US History Louisiana EOC Review Terms

Flashcard maker : Ruth Jones
ku klux klan
a secret society of white Southerners in the United States, later grew in the Northeast and Midwest opposing immigrants, Jews and Catholics
exodusters
African Americans who moved from post reconstruction South to Kansas.
fourteenth amendment
made \”all persons born or naturalized in the United States\” citizens of the country
fifteenth amendment
The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
sharecropping
System in which landowners leased a few acres of land to farmworkers in return for a portion of their crops
sharecroppers
people who rent a plot of land from another person, and farm it in exchange for a share of the crop
George Custer
United States general who was killed along with all his command by the Sioux at the battle of Little Bighorn (1839-1876)
49ers
People who rushed to california in 1849 for gold.
national Grange of Patrons of Husbandry
This organization better known as the Grange, was organized in 1867 by Oliver H. Kelley; its objective was to enhance the lives of isolated farmers through social, educational, and fraternal activities; the Grangers gradually raised their goals from individual self-improvement of the farmer’ collective plight
Interstate Commerce Commission
a former independent federal agency that supervised and set rates for carriers that transported goods and people between states
Homestead Act of 1862
this allowed a settler to acquire 160 acres by living on it for five years, improving it and paying about $30
Dawes Severalty Act of 1887
dissolved many tribes as legal entities, wiped out tribal ownership of land, and set up individual Indian family heads with 160 free acres. If the Indians behaved like \”good white settlers\” then they would get full title to their holdings as well as citizenship. The Dawes Act attempted to assimilate the Indians with the white men. The Dawes Act remained the basis of the government’s official Indian policy until the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934.
Plessy v. Ferguson
A 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal
Jim Crow laws
Limited rights of blacks. Literacy tests, grandfather clauses and poll taxes limited black voting rights
Interstate Commerce Act
Established the ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission) – monitors the business operation of carriers transporting goods and people between states – created to regulate railroad prices
long drives
A cattle drive in which Texas ranchers drove herds of cattle north to be sold in northern markets
Ghost Dance
a religious dance of native Americans looking for communication with the dead
grandfather clauses
law that excused a voter from literacy test if his grandfather had been eligible to vote on Jan. 1 1867
agribusiness
…, a large-scale farming enterprise
Cornelius Vanderbilt
United States financier who accumulated great wealth from railroad and shipping businesses (1794-1877)
Andrew Carnegie
United States industrialist and philanthropist who endowed education and public libraries and research trusts (1835-1919)
John D. Rockefeller
Was an American industrialist and philanthropist. Revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy.
robber barons
Refers to the industrialists or big business owners who gained huge profits by paying their employees extremely low wages. They also drove their competitors out of business by selling their products cheaper than it cost to produce it. Then when they controlled the market, they hiked prices high above original price.
U.S. Steel
powerful and wealthy 19th century steel corporation founded by Andrew Carnagie and JP Morgan
Standard Oil Company
Founded by John D. Rockefeller. Largest unit in the American oil industry in 1881. Known as A.D. Trust, it was outlawed by the Supreme Court of Ohio in 1899. Replaced by the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey.
Knights of Labor
1st effort to create National union. Open to everyone but lawyers and bankers. Vague program, no clear goals, weak leadership and organization. Failed
American Federation of Labor
a federation of North American labor unions that merged with the Congress of Industrial Organizations in 1955
Pullman Palace Car Company
manufactured railroad cars; nationwide conflict between labor unions and railraods; 3000 employees began a wilde cat strike in response to recent reductions in wages, stopping traffic in chicago
The Great Railroad Strike of 1877
Railroad strike that crippled the US first nationwide strike, 10 governors used their militias to break
Sherman Antitrust Act
First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions
Promontory Point
Place where the Transcontinental Railroad was completed
transcontinental railroad
Completed in 1869 at Promontory, Utah, it linked the eastern railroad system with California’s railroad system, revolutionizing transportation in the west contains Union Pacific Railroad and Central Pacific Railroad
vertical integration
absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in all aspects of a product’s manufacture from raw materials to distribution
horizontal integration
absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in the same level of production and sharing resources at that level
laissez faire
the doctrine that government should not interfere in commercial affairs
social Darwinism
The application of ideas about evolution and \”survival of the fittest\” to human societies – particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
trickle down theory
decreased income taxes for the wealthy would promote business and therefore the whole economy
depression
a long-term economic state characterized by unemployment and low prices and low levels of trade and investment
collective bargaining
Negotiations between representatives of labor unions and management to determine pay and acceptable working conditions.
\”Boss\” Tweed
William Tweed, head of Tammany Hall, NYC’s powerful democratic political machine in 1868. Between 1868 and 1869 he led the Tweed Reign, a group of corrupt politicians in defrauding the city. Example: Responsible for the construction of the NY court house; actual construction cost $3million. Project cost tax payers $13million.
Thomas Nast
Newspaper cartoonist who produced satirical cartoons, he invented \”Uncle Sam\” and came up with the elephant and the donkey for the political parties. He nearly brought down Boss Tweed.
Jane Addams
the founder of Hull House, which provided English lessons for immigrants, daycares, and child care classes
Joseph Pulitzer
United States newspaper publisher (born in Hungary) who established the Pulitzer prizes (1847-1911)
William Randolph Hearst
United States newspaper publisher whose introduction of large headlines and sensational reporting changed American journalism (1863-1951)
Woman’s Christian Temperance Union
an organization that blamed alcohol for crime, poverty, and violence against women and children, and fought against it.
