Unit 3 Study Guide: Ancient Greece and Rome World History

Alexander the Great
Great military leader, conquered Persian empire

Roman Emperor who united empire and accepted Christianity

Julius Caesar
Roman General who conquered Gaul and named himself dictator.
Responsible for First Triumvirate.
Increased senate to 900 members and reduced their power.

Taught that education was key to personal growth.
Trained students to think for themselves.
Taught through questioning.
Criticized democracy because unskilled people shouldn’t hold positions of power.

Leader of Greece during the Golden Era*

Clans and Warriors, Tribes and chief
fort-like cities
-adapted Minoan’s Linear B.
Civilization on the Greek mainland that conquered Minoans

Roman general.
Battle of Zama, near Carthage, Scipio and Romans defeated Hannibal’s army in 2nd Punic War

In 2nd Punic War.
Great Carthaginian general – brought elephants along to cross the Alps in 2nd Punic War

General in Roman army, made emperor in 284 A.D.
Realized empire had grown too large for one person to manage, Therefore split it into West and East. He ruled the East while his co-emperor ruled the West.

German invaders that sacked Rome

What were the goals of Philip of Macedon?
Unite Greek city-states, Spread Greek culture, defeat Persia

Greek word for city-state
-a fort, its city and its hinterlands

A high hill
center of original city-state

made up most of population.
-mainly farmers and workers
-Had little rights
-Did not know the laws therefore Rome wrote its laws on tablets and called it the Twelve Tables
Common citizen of Rome

Direct Democracy
all citizens participate directly in making decisions

form of government in which voters elect officials to run the state

What was the most powerful part of the Roman republic?
Senate. Controlled public funds and decided foreign policy. Sometimes acted as court.

What language did Romans speak?

Linear B
Early form of writing Mycenaean contributed to Greek development

Delian League
an alliance of city-states with Athens as leader, organized to combat the threat of the Persian Empire

white marble temple built in honor of Athena

Twelve tables
Roman code of laws that established that certain basic legal principles should apply to all humans

Rule by hereditary royalty

small groups of people having control of a country

someone who uses absolute power brutally

government in which citizens take part, Rule by the people

government ruled by an Intellectual upper class

study of oratory, or public speaking and debating

the sin of pride
-offended the gods and doomed the hero to a tragic end

bridge like structures carried water from the moutains

deals with whats good and bad, moral duty

put to death for their beliefs

Persian Wars
500-479 B.C
Greek city-states united to defeat the Persian empire

Peloponnesian War
431 B.C
Between Athens and Sparta. Rivals for years. Quarreled over trade. Sparta gained help from Persia to cut Athen’s food supply. Athens surrendered. After war, Greece was politically unstable.
A civil war between Sparta and Athens

Pax Romana
Roman Peace, During Augustus’ reign

Punic Wars
264-146 B.C (3 wars)
Rome and Carthage fought over control of Mediterranean

Hellenistic Age
336 BCE-146 BCE
Spread of Greek culture
“Greek like” way of life
Time period in which Greek-like culture was spread throughout the Mediterranean, Persian Empire, and Asia

In which of the Punic Wars did Scipio defeat Hannibal
The second Punic War

`Where did the world’s first democracy develop?

What city was the center of Hellenistic culture?
Alexandria, Egypt

What geographic feature can be used to describe both Greece and Rome?

Located in a valley. Not a hill.
Pelopohnesus was isolated and mountainous. Developing Sparta into a rigid and militarized society.

Located on the Attic peninsula. Least fertile areas in Greece. Thus Athenians turned to the sea and many became sea traders.

What factors contributed to the downfall of the Roman Empire?
Diocletian dividing the empire in two. Goths constantly invading. Civil wars. Growing divisions between rich and poor. Corruption and unstable leadership.

What was the outcome of the Persian Wars? How did that occur?
The Athenians won with the help of Sparta

It occurred when the Greek navy sank most of the Persian navy in the Salamis Strait

Why did other members of the Delian League revolt against Pericles?
He moved the treasury from Delos to Athens. He used the money for the good of Athens

Who won the Peloponnesian War?
The Spartans because they had help from Persia to cut Athens’ food supply.

How did Hannibal’s army cross the alps?
With the help of Elephants

Why did Diocletian divided the Roman empire?
In hopes of administering the large territory more effectively

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