US History Unit 1: Colonial Era

Flashcard maker : Henry Smith
Jamestown
1.(1607) first permanent English colony–backed by the Virginia Company
2. a joint stock colony (business venture/investors)–to make money
3. John Smith elected president of colony
House of Burgesses
first form of representative/legislative government in New World
(similar to Parliament)
salutary neglect
colonies govern themselves
cash crop
1. an agricultural crop which is grown for sale to return a profit
2. tobacco was a cash crop that saved Jamestown
3. created major social and economic divisions between those who owned land and those who did not
Powhatan
1. Native American chief in Virginia who created a powerful organization by affiliating 30 tributary peoples
2. fought the settlers in Jamestown
Bacon’s Rebellion
1. uprising led by landless rebels (poor English and slave colonists) against governor and landowners
2. wanted harsher action against Native Americans so more land would be available (land meant wealth!)
3. proved that the poor citizens would not tolerate injustice from wealthy citizens
Plymouth
1. colony founded in Massachusetts by Pilgrims (1620)
2. founded for religious reasons
Rhode Island
1. founded by Roger Williams
2. dissenters disagreed with strict Puritan Massachusetts
Half-way Covenant
Established partial membership into the Church for children and grandchildren of full members in an effort to keep members and attract new ones.
King Phillip’s War
1. bloody conflict between English colonists and Native Americans
2. Led by Metacom (King Phillip’s Native American name)
3. many Native Americans were killed; opened up more land for English settlements
Massachusetts charter
In 1686, the British king canceled the Massachusetts charter that made it an
independent colony. To get more control over trade with the colonies, he combined British colonies throughout New England into a single territory governed from England and the colonists in this territory greatly disliked this centralized authority.
In 1691, Massachusetts Bay became a royal colony.
Salem Witch Trials
1. 1690s
2. 150 Massachusetts colonists were accused of witchcraft and were tried
3. caused by extreme religious faith, stress from a growing population and its bad relations with Native Americans, and narrowed opportunities for women to participate in the Puritian society
Pennsylvania
1. founded for religious reasons (Quakers)
2. William Penn was leader
New Amsterdam
1. founded by the Dutch
2. renamed New York after English takeover
3. harbor and river systems significantly
contributed to its economic growth and importance. This allowed New York to
grow into a major commercial hub and one of the biggest cities in the British colonies
Quebec
1. the first permanent French settlement in North America
2. The French instructed their colonists to spread the Catholic faith in the New World
mercantilism
1. Economic system in which nations grow stronger by exporting more goods to other nations than importing goods from other nations
2. as a nation became stronger and wealthier, its enemies became poorer and weaker
3. new colonies meant more natural resources and markets to export goods to
transatlantic trade
Colonies were designed to produce raw materials which were sent to England to be made into goods.
Middle Passage
The forced transportation of African slaves aboard cramped ships caused suffering and inhumane treatment.
African American Culture
1. Slave communities were rich with music, dance, basket weaving, and pottery making.
2. Enslaved Africans brought with them the arts and craft skills of their various tribes
social mobility
The ability to move from one social status to another.
New France
1. French settlements established for fur trade
2. will eventually claim the Ohio Valley which will lead to French and Indian War
French and Indian War
1. 1745-1763–Great Britain and Colonists v. French (both had Native American allies) –fought over land—British win
2. George Washington emerges as war hero
Treaty of Paris of 1763
1. 1753–ended French and Indian War
2. forced France to turn over control of Canada to Great Britain.
3. France also surrendered its claim to all land east of the Mississippi River, with the
exception of the city of New Orleans.
Proclamation of 1763
1. Americans were forbidden by Great Britain from settling beyond the Appalachian Mountains, in an effort to limit their conflicts with Native Americans
2. will be one of the events that will lead to American Revolution
Enlightenment
thinkers believed that all problems could be solved using reason (Ben Franklin)
The Great Awakening
1.series of religious revivals (Jonathan Edwards/George Whitefield)
2. encouraged colonists to think for themselves on religious matters which extended to ideas about government

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