The Anti-Saloon League
…, Started in the 1890s and was against saloons and drinking
The Gilded Age
1877-1900; rapid industrialization, urbanization, immigration; rise of big business and the labor movement; the Populist movement
Chinese Exclusion Act
(1882) Denied any additional Chinese laborers to enter the country while allowing students and merchants to immigrate.
Tammany Hall
a political organization within the Democratic Party in New York city (late 1800’s and early 1900’s) seeking political control by corruption and bossism
Social Gospel
Movement led by Washington Gladden – taught religion and human dignity would help the middle class over come problems of industrialization
ghettos
city slum areas inhabited by minority groups living there due to social or economic pressures
tenement
a rundown apartment house barely meeting minimal standards
political machines
Corrupt organized groups that controlled political parties in the cities. A boss leads the machine and attempts to grab more votes for his party.
temperance
restraint or moderation, especially in regards to alcohol or food
farmer’s alliance
A Farmers’ organization founded in late 1870s; worked for lower railroad freight rates, lower interest rates, and a change in the governments tight money policy
populist party
U.S. political party formed in 1892 representing mainly farmers, favoring free coinage of silver and government control of railroads and other monopolies
gold bug
Democrats and Republicans opposed to free silver and who supported the gold standard because tehy feared implications to currency value with free silver.
muckrakers
This term applies to newspaper reporters and other writers who pointed out the social problems of the era of big business. The term was first given to them by Theodore Roosevelt.
northern securities company
A railroad monopoly formed by J.P. Morgan and James J. Hill which violated Sherman Antitrust Act
federal trade commission
an independent agency of the United States fedeal government that maintains fair and free competition
national american women suffrage association
organization formed by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and others to promote the vote for women
national women’s party
a women’s organization founded in 1916 by Alice Paul that fought for women’s rights during the early 20th century in the United States, particularly for the right to vote on the same terms as men
niagara movement
in 1905 Dubois started this movement at Niagara Falls, and four years later joined with white progressives sympathetic to their cause to form NAACP, the new organization later led to the drive for equal rights.
league of women voters
League formed in 1920 advocating for women’s rights, among them the right for women to serve on juries and equal pay laws
National Association for the advancement of colored people (NAACP
The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People was a civil rights organization for ethnic minorities. This is the largest organization in the US, so it has a lot of influence, meaning that minorities had more hope for equality.
panic of 1893
Serious economic depression beginning in 1893. Began due to rail road companies over-extending themselves, causing bank failures. Was the worst economic collapse in the history of the country until that point, and, some say, as bad as the Great Depression of the 1930s.
\”cross of gold\” speech
An impassioned address by William Jennings Bryan at the 1896 Deomcratic Convention, in which he attacked the \”gold bugs\” who insisted that U.S. currency be backed only with gold.
progressive era
time at the turn of the 20th century in which groups sought to reform America economically, socially, and politically
great migration
movement of over 300,000 African American from the rural south into Northern cities between 1914 and 1920
pendleton civil service act of 1881
This act reformed the corrupt patronage system of obtaining civil service jobs. No longer could political cronyism secure government positions – all potential civil service employees had to take an exam to prove their worthiness.
seventeenth amendment
allowed americans to vote directly for U.S senators
square deal
Progressive concept by Roosevelt that would help capital, labor, and the public. It called for control of corporations, consumer protection, and conservation of natural resources. It denounced special treatment for the large capitalists and is the essential element to his trust-busting attitude. This deal embodied the belief that all corporations must serve the general public good.
elkins act
(1903) gave the Interstate Commerce Commission more power to control railroads from giving preferences to certain customers
hepburn act
This 1906 law used the Interstate Commerce Commission to regulate the maximum charge that railroads to place on shipping goods.
the Jungle
novel by Upton Sinclair which called for reform in the meat-packing industry
Pure Food and Drug Act
the act that prohibited the manufacture, sale, or shipment of impure of falsely labeled food and drugs
Meat Inspection Act
=Law that authorized the Secretary of Agriculture to order meat inspections and condemn any meat product found unfit for human consumption.
Mann-elkins act
=passed in 1910, it empowered the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) for the first time to initiate rate changes, extend regulation to telephone and telegraph companies and set up a Commerce Court to expedite appeals from the ICC rulings
16th amendment
==Amendment to the United States Constitution (1913) gave Congress the power to tax income.
underwood tariff bill
=Congressional measure to provide the a substantial reduction of rates, and the first ever implementation of a graduated income tax on incomes $3000+
federal reserve act
=a 1913 law that set up a system of federal banks and gave government the power to control the money supply
federal reserve system
=the central bank of the United States
clayton antitrust act
New antitrust legislation constructed to remedy deficiencies of the Sherman Antitrust Act, namely, it’s effectiveness against labor unions
nineteenth amendment
granted women the right to vote in 1920
birth of a nation
Controversial but highly influential and innovative silent film directed by D.W. Griffith. It demonstrated the power of film propaganda and revived the KKK.
triangle shirtwaist factory
this factory kept doors locked to avoid theft trapping workers inside when a fire erupted; alerted reformers to the terrible conditions of industrial workers
initiative, referendum, and recall
These were three changes intended to increase the individual voter’s influence in government. It gives a person the power to propose laws, states that certain laws passed by the state legislature do not take effect unless they are approved by a majority of the citizens, and strengthens the control of voters over elected officials.
spoils system
the system of employing and promoting civil servants who are friends and supporters of the group in power
patronage
(politics) granting favors or giving contracts or making appointments to office in return for political support
direct primaries
an election in which voters choose candidates to represent each party in a general election
Jacob Coxey
Populist who led Coxey’s Army in a march on Washington DC in 1894 to seek government jobs for the unemployed.
