Unit 3 Grammar Terms

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Controlling idea
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the main point or underlying direction of a piece of writing. A controlling idea makes the reader ask a question that will be answered by reading more or helps the reader understand the author’s purpose for writing the paragraph or essay. (The 1st step to the writing process, often referred to as prewriting or planning.)
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Organizational pattern (strategy)
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the pattern an author constructs as he organizes his or her ideas and provides supporting details
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Organization of a paper
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the development of ideas in a coherent manner. In a well-organized paper, main points should be supported, each idea should flow sequentially and logically to the next idea, transitions should connect ideas, and extraneous sentences should not be included.
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Transitional words or phrases
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words or phrases that help us sustain a thought or idea through the writing. They link sentences and paragraphs together smoothly so that there are no abrupt jumps or breaks between ideas.
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Word choice
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the author’s thoughtful use of precise vocabulary to fully convey meaning to the reader (The 2nd step of the writing process, often referred to as drafting. The focus is on developing ideas and the message not on mechanics)
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Revise
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changing, adding, or deleting words, phrases, or sentences to clarify and/or to enhance the message to ensure the purpose, audience, and genre have been addressed (Considered the 3rd step in the writing process, may be ongoing throughout the writing process)
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Coherent
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logically ordered, with consistent relations of parts to the whole (e.g., a coherent essay)
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Edit
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corrections made to grammar, capitalization, punctuation and spelling (the 4th step in the writing process.
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Expository text
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a type of informational text that clarifies or explains something
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Closure
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a sense of certainty or completeness; a bringing to an end
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Non-count-nouns
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a singular form of noun that cannot be made plural because it is considered as a whole unit rather than parts. Non-count nouns also include abstractions (e.g., progress) or words that have collective meaning (e.g., furniture). Ex of non- count-nouns include: anger, courage, advice, homework, water, air, clothing, coffee, warmth, and rice
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Compound Sentence
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composed of at least two independent clauses; does not require a dependent clause; clauses are joined by a coordinating conjunction
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Conjunctive adverb
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an adverb (e.g., however, nonetheless, therefore) that introduces or connects independent clauses and that shows cause and effect, comparison, contrast, or some other relationship between clauses
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Transitional word/phrase
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words or phrases that help sustain a thought or idea through the writing. They link sentences and paragraphs together smoothly so that there are no abrupt jumps or breaks between ideas
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Active voice
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voice in which the subject performs the action of the verb (e.g., The dog bit the boy.), rather than being acted upon (e.g., The boy was bitten by the dog.)
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Passive voice
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– the grammatical voice in which the subject of the verb is being acted up by the verb (e.g., He was hit (by zombies) by the ball.)
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Formal presentation
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a speech, symposium, or other presentation that is produced for an audience after careful planning
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Informal presentation
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a report, conversation, discussion, or dialogue that occurs without extensive preparation
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Enunciation
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speaking clearly and concisely

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