Visual Element – Space Flashcard

Mass is the ________(1)________, where as depth is the ________(2)________.
(1) Effect or degree of bulk,density, or weight a 3-dimensional form; (2) apparent distance from front to back in a piece of artwork
The art of using and understanding space involves _______________
Varying the size of objects or subjects, so that some are smaller than others and the illusion of depth is created, showing a change from light to dark in an object by darkening areas that would have a shadow, and
placing part of one shape or form in front of another.
_____________ is the area of dark created when an object blocks light.
Shadow
Space
The distance or area between, around, above, below and within things
Negative space
The empty space between shapes or forms
Positive space
The area an object occupies
Shade
To darken a color by adding black
Shadow
Area of dark created when an object blocks light
Modeling
Use of value to create the illusion of depth
Sfumato
In Italian “graduations of light and shadow to produce a hazy effect” a subtle smoky, fog look
Depth
The measurement or sense of distance from an observation point created by making objects that are further away smaller.
Distance
How far away something is or appears to be, making an object smaller gives the appearance of distance.
Mass
The effect or degree of bulk,density, or weight a 3-Dimensional form.
Shading
Showing a change from light to dark in an object by darkening areas that would have a shadow, shading gives a flat object the illusion of form.
Explain the differences between shade, shading, and shadow.
Shade refers to when an artist darkens a color by adding black. Shading is the act of showing a change from light to dark in an object by darkening areas that would have a shadow. Shadow is the area of dark created when an object blocks light.
Name the piece above and its painter. How has the artist used symbolic expression in this painting? Include 3 examples/descriptions.
Answers may vary, but should include at least 3 examples: This piece is by Vincent van Gogh, called Starry Night. Van Gogh used created a horizon using horizontal lines; the cypress tree and mountains are vertical and almost seem to reach for the sky; the stars are interacting as one with the entire seen below, becoming a part of nature and the environment; both cypress trees are in the foreground so that our view point shifts and their symbolic expression is that of a different nature than the other objects seen in the painting; the house are smaller purposely, so that they are not viewed as important compared to the nature elements; the only building that is accentuated is the church, which symbolizes a spiritual connection with nature.
Define the term sfumato. Name the above fresco and its artist. Explain how the artist how the artist used sfumato in his/her piece.
Sfumato is an Italian term for graduations of light and shadow to produce a hazy effect. This painting is by Correggio called, Assumption of the Virgin. Inspired by Leonardo da Vinci’s spotlighting effects of illumination of sfumato, Correggio used sfumato to create a dreamlike effect in his fresco. The light at the top appears to filter down through the clouds among the shadows and figures. Although the objects are defined and recognizable, there is still an overall haze and blend across the entire image.
Define symbolic expression. Why are visual elements of art important to symbolic expression?
Symbolic expression is the act of representing an idea or message through the use of symbols. Visual elements are vital to symbolic expression because they allow an artist to create symbolism and incorporate creativity, which would otherwise be difficult or impossible.
Above is a piece by Michelangelo, called The Holy Family. Explain the term modeling in art and why Michelangelo was considered a master of modeling.
Modeling is the act of using value to create the illusion of depth using shadow and shade. Michelangelo was a master of modeling in his paintings because of his skills as a sculptor. He understood how shapes looked and felt in three dimensions and was able to put this to work in paintings such as The Holy Family.
Explain what you see in the image on the left, verses the image on the right. What a person sees when looking at the above two pictures depends on what concept?
Answer will vary but may resemble the following: Most people see either a vase-like object, or two faces. You may see one image in one picture, and the second image in the other, or you may see the same image in both, just one is black and one is white. It all depends on the concept of perception.
Define the following terms:

– space
– depth
– mass

Space: The distance or area between, around, above, below, and within objects.

Depth: The apparent distance from front to back in a piece of artwork.

Mass: The effect or degree of bulk,density, or weight a 3-dimensional form.

Explain the difference between positive space and negative space.
Positive space is the area the objects in a work of art occupy. Negative space is the empty space between the shapes or forms.
Name the artist and painting above. How has the artist used space effectively?
This painting is by Géricault called, The Raft of the Medusa. The artist has effectively used space by first creating a triangular shape with the raft and bodies of the men acting as the base. Everything in the painting then leads up to the man waving the flag (center, top-right). We also see shade and shadow among the people and the sails, which gives it depth and also helps to again direct our eyes. There is also an element of sfumato used by the artist in the sea and the ocean, in order to emphasize the raft in the forefront, and to create a sense of mystery and fear.
The above piece is a lithograph by M.C. Escher. How has Escher used the concept of space effectively?
In the mirrored ball, the objects are varying sizes, which allows certain objects or subjects (ex: man) to appear closer and others farther away (window), creating depth and form. The artist also made some objects curved (ex: bookshelf and ceiling) and receding, in order to show the curvilinear lines of sphere of the mirror. The hand holding the ball, with its two fingers in the forefront, and its others behind, add to the 3-dimensional appearance.
This artwork is called the Raft of the Medusa, painted by Géricault. All the visual elements incorporated by Géricault lead the eye to which primary focal point?
The man waving the flag
The painting above is called The Holy Family, by ______(1)_______, who is considered a master of ______(2)_______.
(1) Michelangelo; (2) modeling
The way people view and understand an object or subject depends primarily on ___________.
Perception
In the above painting by Salvador Dalí, entitled Persistence of Memory, which of the following objects do not occupy positive space?
The ground
___________ is the use of value to create the illusion of depth.
Modeling
Negative space is particularly important and highly utilized in creating ____________
Sculptures
In Van Gogh’s Starry Night, he incorporated symbolic expression, using the visual elements of art, through all of the following actions, except which?
The artist has created the piece so that the negative space overpowers the positive space.
Depth is the ________________
Apparent distance from front to back in a piece of artwork.

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