Theodore Roosevelt
26th President of the United States
Ida Tarbell
A leading muckraker and magazine editor, she exposed the corruption of the oil industry with her 1904 work A History of Standard Oil.
Jacob Riis
Early 1900’s muckraker who exposed social and political evils in the U.S. with his novel \”How The Other Half Lives\”; exposed the poor conditions of the poor tenements in NYC and Hell’s Kitchen
Samuel Gompers
United States labor leader (born in England) who was president of the American Federation of Labor from 1886 to 1924 (1850-1924)
Mother Jones
United States labor leader (born in Ireland) who helped to found the Industrial Workers of the World (1830-1930)
Carrie Chapman Catt
Spoke powerfully in favor of suffrage, worked as a school principal and a reporter ., became head of the National American Woman Suffrage, an inspiried speaker and abrilliant organizer. Devised a detailed battle plan for fighting the war of suffrage.
Booker T. Washington
African American progressive who supported segregation and demanded that African American better themselves individually to achieve equality.
W.E.B. Du Bois
fought for African American rights. Helped to found Niagra Movement in 1905 to fight for and establish equal rights. This movement later led to the establishment of the NAACP
Archduke Francis Ferdinand
heir to the throne of Austria Hungary; assassinated by Gavrilo Princip, a bosnian serb.; sparked WWI
Rough Riders
Volunteer soldiers led by Theodore Roosevelt during the Spanish American War
Great White Fleet
1907-1909 – Roosevelt sent the Navy on a world tour to show the world the U.S. naval power. Also to pressure Japan into the \”Gentlemen’s Agreement.\”
Committee on Public Information
It was headed by George Creel. The purpose of this committee was to mobilize people’s minds for war, both in America and abroad. Tried to get the entire U.S. public to support U.S. involvement in WWI. Creel’s organization, employed some 150,000 workers at home and oversees. He proved that words were indeed weapons.
Big Four
Woodrow Wilson (US president), Georges Clemenceau (French premier), David Lloyd George (British prime minister), Vittorio Orlando (Italian prime minister)
League of Nations
an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations
Socialists
person who supports community ownership of property and the sharing of all profits
Seward’s Folly or Seward’s Icebox
William Seward (secretary of State) bought Alaska from the Russians in 1867 in an attempt to spread American influence. He was criticized by the press for his choice, but public attitude changed after the discovery of gold.
Spanish-American War
In 1898, a conflict between the United States and Spain, in which the U.S. supported the Cubans’ fight for independence
Boxer Rebellion
A 1900 Uprising in China aimed at ending foreign influence in the country.
Gentleman’s Agreement
an informal agreement between the United States and the Empire of Japan whereby the U.S. would not impose restriction on Japanese immigration or students, and Japan would not allow further immigration to the U.S.
Great War
a war between the allies (Russia, France, British Empire, Italy, United States, Japan, Rumania, Serbia, Belgium, Greece, Portugal, Montenegro) and the central powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, Bulgaria) from 1914 to 1918
Communist Revolution
A political revolution in Russia beginning in 1917. The Bolsheviks, now known as Communists, overthrew Czar Nicholas II and created a socialist government based upon the writings of Karl Marx and Vladimir Lenin. Also know as the Bolshevik Revolution.
Red Scare
a period of general fear of communists
Teller Amendment
Legislation that promised the US would not annex Cuba after winning the Spanish-American war
Platt Amendment
Legislation that severely restricted Cuba’s sovereignty and gave the US the right to intervene if Cuba got into trouble
Open Door Policy
A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.
Roosevelt Corollary
Roosevelt’s 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force
Sussex Pledge
In response to the German torpedoes Sussex steamer, Wilson told Germany that if they didnt stop sinking merchant ships with warning, he would break diplomatic relations.
Fourteen Points
President Woodrow Wilson’s plan for a just world bases on the Allies’ aims to end World War I
No secret treaties, freedom of the seas, no tariffs, reduce
arms, adjust colonial claims, establish an association of
nations
Selective Services Act
This 1917 law provided for the registration of all American men between the ages of 21 and 30 for a military draft. The age limits were later changed to 18 and 45.
Espionage Act
This law, passed after the United States entered WWI, imposed sentences of up to twenty years on anyone found guilty of aiding the enemy, obstructing recruitment of soldiers, or encouraging disloyalty. It allowed the postmaster general to remove from the mail any materials that incited treason or insurrection.
