WCU EGP326 Ch. 1-6, 9, 11

Through social interaction, both adults and children influence each other’s perceptions and attitudes.

Parental attitudes have only a minor effect on children’s learning and acceptance of school.

As children grow in preschool years, the home influence expands while the community influence diminishes.

All research supports the theory that the peer group has a stronger influence on children’s behavior than the family.

Girls are rewarded by teachers and parents for their more compliant behavior.

Parents generally view television viewing and computer use by children as positive.

A majority of research indicates that heavy media exposure has a negative effect on children’s health.

While childhood obesity is on the rise in the United States, it is a much more serious problem in other parts of the world.

The effects of being bullied in childhood can have long-term negative effects on the victim’s physical and mental health.

The federal government has gradually lessened its mandates regarding public education.

Children acquire certain attitudes by:
All of the above

Children may receive conflicting messages about aggressive play and other issues due to:
All of the above

Research by the Institute for Responsive Education showed:
Most teachers feel low-income parents can not be productive participants in their children’s education.

The nurturing family provides many things for a young child. Which of the following would be the most valuable support for the child’s growth?
Emotional and social support

Media influence on young children’s development is:
Constantly changing in type and impact

The social settings for any given child:
Include those events and interactions affecting the child’s development

Research indicates that teachers’ expectations of children’s capabilities:
Has a significant influence on children’s achievement and behavior.

Researchers find the typical American child under 6 uses screen media for about:
2 hours a day.

The elementary-age child’s TV viewing has lessened in recent years due to:
More time devoted to other electronic media.

Which of the following is a major concern about the effect of TV viewing on young children?
All of the above.

The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that children under 2 years of age:
Spend no time watching TV or engaging with other electronic media.

Which of the following is true of peer group influence during the course of childhood?
Peer group influence gradually becomes more dominant as the child ages.

Which of the following media forms has the most impact on children’s interest and literacy achievement?
Parental engagement with reading materials and their children.

Recent brain research suggests that the greatest factor determining children’s intellectual development is:
An interactive process that relies on genetics, environment and the child’s responses.

The nurturing family provides many things for a young child. Which of the following would be the most valuable support for the child’s growth?
Emotional and social support

Which of the following best describes the influence of special-interest groups on young children’s learning and behavior?
Both positive and negative

Belief that environment is a primary force in a child’s development stems from Darwin’s theories of evolution.

In colonial times the community was the major force for educating children.

The first parent education program was held in Portland, Maine.

The Zone of Proximal Development is part of Bronfenbrenner’s social-cultural context theory.

PL 94-142 has promoted the right of parents to be involved in their child’s education, evaluation, and school placement.

Programs such as Head Start and Follow Through focused on the importance of parents as an educating force.

Bowen’s Family Systems Theory indicates the extensive independence of family members in the home unit.

In recent decades, the federal government has moved backward in involvement in public school education and has permitted more state oversight.

Special interest groups in different communities have affected how schools handle the teaching of evolution and the uses of religious symbols.

Curricula in American schools is undergoing rapid changes to accommodate the effects of globalization.

Expanded multicultural education in American schools is justified because:
All of the above

Schooling in the U. S. evolved gradually over three centuries, but formal public schools became the dominant force in educating young children:
In the late 1800’s when psychology became trusted, and education for teachers became professionalized

The nature-nurture debate concentrates on:
Beliefs about inherited characteristics as opposed to the effects of one environment.

Historical figures who would support a school program that devoted a great deal of time to experiments and discussion are:
Darwin, Froebel, and Dewey.

Social-cultural theorists such as Vygotsky and Bronfenbrenner maintain that:
Development is influenced in a reciprocal manner by both biology and environment.

Education for children with special needs has expanded steadily since 1975 due to:
Tedious campaigning by parents and educators for society to recognize the rights of all children.

Parent involvement in education has increased in recent years due to:
All of the above.

Federal involvement in education is highlighted in:
NCLB, the War on Poverty, and PL 94-142.

Family Systems theory, according to Bowen, shows us that:
The behaviors of one member will affect other family members.

Experiments and investigations of the school’s ant farm by students in a contemporary classroom would not likely be endorsed by:

Which historical figure is credited with establishing the first kindergarten in the US?

Head Start programs for preschoolers were developed in the 1960s:
To provide comprehensive services, opportunities, and educational experiences for children born into poverty.

The goal of compulsory education in America was realized in:
Early 20th century.

No Child Left Behind, Head Start legislation, and Goals 2000 are federal mandates associated with:
Clinton, G. W. Bush, & Johnson.

In NCLB legislation, which component does not reflect the nature of the law?
Physical education, music, and art are major requirements.

