Unit 3 Civics Study Guide

Why did the article of confederation need to be changed?
The states weren’t united enough, and the national government wasn’t strong enough. The states didn’t follow national laws.

What was the purpose of the Constitutional Convention?
Discuss interstate trade and other problems, but they decided to form a new government.

People who wanted the constitution to be ratified. led by alexander hamilton and james madison

People who didn’t support the constitution because they believed the prez would become a monarchy, national gov would be too strong, and it took too much power from the people. led by Thomas Jefferson and Patrick Henry.

Federalist papers
Essays written by Alexander hamilton, john jay, and james madison to convince people to support the constitution

What was the anti-federalist’s biggest complaint about the constitution?
the constitution didn’t include enough individual rights

What do the 7 articles discuss?
1. legislative branch
2. executive branch
3.judicial branch
4. interstate relations
5. how to amend constitution
6. national debts and supremacy
7. how to ratify constitution

popular sovereignty
people hold the final authority in all matters of government

limited government
a principle of constitutional government; a government whose powers are defined and limited by a constitution

checks and balances
each branch has restraints by the others

judicial review
the courts deem if what the government is doing is unconstitutional

The division of power between a central and regional governments

what are the four ways to amend the constitution?
1. Amendment is proposed by congress (by a 2/3 vote in both houses) and ratified by conventions held in 3/4 vote
2. Amendment is proposed by congress (2/3 vote in both houses) and ratified by the state legislature of 3/4 vote
3. Proposed at a national convention called by congress when requested by 2/3 of the state legislatures and ratified by conventions held in 3/4
4.Proposed at a national convention called by congress when requested by 2/3 of the state legislatures and ratified by the state legislature of 3/4

which amendment process is used the most?
proposed by congress

what basic principles of the constitution does the amendment process have?
Popular sovereignty, limited government, seperation of powers, checks and balances, and judicial review

what input does the president have on the amendment process?
None,except actions that automatically amend the constitution

why did they pass the bill of rights?
to appease the ani-federalists

what are the qualifications to be a senator?
35 yrs old, us citizen for 9 yrs, and live in the state you rep

What are the qualifications to be a representative?
25 yrs old, 7 yrs us citizen, live in district you rep

what are the qualifications to be the president?
you have to be a natural born US citizen, 35 years old, and a citizen of us for 14 yrs

Search and seizure
Police can’t look through and take your stuff without a warrant

new jersey plan
a unicameral congress with equal representation

virginia plan
bicameral congress with both houses based on population

james madison
wrote the virginia plan, and the federalist papers

Due process of law
government must act fairly when conducting a trial

eminent domain
the government can’t take your property without fairly compensating you.

alexander hamilton
one of the framer’s of the constitution, and avid federalist who helped write the federalist papers

implied powers
any power congress thinks relates to their job

the movement for women being able to vote

expressed powers
powers explicitly written in the constitution

self incrimination
the right to withdraw from saying something self incriminating

ex post facto
you can’t try someone for a crime committed before it was deemed a crime

double jeopardy
no one can be charged for the same crime

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