Sedition Act
made it a crime to write, print, utter, or publish criticism of the president of government
Schenck vs United States
under the Espionage Act of 1917, a person can not use the first ammendment as protection when speaking against the US government and military
jingoism
extreme, chauvinistic patriotism, often favoring an aggressive, warlike foreign policy
yellow journalism
sensationalist journalism
dollar diplomacy
diplomacy influenced by economic considerations
moral diplomacy
foreign policy proposed by President Wilson to condemn imperialism, spread democracy, and promote peace
Lusitania
American boat that was sunk by the German U-boats; made America consider entering WWI
imperialism
any instance of aggressive extension of authority by one country
nationalism
love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it
self-determination
the ability of a government to determine their own course of their own free will
reparations
compensation (given or received) for an insult or injury
Henry Ford
United States manufacturer of automobiles who pioneered mass production (1863-1947)
William Jennings Bryan
United States lawyer and politician who advocated free silver and prosecuted John Scopes (1925) for teaching evolution in a Tennessee high school (1860-1925)
Sigmund Freud
Austrian neurologist who originated psychoanalysis (1856-1939)
John Scopes
Tennessee high school teacher who violated a state law by teaching evolution
Ohio Gang
A group of poker-playing, men that were friends of President Warren Harding. Harding appointed them to offices and they used their power to gain money for themselves. They were involved in scandals that ruined Harding’s reputation even though he wasn’t involved.
Lost Generation
Group of writers in 1920s who shared the belief that they were lost in a greedy, materialistic world that lacked moral values and often choose to flee to Europe
United Negro Improvement Association
A group founded by Marcus Garvey to promote the settlement of American blacks in their own \”African homeland\”
flappers
Young women of the 1920s that behaved and dressed in a radical fashion
Jazz Age
Name for the 1920s, because of the popularity of jazz-a new type of American music that combined African rhythms, blues, and ragtime
Roaring Twenties
the decade of the 1920’s which got this nickname because of the times presperity and excitement
Harlem Renaissance
. a period in the 1920s when African-American achievements in art and music and literature flourished
Quota Act of 1921
Limited the number of immigrants allowed into the United States. It favored immigrants from Northern and western Europe.
immigration act
This was passed in 1924 which cut quotas for foreigners from 3 % to 2% of the total number of immigrants. The main purpose was to freeze America’s existing racial composition which was largely Northern European. It also prevented Japanese immigration which led to fury in Japan.
national origins act
Act which restricted immigration from any one nation to two percent of the number of people already in the U.S. of that national origin in 1890. Severely restricted immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe, and excluded Asians entirely
scientific management
a management theory using efficiency experts to examine each work operations and find ways to minimize the time needed to complete it
laissez-faire
is an economic environment in which transactions between private parties are free from government restrictions, tariffs, and subsidies, with only enough regulations to protect property rights.[1]
speakeasies
Secret bars where alcohol could be purchased illegally
Dr. Francis Townsend
Advanced the Old Age Revolving Pension Plan, which proposed that every retired person over 60 receive a pension of $200 a month (about twice the average week’s salary). It required that the money be spent within the month.
Huey Long
As senator in 1932 of Washington preached his \”Share Our Wealth\” programs. It was a 100% tax on all annual incomes over $1 million and appropriation of all fortunes in excess of $5 million. With this money Long proposed to give every American family a comfortable income, etc
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
32nd President of the United States
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
gave $2 billion in aid to state and local governments and made loans to banks, railroads, mortgage associations and other businesses. The loans were nearly all repaid. It was continued by the New Deal and played a major role in handling the Great Depression in the United States and setting up the relief programs that were taken over by the New Deal in 1933.[1]
Bonus Army
Group of WWI vets. that marched to D.C. in 1932 to demand the immediate payment of their goverment war bonuses in cash
Brain Trust
Group of expert policy advisers who worked with FDR in the 1930s to end the great depression
Congress of Industrial Organizations
a federation of North American industrial unions that merged with the American Federation of Labor in 1955
united auto workers
Out of several competing auto unions, this one was gradually emerging preeminent in the early and mid-1930s. But although ot was gaining recruits, it was making little progress in winning recognitions from the corperations. Automobile workers eployed an effective new technique for challenging corperate oppositions: the sit-down strike.
black cabinet
group of African Americans FDR appointed to key Government positions; served as unofficial advisors to the president.
American liberty league
formed in 1934, primarily by conservative Democrats to oppose the New Deal of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
okies
the farmers, who in the Great Depression, were forced to move, many moved to Oklahoma
fair employment practices committee
companies with government contracts not discriminate on the basis of race or religion. It was intended to help African Americans and other minorities obtain jobs in the homefront industry during World War II.
black tuesday
October 29, 1929; the day the stock market crashed. Lead to the Panic of 1929
first hundred days
This term refers to March 4 to June 16, 1933. During this period of dramatic legislative productivity, FDR laid out the programs that constituted the New Deal. Today, presidents are often measured by their actions in the same period of time
new deal
the historic period (1933-1940) in the U.S. during which President Franklin Roosevelt’s economic policies were implemented
gentleman’s agreement
an informal agreement between the United States and the Empire of Japan whereby the U.S. would not impose restriction on Japanese immigration or students, and Japan would not allow further immigration to the U.S.
second new deal
a new set of programs in the spring of 1935 including additional banking reforms, new tax laws, new relief programs; also known as the Second Hundred Days.
hawley smoot tariff
charged a high tax for imports thereby leading to less trade between America and foreign countries along with some economic retaliation
emergency banking relief act
gave the President power over the banking system and set up a system by which banks would be reorganized or reopened
glass-steagall act
established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) and included banking reforms, some of which were designed to control speculation
PWA
Public Works Administration. Part of Roosevelts New Deal programs. Put people to work building or improving public buildings like schools, post offices,etc.
civilian conservation corps
relief (CCC) March 31, 1933; reduced poverty/unemployment, helped young men and families; young men go to rural camps for 6 months to do construction work; $1/day; intended to help youth escape cities; concerned with soil erosion, state/national parks, telephone/power lines; 40 hr weeks
TVA
Tennessee Valley Authority Act) Relief, Recover, and Reform. one of the most important acts that built a hyro-electric dam for a needed area.
national recovery administration
Government agency that was part of the New Deal and dealt with the industrial sector of the economy. It allowed industries to create fair competition which were intended to reduce destructive competition and to help workers by setting minimum wages and maximum weekly hours.