Which of the following characterizes the approach used by schools in the 1800s to educate immigrant children?
Acculturate minority children into Anglo-European culture.

Good multicultural education can best be described as a program that:
Helps all children understand, accept, and respect people from other cultures as well as their own cultures.

Early kindergartens and child-care centers were established in order to:
Influence immigrant families to rear children according to the beliefs of mainline society.

Though all minority groups in America have suffered from negative attitudes, unequal treatment, and discrimination by mainline society, which group has generally been more academically and economically successful?
Asian Americans

Which of the following statements regarding changes in family patterns in the United States is not true?
Extended families are increasing in number.

The term underclass is used to describe individuals and families who are:
People locked in a cycle of poverty.

The single-parent family can have several structural variations.

While many single parents achieved noteworthy results in successfully raising their children, the foremost critical issue many single-parent families continue to confront is:

Which of the following is not true?
c and d-
Out of wedlock births create a small percentage of single parent families and
Kinship adoptions are a small percentage of total adoptions in the US

Which of the following is not true?
Race does affect one’s physical and mental capacities.

Cultural concepts of what constitutes a “proper family” were not altered over the 20th century.

Which of the following would be considered a viable family?
All of the above

Even though they are poor, underclass individuals and families in America have access to nutrition and health-care services.

In regard to the religious practices among Americans, which is not true?
About 50% of Americans profess to having a religious affiliation.

African Americans constitute the largest ethnic minority group in the U. S.

Values in working-class families usually differ from those presented in schools.

People of “more than one race” are acknowledged more often in the U. S. today. This means that:
All of the above

Social class standing is usually based on:
The occupation, income, education, and values of the parents in a family.

About half of adoptions in the U. S. are kinship adoptions.

Which of the following factors affects the structure, functioning, and status of families?
All of the above

Which of the following conditions is least likely to be present in an underclass family situation?
Scheduled health checkups for children

Which of the following statements is not accurate when considering families with children with special needs?
Upper income families have the same proportion of special needs as the other socioeconomic levels.

Research indicates that children raised in homes headed by gay or lesbian parents adopted do as well as other children across many measures.

The idealized American family with breadwinner father and homemaker mother:
None of the above

When a parent with children remarries a single adult to produce a stepfamily for the new partner, the new family is termed:
A blended family.

The term family describes many different household groupings.

Family structure for individuals is almost always permanent.

What factors account for differences in parenting practices among members of the same ethnic group?
All of the above

Which of the following is the best childhood predictor of adult competence in American society?
Strong social skills

Which of the following levels of need (Maslow’s) will be most concerning to parents of a preschool child?
All of the above

Divorce usually improves the economic status of mothers and children.

Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs provides a model of the early nurturing practices that children require from their parents.

As increasing numbers of mothers have entered the work force, fathers now do about 50% of the household chores and child care.

The authoritarian style of parenting seems to be most effective in preparing children for school expectations and later positive outcomes.

Which of the following has not been adequately provided for families participating in welfare reform?
All of the above

According to Hart and Risley’s research, it is not the amount of parent talk that is most important; it is quality of the communication.

Typically, Black children become aware of their race at younger ages than White children.

Parents who are strict and who expect their children to obey specific rules without argument are classified by Baumrind as:

According to Maslow, which of the following arrangements best represents the order in which universal nurturing practices are attended to by parents?
Physical safety, providing love, promoting esteem

Which of the following interaction styles is demonstrated when parents show enthusiasm when helping their child?
All of the above

Family language style and interaction have far-reaching consequences on children’s school performance.

Which of the following is not necessarily a characteristic of competent families?
They are affluent and well educated.

Which of the following would not be considered a core ideal of the overarching culture of the United States?
Respect for the wisdom of the elderly

Which of the following has not occurred as gender roles in families have changed in recent years?
Mothers and fathers share household chores and child care equally.

Family Systems Theory suggests that each family has a unique profile that can help teachers and counselors understand the family’s perspective better.

Families from various cultures have similar goals for their children, but their expectations about development of competencies at different ages vary considerably.

According to Bernstein (1972), what is the language code of a parent whose verbal communication is object oriented and who uses syntactically simple sentences, sentences that are direct, and concrete meanings?
Restricted code

Children acquire social skills from their experiences within their communities and their interactions with community workers.

The Internet opens international opportunities for children to explore and study.

All communities offer the same access to resources available for families living in poverty.

Some helpful features of a community curriculum are entirely accidental and come about through normal processes in neighborhood establishments.

Business enterprises help best when they welcome children’s visits without adult supervision.

Natural environments provide sensory experiences for children even in urban settings.

Children’s activities with numerous adults and older children can be interesting, but they tend to hamper children’s overall progress.

