the production of wheat
B. Frequent and devastating invasions by outsiders because of a lack of physical barriers
C. A more cheerful and hopeful outlook on the world, as expressed in part through religious beliefs
D. A long tradition of written law codes based on the notion of natural rights

Which of the following statements about ancient Egypt is true?
A. The state was ruled by pharaohs who were believed to be gods in human form.
B. Cities were more important in Egypt than in Mesopotamia.
C. The Nile was an unpredictable river whose erratic floods regularly destroyed crops.
D. Women in Egypt were afforded fewer opportunities than in Mesopotamia.

The territory of ancient Mesopotamia is presently occupied by which country?
A. Iran
B. Afghanistan
C. Iraq
D. India

The rulers of which First Civilization based their authority on the Mandate of Heaven?
A. Egypt
B. China
C. Iraq
D. India

The rulers of the First Civilizations also drew their power from their roles as
A. high priests
B. clan elders
C. traders
D. scribes

Which of the following describes gender relations in the First Civilizations?
A. Women and men enjoyed equal relationships.
B. Women were defined largely by their relationship to a man.
C. Men operated in roles defined as feminine.
D. Men were considered inferior to women.

In the First Civilizations, slaves were drawn from which pool of people?
A. artisans
B. merchants
C. female peasants
D. prisoners of war

Which of the following represents a way that class distinctions were displayed in the First Civilizations?
A. naming practices
B. manner of a person’s burial
C. kinship relations
D. women’s submission to men

Which of the following is an example of how social class affected gender roles?
A. Women from the upper classes were expected to stay at home, while women from the lower classes had to go out in public to work.
B. Women married to wealthy men were forbidden to wear veils, while slaves and prostitutes were required to veil themselves when they went out in public.
C. Only women from the upper classes worshipped Inanna, a goddess of love, sexuality, and war.
D. Female rulers were portrayed dressed in male clothing and wearing false beards.

In which First Civilization were women recognized as legal equals to men?
A. Mesopotamia
B. Mesoamerica
C. Egypt
D. China

Which of the following is an example of the way that patriarchy was expressed in the First Civilizations?
A. Laws that regulated female sexuality
B. Symbols of kingship that were believed to be of divine origin
C. The state’s monopoly of the legitimate right to use violence
D. The use of persuasion, prestige, and gifts to back up political authority.

What was one purpose that writing served in the First Civilizations?
A. To record the stories of ordinary commoners
B. To keep track of who paid their taxes to the state
C. To confine women to the home
D. To entertain an increasingly literate population

Which of the following best describes the Mesopotamian outlook on life and death?
A. People are caught in an inherently disorderly world without much hope of a blessed life beyond.
B. The afterlife was accessible to all who followed proper procedures and lived a morally upright life.
C. Life is full of pain and suffering, but afterlife will offer eternal happiness and tranquility.
D. God has already determined those who will go to heaven, and nothing people do during their lifetime can change their divinely ordained fate.