As defined by the text, consciousness includes which of the following?
a. focused attention
b. sleeping
c. hypnosis
d. all of these conditions
The cluster of brain cells that control the circadian rhythm is the____.
a. amygdala
b. suprachiasmatic nucleus
c. NPY
d. pineal
Compared with their counterparts of 80 years ago, teenagers today average _______ sleep each night.
a. 2 hours less
b. 4 hours less
c. 1 hour more
d. about the same amount of
Sleep spindles predominate during which stage of sleep?
a. Stage 2
b. Stage 3
c. Stage 4
d. REM sleep
During which stage of sleep does the body experience increased heart rate, rapid breathing, and genital arousal?
a. Stage 2
b. Stage 3
c. Stage 4
d. REM sleep
The sleep cycle is approximately ____ minutes.
a. 30
b. 50
c. 75
d. 90
The effects of chronic sleep deprivation include _____.
a. Suppression of the immune system
b. Altered metabolic and hormonal functioning
c. Impaired creativity
d. All of these effects
One effect of sleeping pills is to ______.
a. Decrease REM sleep
b. Increase REM sleep
c. Decrease Stage 2 sleep
d. Increase Stage 2 sleep
Cocaine and crack produce a euphoric rush by _____.
a. Blocking the actions of serotonin
b. Depressing neural activity in the brain
c. Blocking the reuptake of dopamine in brain cells
d. Stimulating the brain’s production of endorphins
Which of the following is classified as a depressant?
a. Methamphetamine
b. LSD
c. Marijuana
d. Alcohol
Which of the following preventive measures would have the greatest impact on average life expectancy?
a. Eliminating obesity
b. Eliminating smoking
c. Eliminating sleep deprivation
d. Eliminating binge drinking
Which of the following statements concerning hypnosis is true?
a. People will do anything under hypnosis
b. Hypnosis is the same as sleeping
c. Hypnosis is in part an extension of the division between conscious awareness and automatic behavior
d. Hypnosis improves memory recall
People who heard unusual phrases prior to sleep were awakened each time they began REM sleep. The fact that they remembered less the next morning provides support for the _____ theory of dreaming.
a. Manifest content
b. Physiological
c. Information-processing
d. Activation-synthesis
According to Freud, dreams are ______.
a. A symbolic fulfillment of erotic wishes
b. The result of random neural activity in the brainstem
c. The brain’s mechanism for self-stimulation
d. The disguised expressions of inner conflicts
Psychoactive drugs affect behavior and perception through _____.
a. The power of suggestion
b. The placebo effect
c. Alteration of neural activity in the brain
d. Psychological, not physiological, influences
All of the following are common misconceptions about addiction, EXCEPT a statement that ____.
a. To overcome an addiction a person almost always needs professional therapy
b. Psychoactive and medicinal drugs very quickly lead to addiction
c. Biological factors place some individuals at increased risk for addiction
d. Many other repetitive, pleasure-seeking behaviors fit the drug-addiction-as-diseaseneeding-treatment model
At its beginning, psychology focused on the study of ____.
a. Observable behavior
b. Consciousness
c. Abnormal behavior
d. All of these factors
Which of the following is NOT a theory of dreaming mentioned in the text?
a. Dreams facilitate information processing
b. Dreaming stimulates the developing brain
c. Dreams result from random neural activity originating in the brainstem
d. Dreaming is an attempt to escape from social stimulation
The sleep-waking cycle of young people who stay up too late typically are ____ hours in duration.
a. 23
b. 24
c. 25
d. 26
Which of the following statements regarding REM sleep is true?
a. Adults spend more time than infants in REM sleep
b. REM sleep deprivation results in a REM rebound
c. People deprived of REM sleep adapt easily
d. Sleeping medications tend to increase REM sleep
Alcohol has the most profound effect on ____.
a. The transfer of experiences to long-term memory
b. Immediate memory
c. Preciously established long-term memories
d. All of these factors
A person whose EEG shows a high proportion of alpha waves is most likely ____.
a. Dreaming
b. In Stage 2 sleep
c. In Stage 3 or 4 of sleep
d. Awake and relaxed
Circadian rhythms are the ____.
a. Brain waves that occur during Stage 4 sleep
b. Muscular tremors that occur during opiate withdrawal
c. Regular body cycles that occur on a 24-hour schedule
d. Brain waves that are indicative of Stage 2 sleep
A person who requires increasing amounts of a drug to feel its effect is said to have developed ___.