Peers do not start to influence each other until the teenage years.

Good mentoring programs make sure the child’s academic work is the main objective.

Peer groups are important, but they do not affect the social/emotional health of most children.

Children do not always understand their own culture.

Multicultural efforts can result in some problems of socializing and prejudice.

Children learn within their community by:
All of the above

Which of the following statements concerning the curriculum of the community is (are) true?
Children’s use of the community curriculum depends on how safe the neighborhood is.

Which of the following statements about peer groups is (are) incorrect?
All learning from peer groups is positive.

The learning potential in any community can be enhanced by:
All of the above

Which is of the following statements is false?
Most communities are well connected with their surrounding schools.

Participation in a community curriculum is dependent largely on:
B and C-
Access and distance factors and Interests and motivations

The amount of daily TV watching for the average young child is:
About 3.5 hours.

Which is not a big concern for a person doing mentoring?
Quick and potent skill development.

In a peer group, young children are least likely to:
Learn how to succeed in classroom math.

Ethnic culture can bring changes to a community. Which of the following will be most helpful?
A and B-
New foods, celebrations, dances, and entertainment and Insights into politics, civil rights, and legislation

Our primary consideration in the use of the Internet is that it:
All of the above

Which of the following statements about peer groups is true?
They are a strong influence as children learn to negotiate and compromise.

Incidental learning is most likely to occur in communities where:
All of the above

One of the major issues that can limit families’ access to community resources in rural areas is:

While media provide educational opportunities for children, concerns are often voiced about:
All of the above

While center-based child care has increased dramatically in the past 40 years, this type of care is used most frequently by higher income families.

On the whole, child-care programs are good and only a small percentage are deemed a threat to children’s welfare.

The Lanham Act continues to support the development of excellent child-care facilities so mothers can work.

Multiple child care arrangements are increasing for both preschool and school age children.

Many dual-income families have difficulty finding quality child care and then budgeting funds to support the expense for care.

Child-care centers presently provide care for more children than do other types of care arrangements.

Most states have statutes that make it illegal to have a child-care program located in a commercial company building or where any business is operated.

A state license is required for all child-care centers and family child-care situations.

Resource and referral services help citizens report unsafe and low-quality child- care centers to licensing agencies.

The federal Child and Dependent Care tax credit is most beneficial to low-income families.

Which of the following is (are) recognized child-care options and found in many larger communities?
All of the above

Under the provisions of the Lanham Act during World War II, what were many communities able to do?
Build excellent child-care centers.

What is the percentage of mothers of children under age six who are employed?

Which of the following is (are) true statements?
All of the above

What is the most prevalent form of after-school care for elementary-age children?
Parent or self-care

How do child-care centers today differ from the earliest centers established during the 19th century?
Centers today have a greater emphasis on care and education of children.

Which of the following would be indicators of a quality child-care center?
All of the above

Concerns about quality in child care are often related to:
All of the above

What is the difference between a licensed child care center and an accredited one?
C and D-
While most states have mandatory licensing for child-care centers, accreditation is voluntary.

Accredited centers are considered higher in quality than those that are merely licensed.

What agency oversees the nation’s largest voluntary accreditation system for preschools, kindergartens, child-care centers, and school-age child-care programs?
The National Association for the Education of Young Children

Which of the following is not considered a structural element of child care?
Parent-caregiver relationships

What is the most important process element in child care?
Relationship between caregiver and child

Which of the following agencies serve as models for states seeking to improve the quality of family child care programs?
U.S. Military Family Child Care Programs

Which of the following would not be considered an essential part of a before- and after-school program for school-age children?
A highly structured schedule of activities for the children to follow

Recent research on the effects of quality child care indicates which of the following?
All of the above.

Most children diagnosed with disabilities attend school in classrooms separate from their typically-developing peers.

Children assessed as gifted and talented also receive services under IDEA.

The majority of school-age children receiving special education services have mild disabilities.

Under the provisions of IDEA, special education is considered a service not a place.

Children with diagnosed disabilities placed in classrooms with their typically-developing peers would be an example of the principle of the least restrictive environment.

The child-find process begins in first grade when teachers refer children for evaluation for possible special education placements.

African American and Hispanic students are more likely to be referred to special education than are European Americans.

There is no evidence that early intervention and quality early childhood experiences can significantly lower children’s needs for later special education services.

There is general agreement among parents, teachers, and special educators that the full inclusion model is the best approach for all children with disabilities.

Some children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder who do not qualify for special education services receive accommodations under a legally-mandated 504 plan.

