Western Civ Chapter 11

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What was the main cause of the early fourteenth century famines?
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A little ice age inducing bad weather with heavy rains
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The bubonic Plague originated in
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Asia
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The Black Death
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recurred in severe outbreaks for centuries
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Pogroms were
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organized massacres against the Jews
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the flagellants
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were groups that physically punished themselves to win the forgiveness of God.
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The persecutions against Jews during the Black Death
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reached their worst excesses in German cities
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All of the following were reactions to the great plague except
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a reduction in the persecution of religious minorities because of the displeasure it caused God.
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The devastation of the great plague in the fourteenth century led to
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the perception of life as something cheap and passing
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Economically, the great plague and the crises of the fourteenth century
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raised wages because of a scarcity of labor
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The European aristocracy responded to the adversity of the great plague by
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seeking to lower wages by legal means, especially for farm laborers.
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Post-plague socioeconomic relations between rich and poor in Europe
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got much worse as materially threatened nobles began to regard wealthier peasants and their new-found desires for meat and wine with utter
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The French government and aristocracy responded to the Jacquerie by
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massacring the participants
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The English Peasants’ Revolt of 1381
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was caused by the rising economic expectations of ordinary people.
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Merchants and manufacturers responded to the economic tribulations of the fourteenth century by
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restricting competition and resisting the demands of the lower classes.
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One major issue behind the Hundred Years’ War was a claim to the French throne by the English king
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Edward III
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The crucial battle of the Hundred Years’ War that was won by Henry V in 1415 and that led to treaty and apparent victory in the war for Henry and England was the Battle of
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Agincourt
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One decisive advantage that England had at the beginning of the Hundred Years’ War was the
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longbow
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In the conduct of the Hundred Years’ War, a sure sign of feudalism’s decline was the
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decisive role of peasant foot soldiers rather than mounted knights.
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Joan of Arc saved France by inspiring the French soldiers to break the English siege of
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Orleans
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After helping drive the English from France, Joan of Arc went on to
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be burned at the stake as a heretic
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During the reign of Edward III of England, the Great Council of the barons
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became the House of lords forming a hereditary body of peers in Parliament
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France’s “first woman of letters was”
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Christine de Pizan
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Politically, France by the end of the 14th century saw
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chaos and civil war as rival noble factions fought for control of the realm.
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The Golden Bull of 1356 in Germany
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gave 7 electors the power to choose the “king of the Romans”
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Politically, Italy and Germany were similar in the 14th century because
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both regions failed to develop a centralized monarchical state
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The chief ambition of the Venetian city-state in the 14th century was
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to create a maritime commercial empire throughout the Mediterranean and Black Seas
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The Italian condottieri were
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leaders of the mercenary bands, occasionally ruling as military dictators.
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Florence was ruled throughout most of the 13th and 14th centuries by the
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popolo grasso
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The conflict between Pope Boniface VIII and Philip IV of France began when Philip
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taxed churchmen without the Church’s permission
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From 1305 to 1377, the Papacy resided across the French border in the town of
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Avignon
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One overall result of the Great Schism was to
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badly damaged the faith of many Christian believers
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The Great Schism arose in 1378 when
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the French cardinals elected a second pope.
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The 15th century theologian who claimed that reason could not prove spiritual truth was
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Occam
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The mystic who founded the Modern Devotion movement and led the group known as the Brothers of the Common Life was
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Gerard Groote
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All of the following are correct about Petrarch except he
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wrote sonnets in Latin
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What was Boccaccio’s most famous work?
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the Decameron
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Dante’s “Divine Comedy”
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is considered a synthesis of medieval Christian thought
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Among the great influential female religious mystics of the 14th century was
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Catherine of Siena
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The most revolutionary of 13th and 14th century
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clocks
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Women benefited from the black death because
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there were new employment opportunities

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