a. Tolerance
b. Physical dependency
c. Psychological dependency
d. Resistance
Which of the following is NOT an example of a biological rhythm?
a. The circadian rhythm
b. The 90-minute sleep cycle
c. The five sleep stages
d. Sudden sleep attacks during the day
Which of the following is characteristic of REM sleep?
a. Genital arousal
b. Increased muscular tension
c. Night terrors
d. Alpha waves
Which of the following is NOT a stimulant?
a. Amphetamines
b. Caffeine
c. Nicotine
d. Alcohol
Hypnotic responsiveness is ____.
a. The same in all people
b. Generally greater in women than men
c. Generally greater in men than women
d. Greater when people are led to expect it
According to Hilgard, hypnosis is ____.
a. No different from a state of heightened motivation
b. The same as dreaming
c. A dissociation between different levels of consciousness
d. A form of Stage 4 sleep
Which of the following was NOT cited in the text as evidence that heredity influences alcohol use?
a. Children whose parents abuse alcohol have a lower tolerance for multiple alcoholic drinks taken over a short period of time
b. Boys who are impulsive and fearless at age 6 are more likely to drink as teenagers
c. Laboratory mice have been selectively bred to prefer alcohol to water
d. Adopted children are more susceptible if one or both of their biological parents have a history of alcohol dependence
As a form of therapy for relieving problems such as warts, hypnosis is ____.
a. Ineffective
b. No more effective than positive suggestions given without hypnosis
c. Highly effective
d. More effective with adults than children
Which of the following is usually the most powerful determinant of whether teenagers begin using drugs?
a. Family strength
b. Religiosity
c. School adjustment
d. Peer influence
THC is the major active ingredient in ____.
a. Nicotine
c. Marijuana
d. Cocaine
Those who believe that hypnosis is a social phenomenon argue that “hypnotized” individuals are ____.
a. Consciously faking their behavior
b. Merely acting out a role
c. Underachievers striving to please the hypnotist
d. Doing all of these things
Consciousness is defined in the text as ____.
a. Mental life
b. Selective attention to ongoing perceptions, thoughts, and feelings
c. Information processing
d. Our awareness of ourselves and our environment
I am a synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen that produces euphoria and social intimacy by triggering the release of dopamine and serotonin. What am I?
a. LSD
c. THC
d. Cocaine
According to the activation-synthesis theory, dreaming represents ____.
a. The brain;s efforts to integrate unrelated bursts of activity in visual brain areas with the emotional tone provided by limbic system activity
b. A mechanism for coping with the stresses of daily life
c. A symbolic depiction of a person’s unfulfilled wishes
d. An information-processing mechanism for converting the day’s experiences into long-term memory
How a particular psychoactive drug affects a person depends on ____.
a. The dosage and form in which the drug is taken
b. The user’s expectations and personality
c. The situation in which the drug is taken
d. All of these conditions
A person who falls asleep in the midst of a heated argument probably suffers from ____.
a. Sleep apnea
b. Narcolepsy
c. Night terrors
d. Insomnia
Which of the following was NOT suggested by the text as an important aspect of drug prevention and treatment program?
a. Education about the long-term costs of a drug’s temporary pleasures
b. Efforts to boost people’s self-esteem and purpose in life
c. Attempts to modify peer associations
d. “Scare tactics” that frighten prepubescent children into avoiding drug experimentation
REM sleep is referred to as paradoxical sleep because ____.
a. Studies of people deprived of REM sleep indicate that REM sleep is unnecessary
b. The body’s muscles remain relaxed while the brain and eyes are active
c. It is very easy to awaken a person from REM sleep
d. The body’s muscles are very tense while the brain is in a nearly meditative state
An attorney wants to know if the details and accuracy of an eyewitness’s memory for a crime would be improved under hypnosis. Given the results of reverent research, what should you tell the attorney?
a. Most hypnotically retrieved memories are either false or contaminated
b. Hypnotically retrieved memories are usually more accurate than conscious memories
c. Hypnotically retrieved memories are purely the product of the subject’s imagination
d. Hypnosis only improves memory of anxiety-provoking childhood events
Dan has recently begun using an addictive, euphoria-producing drug. Which of the following will probably occur if he repeatedly uses this drug?