WPA
Work Progress Administration: Massive work relief program funded projects ranging from construction to acting; disbanded by FDR during WWII
social security act
Guaranteed retirement payments for enrolled workers beginning at age 65; set up federal-state system of unemployment insurance and care for dependent mothers and children, the handicapped, and public health
national industrial recovery administration
This was created by the National Industrial Recovery Act in 1933 to supervise industry—the act also created the Public works Administration to create jobs.
national labor relations act
A 1935 law, also known as the Wagner Act, that guarantees workers the right of collective bargaining sets down rules to protect unions and organizers, and created the National Labor Relations Board to regulate labor-managment relations.
fair labor standards act
1938 act which provided for a minimum wage and restricted shipments of goods produced with child labor
court-packing plan
…, proposed that FDR be allowed to name a new federal judge for every sitting judge who had reached the age of seventy and had not retired; soundly defeated in Congress; FDR came under intense criticism for trying to seize too much power
dust bowl
midwest region subject to dust storms, drove people to california
bull market
a market characterized by rising prices for securities
Goals of New Deal
Relief, Reform, Recovery
fireside chats
informal talks given by FDR over the radio; sat by White House fireplace; gained the confidence of the people
anti-semetic
anti-jew; against the Jewish people
fascist
a member of a political party who supports extreme nationalism and a dictator
Benito Mussolini
Fascist dictator of Italy (1922-1943). He led Italy to conquer Ethiopia (1935), joined Germany in the Axis pact (1936), and allied Italy with Germany in World War II. He was overthrown in 1943 when the Allies invaded Italy. (p. 786)
Rosie the Riveter
symbol of American women who went to work in factories during the war
Churchill
British statesman and leader during World War II
Stalin
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)
Kamikazes
Japanese suicide pilots
office of war mobilization
Federal agency formed to coordinate issues related to war production during World War II
office of price administration
WWII Office that installs price controls on essential items to prevent inflation
office of war information
established by the government to promote patriotism and help keep Americans united behind the war effort.
navajo code talkers
Navajo soldiers in the Pacific used their own language as a code for sending vital messages. Hard to understand.
united nations
an organization of independent states formed in 1945 to promote international peace and security
D-day
June 6, 1944 – Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. The turning point of World War II.
Battle of the Bulge
a battle during World War II
V-E Day
May 8, 1945; victory in Europe Day when the Germans surrendered
Zoot Suit Riots
A series of riots in L.A. California during WW2, soldiers stationed in the city and Mexican youths because of the zoot suits they wore.
Sudetenland
an area in western Czechoslovakia that was coveted by Hitler
Pearl Harbor
a harbor on Oahu west of Honolulu attacked by Japan; began US entry into WWII
Selective Service Act
This 1917 law provided for the registration of all American men between the ages of 21 and 30 for a military draft. By the end of WWI, 24.2 had registered; 2.8 had been inducted into the army. Age limit was later changed to 18 to 45.
Neutrality Act of 1939
European democracies might buy American war materials on a \”cash-and-carry basis\”; improved American moral and economic position
Destroyers-for-bases
To circumvent the provisions of the Neutrality Acts to help Great Britain, the U.S. gave England fifty destroyers in return for the right to build American bases on British territory in the Caribbean
Lend-Lease Act
allowed sales or loans of war materials to any country whose defense the president deems vital to the defense of the U.S
Atlantic Charter
1941-Pledge signed by US president FDR and British prime minister Winston Churchill not to acquire new territory as a result of WWII amd to work for peace after the war
Executive Order 9066
2/19/42; 112,000 Japanese-Americans forced into camps causing loss of homes & businesses, 600K more renounced citizenship; demonstrated fear of Japanese invasion
GI Bill
law passed in 1944 to help returning veterans buy homes and pay for higher educations
Taft-Hartley Act
Act that provides balance of power between union and management by designating certain union activities as unfair labor practices; also known as Labor-Management Relations Act (LMRA)
appeasement
the act of appeasing (as by acceding to the demonds of), policy of giving in to an aggressor’s demands in order to keep the peace
cash-and-carry
policy adopted by the United States in 1939 to preserve neutrality while aiding the Allies. Britain and France could buy goods from the United States if they paid in full and transported them.
four freedoms
Freedom of Speech, Religion, Want, from Fear; used by FDR to justify a loan for Britain, if the loan was made, the protection of these freedoms would be ensured
genocide
systematic killing of a racial or cultural group
Mao Tse-Tung
Communist leader of China; gained power through the Chinese civil war; defeated US backed Chiang Kai Shek
Dwight D. Eisenhower
leader of the Allied forces in Europe during WW2–leader of troops in Africa and commander in DDay invasion-elected president-president during integration of Little Rock Central High School
Fidel Castro
Cuban socialist leader who overthrew a dictator in 1959 and established a Marxist socialist state in Cuba (born in 1927)
Alger Hiss
A former State Department official who was accused of being a Communist spy and was convicted of perjury. The case was prosecuted by Richard Nixon.
