Unit 2 Matter and Change

matter
anything that has mass and takes up space
element
a substance that cannot be separated or broken down into simpler substancesby chemical means; all atoms of an element have the same atomic number
atom
the smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of that element
compound
a substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements
molecule
the smallest unit of a substance that keeps all of the physical and chemical properties of that substance
diatomic molecule
a molecule consisting of two atoms
chemical formula
a combination of chemical symbols and numbers to represent a substance
pure substance
a sample of matter; either a single element or a single compound, that has definite chemical and physical properties
mixture
a combination of two or more substances that are not chemically combined
solution
a homogeneous mixture of two or more subtances uniformly dispersed throughout a single phase
physical property
a characteristic of a substance that does not involve a chemical change, such as density, color, or hardness
density
a ration of the mass of a substance to the volume of the substance
melting point
the temperature and pressure at which a solid becomes a liquid
boiling point
the temperature at which a liquid becomes a gas
homogeneous mixture
a mixture in which substances are evenly distributed throughout the mixture
heterogeneous mixture
A mixture in which different materials can be distinguished easily
chemical property
a property used to characterize materials in reactions that change their identity
reactivity
ready susceptibility to chemical change
flammability
a material’s ability to burn in the presence of oxygen
physical change
a change from one state (solid or liquid or gas) to another without a change in chemical composition
dissolving
the process of a material becoming incorporated uniformly into another, or of two materials mixing together evenly
chemical change
(chemistry) any process determined by the atomic and molecular composition and structure of the substances involved
kinetic theory
(physics) a theory that gases consist of small particles in random motion
solid
of definite shape and volume
amorphous solid
A solid made up of particles that are not arranged in a regular pattern
crystalline solid
solids in which the particles are arranged in a repeating, 3-D pattern, has a specific melting point
liquid
a substance in the fluid state of matter having no fixed shape but a fixed volume
surface tension
a phenomenon at the surface of a liquid caused by intermolecular forces
gas
matter that does not have a definite shape or volume
plasma
(physical chemistry) a fourth state of matter distinct from solid or liquid or gas and present in stars and fusion reactors
temperature
the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment (corresponding to its molecular activity)
energy
(physics) the capacity of a physical system to do work
thermal energy
total amount of energy associated with the random movement of atoms and molecules in a sample of matter
melting
the process whereby heat changes something from a solid to a liquid
evaporation
the process of becoming a vapor
sublimination
the change of a substance from a solid to a gas
condensation
the process of changing from a gaseous to a liquid or solid state
freezing
the change of state from a liquid to a solid
law of conservation of mass
a fundamental principle of classical physics that matter cannot be created or destroyed in an isolated system
law of conservation of energy
the fundamental principle of physics that the total energy of an isolated system is constant despite internal changes
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