Unit II Test: Atomic Structure

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Five Principles of John Daltons Atomic Theory
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1. All matter is made of invisible, indestructible atoms 2. Atoms of a given element are identical in their physical and chemical properties 3. Atoms of different elements have different physical and chemical properties 4. Atoms of different elements combine into simple, whole-number ratios to form chemical compounds 5. Atoms cannot be subdivided, created or destroyed when they are combined, separated or rearranged in chemical reactions
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Dalton Model
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The three problems for Daltons Theory
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1. Atoms are made of smaller particles 2. Atoms are split in nuclear reaction today 3. Atoms of the same element aren’t identical because of isotopes and atoms
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Significance of JJ Thompson
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1. Use of the cathode ray 2. Discovered isotopes with neon 3. Plum pudding model
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Significance of Cathode Ray
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Identify protons and electrons
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Plum pudding model
Plum pudding model
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By: JJ Thompson
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Rutherford’s gold foil experiment
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A positively charged beams shot through a thing sheets of gold foil. He found that some particles went through but some bounced back and some bounced back to the source
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Rutherford’s discoveries
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1. Atoms are made of empty space 2. Nucleus takes up 1/8000 of an atom
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Rutherford’s model
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Contributions of Nils Bohr
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Used the quantum theory to modify Rutherford’s model and show energy levels
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Nils Bohrs Model
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Planetary Model: 2 electrons in first orbit, 8 on the outer
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J. Chadwick contribution
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Discovers the neutron
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Robert Millikan Contribution
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Uses Oil Drop Experiment to find mass of electron
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Probability Cloud
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Wavelength
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Distance from peak of one wave to the peak of the next wave
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Frequency
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The number of waves that pass through a given area over a set time
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Ground State
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All electrons at their lowest energy level
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Excited State
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One (or more) electron absorbs energy and jumps to a higher orbital. Highly unstable.
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Location of Nucleus
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Center of Atom; 99.9% of atom
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The Nucleus _______ charged
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Positively
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Electrons
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Negatively charged
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Location of Electrons
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Electron Cloud; takes up entire volume; orbital
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Orbital
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Part of Electron Cloud
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The atomic number is equal to what?
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# of protons
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Protons
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Identify the atom; if the number of this changes, the element changes
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Average Atomic Mass equals what?
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Protons + Neutrons
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Mass Number
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Rounded number of protons and neutrons
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Isotopes
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Alternate forms of an element
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Isotopes have the same number of _________ but different numbers of ________.
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Protons; Neutron
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T/F: Many isotopes are radio active forms of an element
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True
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There is no difference in the way the _________ users _______ or ________.
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Body; Isotopes; Atoms
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T/F: Isotopes belong to the same family as atoms
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True
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Ion
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When the number of electrons change
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Cation
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More protons than electrons (positively charged; looses electrons)
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Anion
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More electrons than protons (negatively charged; gains electrons)
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Polyatomic Ion
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Ions made of different elements bound together
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Valence Ions
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Atoms acquire this charge by gaining or loosing electrons from their outermost level
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Quark
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All other particles located in the nucleus of an atom. These make protons and neutrons
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Octet rule
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atoms want to have a stable outer energy level of valence 8 electrons
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With 1, 2 or 3 valence electrons atoms ___________.
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Lose electrons and become cations
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With 5, 6 or 7 valence electrons atoms ___________.
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gain electrons and become anions
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How are electrons assigned to orbitals
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Diagonal rule and Hund’s rule
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Electron configurations identify _________.
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All the electrons for an atoms
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Electron configurations relate to __________.
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The properties of that atoms and to its location on the periodic table
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Hund’s Rule
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Each orbital must contain one electron before paring occurs
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Formation of a Participate
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When a solid forms from two liquids
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Formation of heat/light
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Energy is given off or feeling cold to the touch as energy is absorbed; exchange of energy
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Color change
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is not always an indicator such as food coloring
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amu = ?
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Atomic mass unit

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