Unit 3 English Chapter

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paragraphs
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the building blocks of an essay
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unity
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a paragraph with this develops one, and only one, key controlling idea
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ensure unity
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edit out any stray ideas that don’t belong; only creates confusion
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the topic sentence
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states the main idea of the paragraph
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good topic sentence
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helps you gauge what information belongs in a paragraph, thus insuring unity; also informs reader about the point you’re making
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first or last or both
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the topic sentence can be stated
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stating topic sentence first and last
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allows the writer to repeat an especially important idea in a paragraph
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topic sentence stated in the middle
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this falls in between two sentences that provides info and a follow up set that develops the central idea
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topic sentence implied
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in some paragraphs, all sentences point toward a main idea that readers must grasp for themselves; good for a personal essay
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facts, figures, thoughts, observations, steps, lists, examples, and personal experiences
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include these things in paragraphs for adequate development
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readability
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helps sets paragraph length
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organization
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an effective paragraph unfolds a clear pattern of this so that the reader can easily follow the flow of ideas
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time sequence (narration), space sequence (description), process analysis, illustration, classification, comparison, cause and effect, definition, argument
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examples of writing strategies
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climatic order
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this creates a crescendo pattern, starting with the least emphatic detail and progressing to the most emphatic
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coherent writing
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flows smoothly and easily from one sentence and paragraph to another, clarifying the relationships among ideas and thus allowing the reader to grasp connections
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a single word to a whole sentence or more
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correcting a coherent paragraph may call for
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coherence
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derives form a sufficient supply or supporting details and your firm sense of the way your ideas go together
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transitions
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devices that link sentences to one another
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connecting words and phrases, repeated key words, pronouns and demonstrative adjectives, parallelism
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most common transitional devices
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connectors
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clarify relationships between sentences
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repeating key word
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smooths the reader’s path and help convey a paragraph’s central idea
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pronouns
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stand in for nouns that appear earlier in the sentence or in previous sentences
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mix pronouns and nouns
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mixing these prevents monotony and promotes clarity
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this, that, these, those
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demonstrative adjectives that help hook ideas together
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demonstratives
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special adjectives that identify or point our nouns rather than describe them
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parallelism
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uses repetition of grammatical form to express a series of equivalent ideas
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special function paragraphs
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these paragraphs include introductions, transitional paragraphs, and conclusions
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one-paragraph introduction and conclusion
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appear in short, multi paragraph essays
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transitional paragraphs
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occur primarily in long compositions
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introduction
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announces the essay’s topic and may directly state the thesis
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introduction
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sets the tone or what will follow
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directly stated thesis
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a common type of opening, orienting the reader to what will follow
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definition
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kind of introduction works particularly well in a paper that acquaints the reader with an unfamiliar topic
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quotation
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beginning with this, particularly from an authority in the field, can be an effective springboard for the ideas that follow
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an anecdote or personal experience
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this type can lure readers into the rest of the paper; should bear on what comes afterwards
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an arresting statement
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sometimes you can jolt the reader into attention, using content, language, or both, particularly if your essay develops an unusual or extreme position
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arresting details
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these details puque curiosity and draw the reader into the paper
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question
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this type can entice the reader into the essay to find the answer
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conclusion
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rounds out a paper and signals that the discussion has been completed

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