Which of the following subgroups of the category of children with special needs are protected by the federal IDEA?
Children with disabilities

What accommodations do schools frequently make for children who have been identified as being gifted and talented?
All of the above

A pediatrician is most likely to raise concerns about a child possibly having a disability when:
The child fails to meet developmental milestones.

Procedural due process refers to:
The rule that safeguards the student’s right to privacy and procedures for legal redress.

Families raising children with disabilities:
All or none of the above.

To be eligible for services under the Early Intervention Program for Infants and Toddlers with Disabilities, a child must:
a and c
Be experiencing developmental delays.

Have a diagnosed medical condition with a high probability of developmental delay.

The difference between early intervention for infants and toddlers and the services that a school-age child with a disability would receive is:
c and d.
Services for infants and toddlers are more family-centered while those for older children are more school-centered.

Infants and toddler services are guided by an IFSP while school-age services are guided by an IEP.

Which of the following is not true about children who take medication for behavioral problems?
All children who take medication are eligible for special education services.

In the acronym FAPE, what does the letter “F” stand for?

Full inclusion refers to:
Children with disabilities who spend the majority of their in-school time in general education classes.

Which of the following is not accurate when describing the referral process for a school-age child suspected of having a disability?
The child’s general education teacher is the only one allowed to make an initial referral.

Which of the following is not an accurate statement about assistive technology?
The cochlear implant device which can restore hearing to children who are deaf has been overwhelmingly embraced by the deaf and hearing communities.

In the 21st century, children seem to have fewer advocates while families face new pressures.

The eight models presented in the chapter have similarities, but on the whole they are region specific.

A successful partnership means that all members of a community are highly involved in the educational process.

Providing food for a bake sale involves parents at a minimum level of participation in a partnership.

Parents who volunteer as tutors in any collaborative venture are functioning at the decision-making level of program involvement.

There is always a danger that community leaders can usurp the rights and responsibilities that teachers should have.

Team members in a collaboration will need to surrender some autonomy when the big objective is viewed by all.

Joyce Epstein’s notion of partnership emphasizes public relations and community celebration while de-emphasizing the curriculum areas.

Community schools are public schools serving as sites that provide a range of services to families and children.

In the early phases of Head Start, authorities did not pay attention to parent and community involvement.

Reggio Emilia plans always have focused on children as active participants in their own learning.

Epstein and colleagues try for a quick fix blitz to act as a jump-start in new schools joining the National Network.

The HABLA program is aimed at Latino children, but the primary aim is to improve the children’s English.

Partnerships need quality technology to make good progress in their work.

Charter schools can differ significantly in leadership style and curriculum.

Freedom Schools, a year-long program aimed at African American children, is funded by the federal government to connect children and families to their cultural heritage.

Which of the following is not a necessary component for successful partnerships?
Widespread publicity about the program.

Which of the following is not a key component of the Head Start program?
Educational renewal

The emphasis today for many home-based federal programs is:
Family literacy.

The number of parents and community representatives working at the Decision Making Level in a collaborative venture would be:
only a small number.

Which of the following show(s) the general situation about collaborations across America at the present:
Most parents and community members view teachers as in charge.
Many parents and community members help out with fairs and other projects.

Which of the following is/are a positive outcome(s) of the School Development Program?
All of the above

Major steps in collaboration depend on:
Getting schedules made and having well planned notices.
Understanding interests and expertise of participants.

Reggio Emilia’s basic precepts:
Maintain that children are active participants in their own learning.

Which of the following statements is false, concerning family-school-community partnerships?
Partnerships succeed better when we do not challenge the community.

Comprehensive services in the early years of Head Start meant providing for:
Services to improve health and nutrition for children only.
Services to low income families that could improve their child’s school readiness skills.

One objective that Comer’s School Development Program does not focus on is:
Getting better equipment and restoring facilities.

Over a half century the Reggio Emilia program has incorporated the views of:
Dewey, Piaget & Vygotsky.
Mr. Malaguzzi.

The essential ingredient in successful models of partnerships, often meaning the difference between success and failure, is involvement of:
A strong and supportive school principal or director.

Charter schools:
receive authorization from local authorities.

Evaluation techniques used in the Reggio Emilia programs are:
Documentation of children’s individual and communal work that is then analyzed by parents, students, and teachers.

Community Schools means that the thrust will be on:
Full services for children in the district.
Having all services on one campus.

Community schools date back to the early 20th century and are focused on:
A curriculum of the community with a view to improving the living conditions in that community.

A strong feature of Freedom Schools is the “servant-leader” intern program. These interns are a part of the summer sessions, participating:
By facilitating children’s activities and leading the community outreach program.

Partnerships in education mean reform and experimental programs. Comer states that the success rate of partnership projects nationwide is:
That about one third of the projects maintain the changes.

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