a. As tolerance to the drug develops, Dan will experience increasingly pleasurable “highs”
b. The dosage needed to produce the desired effect will increase
c. After each use, he will become more and more elated
d. Dependence will become leads of a problem
Although her eyes are closed, Adele’s brain is generating bursts of electrical activity. It is likely that Adele is ____.
a. Under the influence of a depressant
b. Under the influence of an opiate
c. In REM sleep
d. Having a near-death experience
The lowest rates of drug use among high school seniors is reported by ____.
a. Asian-Americans
b. Hispanic-Americans
c. African-Americans
d. Native Americans
Roberto is moderately intoxicated by alcohol. Which of the following changes in his behavior is likely to occur?
a. If angered, he is more likely to become aggressive than when he is sober
b. He will be less self-conscious about his behavior
c. If sexually aroused, he will be less inhibited about engaging in sexual activity
d. All of these changes are likely
Jill dreams that she trips and falls as she walks up the steps to the stage to receive her diploma. Her psychoanalyst suggests that the dream might symbolize her fear of moving on to the next stage of her life- a career. The analyst is evidently attempting to interpret the ___ content of Jill’s dream.
a. Manifest
b. Latent
c. Dissociated
d. Overt
Barry has participated in a sleep study for the last four nights. He was awakened each time he entered REM sleep. Now that the experiment is over, which of the following can be expected to occur?
a. Barry will be too tired to sleep, so he’ll continue to stay awake
b. Barry will sleep so deeply for several nights that dreaming will be minimal
c. There will be an increase in sleep Stages 1-4
d. There will be an increase in Barry’s REM sleep
Of the following individuals, who is likely to be the most hypnotically suggestible?
a. Bill, a reality-oriented stock broker
b. Janice, an actress with a rich imagination
c. Megan, a sixth-grader who has trouble focusing her attention on a task
d. Darren, who has never been able to really “get involved” in movies or novels
Which of the following statements concerning alcohol dependence is NOT true?
a. Adopted individuals are more susceptible to alcohol dependence if they had an adoptive parent with alcohol dependence
b. Having an identical twin with alcohol dependence puts a person at increased risk for alcohol problems
c. Geneticists have identified genes that are more common among people predisposed to alcohol dependence
d. Researchers have bred rats that prefer alcohol to water
Research studies of the effectiveness of hypnosis as a form of therapy have demonstrated that ____.
a. For problems of addiction, such as smoking, hypnosis has not been especially effective
b. Posthypnotic suggestions have helped alleviate headaches, asthma, and stress-related skin disorders
c. As a form of therapy, hypnosis is no more effective than positive suggestions given without hypothesis
d. All of these statements are true
A PET scan of a sleeping person’s brain reveals increased activity in the amygdala of the limbic system. This most likely indicated that the sleeper ____.
a. Has a neurological disorder
b. Is not truly asleep
c. Is in REM sleep
d. Suffers from narcolepsy
Which of the following statements concerning marijuana is true?
a. The by-products of marijuana are cleared from the body more slowly than are the by products of alcohol
b. Regular users may need a larger dose of the drug to achieve a high than occasional users would need to get the same effect
c. Marijuana is as addictive as nicotine or cocaine
d. Even small doses of marijuana hasten the loss of brain cells
Which of the following statements concerning near-death experiences is true?
a. They do not produce hallucinations such as those produced by LSD
b. They typically consist of fantastic, mystical imagery
c. They are more commonly experienced by female than by males
d. They are more commonly experienced by males than by females
Those who consider hypnosis a social phenomenon contend that ____.
a. Hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness
b. Hypnotic phenomena are unique to hypnosis
c. Hypnotized subjects become unresponsive when they are no longer motivated to act as instructed
d. Hypnosis involves different brain states
Which of the following statements concerning the roots of drug use is true?
a. Heavy users of alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine often are always on a high
b. If an adolescent’s friends use drugs, odds are that he or she will, too
c. Teenagers who are academically average students seldom use drugs
d. It is nearly impossible to predict whether a particular adolescent with experiment with drugs
Concluding her presentation on contemporary theories of why sleep is necessary, Marilynn makes all of the following points EXCEPT ____.
a. Sleep may have evolved because it kept our ancestors safe during potentially dangerous periods
b. Sleep gives the brain time to heal, as it restores and repairs damaged neurons
c. Sleep encourages growth through a hormone secreted during Stage 4.
d. Slow-wave sleep provides a “psychic safety valve” for stressful waking experiences

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