Joseph McCarthy
1950s; Wisconsin senator claimed to have list of communists in American gov’t, but no credible evidence; took advantage of fears of communism post WWII to become incredibly influential; \”McCarthyism\” was the fearful accusation of any dissenters of being communists
Department of Defense
A department of the federal executive branch entrusted with formulating military policies and maintaining American military forces. Its top official is the civilian secretary of defense. It is headquartered in the Pentagon.
National Security Council
A committee in the executive branch of government that advises the president on foreign and military and national security
House Un-American Activities Committee
an investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives. In 1969, the House changed the committee’s name to \”House Committee on Internal Security\”.When the House abolished the committee in 1975, its functions were transferred to the House Judiciary Committee
NASA
Founded in 1958 to compete with Russia’s space program. It gained prestige and power with Kennedy’s charge to reach the moon by the end of the 1960s. Over the years, NASA has sent experditions to the moon, developed and managed the space station and space shuttle programs and sent probes to Mars
The Geneva Convention
At this convention in 1954, the region of Indochina was divided into three nations: Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos. The convention also decided to divide Vietnam at the 17th parallel, with the communists led by Ho Chi Minh in the North and anti-communists led by Ngo Dinh Diem in the South. It was further decided that elections to reunite Vietnam would occur in two years.
Cuban Missile Crisis
an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later.
Truman Doctrine
First established in 1947 after Britain no longer could afford to provide anti-communist aid to Greece and Turkey, it pledged to provide U.S. military and economic aid to any nation threatened by communism.
Marhshall Plan
American program to aid Europe, in which the United States gave economic support to help rebuild European economies after the end of World War II in order to prevent the spread of Soviet Communism.
Warsaw Pact
treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania
National Security Act
Passed in 1947 in response to perceived threats from the Soviet Union after WWII. It established the Department of Defense and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and National Security Council.
Eisenhower Doctrine
Eisenhower proposed and obtained a joint resolution from Congress authorizing the use of U.S. military forces to intervene in any country that appeared likely to fall to communism. Used in the Middle East.
National Highway Act
Eisenhower’s plan to build an interstate highway system that would connect the US and help in military movements during a war.
Bay of Pigs
In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure.
Berlin Airlift
Joint effort by the US and Britian to fly food and supplies into W Berlin after the Soviet blocked off all ground routes into the city
brinksmanship
The principle of not backing down in a crisis, even if it meant taking the country to the brink of war. Policy of both the U.S. and U.S.S.R. during the Cold War.
massive retaliation
The \”new look\” defense policy of the Eisenhower administration of the 1950’s was to threaten \”massive retaliation\” with nuclear weapons in response to any act of aggression by a potential enemy.
McCarthyism
The term associated with Senator Joseph McCarthy who led the search for communists in America during the early 1950s through his leadership in the House Un-American Activities Committee.
Sputnik
First artificial Earth satellite, it was launched by Moscow in 1957 and sparked U.S. fears of Soviet dominance in technology and outer space. It led to the creation of NASA and the space race.
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
An African-American Civil Right’s Activist who was peaceful. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his cause. He was assasinated in 1968 in Tennesee
Rosa Parks
NAACP member who initiated the Montgomery Bus Boycott in 1955 when she was arrested for violating Jim Crow rules on a bus; her action and the long boycott that followed became an icon of the quest for civil rights and focused national attention on boycott leader Martin Luther King, Jr.
Warren Court
the chief justice that overturned Plessy v. Ferguson in Brown v. Board of Education (1954); he was the first justice to help the civil rights movement, judicial activism
Little Rock Nine
Incident in which nine African-American students were prevented from attending Little Rock Central High in 1957 during the Civil Rights Movement.
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
Involved in the American Civil Rights Movement formed by students whose purpose was coordinate a nonviolent attack on segregation and other forms of racism.
Brown v. Board of Education
1954 – The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.
The Feminine Mystique
written by Betty Friedan, journalist and mother of three children; described the problems of middle-class American women and the fact that women were being denied equality with men; said that women were kept from reaching their full human capacities
white flight
50’s movement where middle-class white Americans fled to suburbs leaving inner cities to decay
Richard M. Nixon
37th President of the United States (1969-1974) and the only president to resign the office. He initially escalated the Vietnam War, overseeing secret bombing campaigns, but soon withdrew American troops and successfully negotiated a ceasefire with North Vietnam, effectively ending American involvement in the war. Watergate Scandal.
John F. Kennedy
president during part of the cold war and especially during the superpower rivalry and the cuban missile crisis. he was the president who went on tv and told the public about hte crisis and allowed the leader of the soviet uinon to withdraw their missiles. other events, which were during his terms was the building of the berlin wall, the space race, and early events of the Vietnamese war.
Malcolm X
1952; renamed himself X to signify the loss of his African heritage; converted to Nation of Islam in jail in the 50s, became Black Muslims’ most dynamic street orator and recruiter; his beliefs were the basis of a lot of the Black Power movement built on seperationist and nationalist impulsesto achieve true independence and equality
Stokely Carmichael
head of the SNCC making a separatist philosophy of black power as the official objective of the organization
Ho Chi Minh
Vietnamese communist statesman who fought the Japanese in World War II and the French until 1954 and South Vietnam until 1975 (1890-1969)
Warren Commission
determined that Lee Harvey Oswald acted alone
Vietcong
the guerrilla soldiers of the Communist faction in Vietnam, also know as the National Liberation Front
National Organization of Women
founded by Betty Friedan, Bella Abzug, and Aileen Hernandez; lobbied for equal opportunity where the EEOC was lacking (gender discrimination); lawsuits and mobilization of public opinion
New Frontier
The campaign program advocated by JFK in the 1960 election. He promised to revitalize the stagnant economy and enact reform legislation in education, health care, and civil rights.
Freedom Summer
In 1964, when blacks and whites together challenged segregation and led a massive drive to register blacks to vote.
Woodstock
3 day rock concert in upstate N.Y. August 1969, exemplified the counterculture of the late 1960s, nearly 1/2M gather in a 600 acre field
Tet Offensive
1968; National Liberation Front and North Vietnamese forces launched a huge attack on the Vietnamese New Year (Tet), which was defeated after a month of fighting and many thousands of casualties; major defeat for communism, but Americans reacted sharply, with declining approval of LBJ and more anti-war sentiment
Ho Chi Minh Trail
A network of jungle paths winding from North Vietnam through Laos and Cambodia into South Vietnam, used as a military route by North Vietnam to supply the Vietcong during the Vietnam War.
The Great Society
1964 Lyndon Johnson’s program for poverty relief, healthcare, civil rights, etc. during his presidency. Improved nation’s moral and people’s lives
Immigration Act of 1965
Abolished the national-origins quotas and providing for the admission each year of 170,000 immigrants from the Eastern Hemisphere and 120,000 from the Western Hemisphere
civil rights act of 1964
the law that made racial discrimination against any group in hotels, motels, and restaurants illegal and forbade many forms of job discrimination
voting rights act of 1965
a law designed to help end formal and informal barriers to African American suffrage. Under the law, hundreds of thousands of African Americans were registered and the number of African American elected officials increased dramatically.
gulf of tonkin resolution
The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was a joint resolution of the U.S. Congress passed on August 7, 1964 in direct response to a minor naval engagement known as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. It is of historical significance because it gave U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson authorization, without a formal declaration of war by Congress, for the use of military force in Southeast Asia.
port huron statement
1962 Manifesto of the Students for a Democratic Society, which criticized the federal government for racial inequality, poverty, and also the Cold War and international peace.
equal rights amendment
constitutional amendment passed by Congress but never ratified that would have banned discrimination on the basis of gender
Henry Kissinger
The main negotiator of the peace treaty with the North Vietnamese; secretary of state during Nixon’s presidency (1970s).
Ayatollah Khomeini
Shi’ite philosopher and cleric who led the overthrow of the shah of Iran in 1979 and created an Islamic republic. (p. 859)
George H. W. Bush
republican, former director of CIA, oil company founder/owner, foreign policy (panama, gulf war), raised taxes eventhough said he wouldnt, more centrist than his son, NAFTA negotiation
American Independent Party
headed by George Wallace who entered the 1968 election and called for the continuation of segregation of blacks
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
an economic organization consisting primarily of Arab nations that controls the price of oil and the amount of oil its members produce and sell to other nations.
Committee to Re-elect the Presdient
created as a fundraising organization of United States President Richard Nixon’s administration. Besides its re-election activities, CRP employed money laundering and slush funds and was directly and actively involved in the Watergate scandal.[1]
Yom Kippur War
Egypt and Syria attacked Israel in October 1973 (on Yom Kippur)
Reagan Revolution
the policies of the first reagan administration which increased defense spending reduced social programs and cut taxes they were based on supply side theory of growing the economy by cutting government interference and taxes
Iran-Contra Scandal
Reagan sent money to the Contra’s in Nicaragua with the money he got for selling arms to Iran
Solidarity movement
Polish nationalists who began to protest the SOviet oppression
war powers act
Notify Congress within 48 hours of deploying troops; had to gain congress’ approval to stay longer than 90 days; designed to curtail President’s power
strategic arms limitation treaty (salt 1)
treaty between the US and the Soviet to stabilize the nuclear arms competition between the two countries. Talks began in 1969 and agreements were signed on May 26, 1972
camp david accords
The first signed agreement between Israel and an Arab country, in which Egyptian president Anwar Sadat recognized Israel as a legitimate state and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin agreed to return the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt.
SALT II
Second Strategic Arms Limitations Talks. A second treaty was signed on June 18, 1977 to cut back the weaponry of the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. because it was getting too competitive. Set limits on the numbers of weapons produced. Not passed by the Senate as retaliation for U.S.S.R.’s invasion of Afghanistan, and later superseded by the START treaty.
START 1
Bush and Gorbachev signed the this. It reduced nuclear warheads to less than 10000 each. It led to Start II which reduced weapon level to 1960s level. The cold war was officially over.
Berlin Wall
In 1961, the Soviet Union built a high barrier to seal off their sector of Berlin in order to stop the flow of refugees out of the Soviet zone of Germany. The wall was torn down in 1989.
Vietnamization
President Richard Nixons strategy for ending U.S involvement in the vietnam war, involving a gradual withdrawl of American troops and replacement of them with South Vietnamese forces
detente
relaxation of tensions between the United States and its two major communist rivals, the Soviet Union and China
stagflation
ECONOMIC CONDITION CHARACTERIZED BY RISING INFLATION AND UNEMPLOYMENT
star wars
Strategic Defense Initiative pursued by Reagan in the 1980s; involved satellite defense against missiles
glasnost
Policy of openness initiated by Gorbachev in the 1980s that provided increased opportunities for freedom of speech, association and the press in the Soviet Union.
perestroika
a policy initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev that involved restructuring of the social and economic status quo in communist Russia towards a market based economy and society
William (Bill) Clinton
Democratic president (1993-2001) whose two-term presidency witnessed rapid economic growth but also a sexual scandal that fueled an impeachment effort, which he survived.
Timothy McVeigh
in 1995, the murrow federal building in oklahoma city was attacked by a large bomb that killed 168 people; the bombing was the act of this extremist
Osama Bin Laden
Saudi-born Muslim extremist who funded the al Qaeda organization that was responsible for several terrorist attacks, including those on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon in 2001.
George W. Bush
1946 – 43rd president of the US who began a campaign toward energy self-sufficiency and against terrorism in 2001
Saddam Hussein
President of Iraq from 1979 to 2003. Waged war on Iran in 1980-1988. In 1990 he ordered an invasion of Kuwait but was defeated by United States and its allies in the Gulf War (1991). Defeated by US led invasion in 2003.
Hillary Clinton
Prominent child care advocate and health care reformer in Clinton administration; won U.S. senate seat in 2000; secretary of state
Barack Obama
Illinois Senator who won the presidency in 2008, first African-American President, advocate for universal healthcare, an end to the Iraqi War, and economic recovery.
Al-Qaeda
a network of Islamic terrorist organizations, led by Osama bin Laden, that carried out the attacks on the US embassies in Tanzania and Kenya in 1998, the USS Cole in Yemen in 2000, and the World Trade Center and the Pentagon in 2001
Taliban
a group of fundamentalist Muslims who took control of Afghanistan’s government in 1996
\”War on Terror\”
Initiated by President George W. Bush after the attacks of September 11, 2001, the broadly defined war on terror aimed to weed out terrorist operatives and their supporters throughout the world.
9/11
A series of coordinated suicide attacks by al-Qaeda upon the United States on September 11, 2001. On that morning, 19 al-Qaeda terrorists hijacked four commercial passenger jet airliners. The hijackers intentionally crashed two of the airliners into the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York City, killing everyone on board and many others working in the buildings.
Watts Riots
1964 riots which started in an African-American ghetoo of Los Angeles and left 30 dead and 1,000 wounded. Riots lasted a week, and spurred hundreds more around the country.
Hurricane Katrina
highest storm surge on record, costliest hurricane on record, 1836 dead, permanent displacement of over 500,000 people, evacuation of large urban population center, storm surge of 25 ft on coast of Mississippi
2008 Financial Crisis
Occurred because of bad practices in the financial sector related to home mortgages. The government eventually bailed out the banks with over 700 billion dollars. the real estate bubble burst in the US, setting in motion a financial crisis of enormous proportions
North American Free Trade Agreement
NAFTA an alliance that merges canada, mexico and the united states into a single market
Patriot Act
This law passed after 9/11 expanded the tools used to fight terrorism and improved communication between law enforcement and intelligence agencies
Three Mile Island
1979 – A mechanical failure and a human error at this power plant in Pennsylvania combined to permit an escape of radiation over a 16 mile radius.
AIDS
a serious (often fatal) disease of the immune system transmitted through blood products especially by sexual contact or contaminated needles
weapons of mass destruction
nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons that can kill tens of thousands of people all at once
World Wide Web
Computer network consisting of a collection of internet sites that offer text and graphics and sound and animation resources through the hypertext transfer protocol
Internet
world wide computer network to facilitate data transmission and exchange
reverse discrimination
using race or sex to give preferential treatment to some people.
Mapp v. Ohio
Evidence of a crime obtained without a search warrant violates 4th Amendment Can be excluded in state court and federal court
Gideon v. Wainright
Criminal Courts MUST provide a free attorney to those who cannot afford it
Escobedo v. Illinois
Suspects have the right to consult attorney when answering police questions.
If the suspect asks for an attorney and is denied one, any information obtained is inadmissible in court.
This is the \”Exclusionary Rule\”.
Miranda v. Arizona
All suspects must be \”read their rights\” before questioning by police
Baker v. Carr; Reynolds v. Simms
\”One Man, One Vote\” – legislative districts must have similar population numbers
Griswold v. Connecticut
Connecticut ban on use of contraceptives overturned
Establishes \”Right to Privacy\”
Engel v. Vitale
school prayer illegal
NY Times v. United States
Ruling on the Pentagon Papers which exposed government deception in the Vietnam War
Government tried to stop using Prior Restraint
Court Ruled Government did not meet \”heavy burden\” necessary to stop publication
Roe v. Wade
Supreme Court Decision that legalizes Abortion in the United States ; part of right to privacy
Bakke v. University of California
Racial Quotas are illegal but…
Affirmative Action is legal so long as race is one factor of consideration
Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education
Supreme Court orders school busing to end pattern of all-black or all-white schools
End to de-facto segregation

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